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Zstandard - An Open-Source Data Compression Algorithm for Ubuntu Linux system

This article covers how you can install zstd and how to use it on your Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Zstandard is a fast compression algorithm, providing high compression ratios. It also offers a special mode for small data, called dictionary compression.

Install GDU on Linux Mint 20

This article covers the right steps to install the GDU disk usage analyzer on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, GDU Disk Usage Analyzer is a graphical disk usage analyzer for GNOME. It is inspired by godu, dua, ncdu, and df and is intended primarily for SSD disks to utilize parallel processing fully.

Install Gatsby on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to install Gatsby static site generators on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. In fact, Gatsby fetches all the data, renders the entire website into static HTML, CSS, JS files with the data available at that time. As it generates the static files, Gatsby applications can be deployed in anywhere.

Install Ntopng on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers how to install ntopng on Ubuntu OS and access its web interface. In fact, Ntopng is an essential application for monitoring and troubleshooting network problems.


More about Ntopng

Ntopng basically is a network traffic probe that will monitor network usage. It is based on libpcap, a Library written as part of a larger program called TCPDump. Ntopng is based on Redis key value server rather than traditional database, leverages nDPI for protocol discovery, supports host geolocation, and can display real-time flow analysis for connected hosts.


Main Features of Ntopng:

  • Packet capture → Packet capture / transmission using basic hardware with PF_RING. Zero-copy package distribution across threads, applications, and virtual machines. Includes Libpcap support for seamless integration with legacy applications.
  • Traffic recording → Lossless network traffic recording of 10 Gbit and above with n2disk. Industry standard PCAP file format. It allows to quickly retrieve packages using BPF. Accurate traffic reproduction with disk2n.
  • Network probe → nProbe- NetFlow v5 / v9 / IPFIX extensible probe with plug-in support for L7 content inspection.
  • Report on the use of the IP protocol → Even going so far as to classify it by type of protocol.
  • Traffic analysis → High speed web based traffic analysis and flow collection using ntopng. Persistent traffic statistics in RRD format. Layer 7 analysis leveraging nDPI, an open source DPI framework. Even going so far as to classify the traffic according to the source / destination.
  • Geolocate and Overlay Hosts → This will be done on a geographic map.
  • Alert engine → We can capture anomalous and suspicious hosts.
  • Produce network traffic statistics → Using HTML5 / AJAX technology.
  • We will have full support for current network protocols → Including IPv4 and IPv6.

Install and Use Hugo Static Website Generator on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers the best methods to install Hugo on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. In fact, Hugo is an open-source static website generator written in Go language and designed for small projects and informative sites. After installation on your Linux system, you can use it to create a new static website.

Install Nethogs on Ubuntu 20.04 - Follow these steps ?

This article covers how to install and use the Nethogs utility in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, nethogs is a networking monitoring tool for Linux capable of monitoring any specific network interface or all the networking interfaces on your computer. Also, it shows bandwidth usage per process on your computer in real time.


How to install nethogs on Ubuntu / Debian ?

nethogs is not installed on Ubuntu/Debian by default. But, it is available in the official package repository of Ubuntu/Debian.

1. First, update the APT package manager cache with the following command:

$ sudo apt update

2. Now, install nethogs with the following command:

$ sudo apt install nethogs

3. Now, to check whether nethogs is working, run the following command:

$ nethogs -V

Add Multiple Time Zones in Ubuntu Linux - Follow this procedure ?

This article covers how Gnome-clocks can help keep track of time in multiple time zones for you. Now you can keep up with your work meetings and deadlines across the globe with a simple click. You can explore and use Gnome-clocks other features like timer, stopwatch, and Alarms and get a hundred percent performance out of it.

To install GNOME Clocks, simply run the below commands:

$ sudo apt install gnome-clocks

Manage Startup Programs on Ubuntu 20.04 - The right way ?

This article covers how to add programs to the Startup programs, launch the startup programs with a delay, and how to remove the programs from the Startup programs. In fact, Every time you boot in to an operating system, a number of programs start running automatically. These are called 'startup applications' or 'start up programs'.


What you will learn regarding managing startup applications on Linux systems:

  • Learn to add (almost) any program in the startup applications list to start them automatically at each boot.
  • Learn to remove a program from the startup applications list so that you have a faster system when you boot into it.
  • Learn to delay the running of a startup application so that it runs automatically but with a time delay. This way, not all startup applications consume the system resource simultaneously.

Install and Configure Apache Spark on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to install and configure apache spark on ubuntu. In fact, Apache Spark is a framework used in cluster computing environments for analyzing big data. This platform became widely popular due to its ease of use and the improved data processing speeds over Hadoop. Spark basically supports various APIs for streaming, graph processing, SQL, MLLib. It also supports Java, Python, Scala, and R as the preferred languages. Spark is mostly installed in Hadoop clusters but you can also install and configure spark in standalone mode.

Install ROS Noetic on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation of ROS Noetic on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Robot Operating System (ROS or in lowercase ros) is the most widely used framework to program robots, more than 50% robots run on ROS. Once it is installed on your system, you can instantly start using it for the development of robotics applications. 

Install GNS3 on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install GNS3 on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS OS. In fact, GNS3 is an incredibly powerful tool that virtualizes real network hardware and helps you to test and verify real-world network deployments. It provides a risk-free virtual environment to design and build a network with your considered size and even with no hardware. GNS3 can be installed on Windows, macOS, and on Linux. It supports Linux distributions (Ubuntu-based distributions 64 bit only) and emulates Linux switches and multiple Linux appliances.

Install Jekyll on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and publish a static website using Jekyll. In fact, Jekyll is an open-source static-site generator written in Ruby which allows for quick execution of commands that help manage your site from initial to production deployment, all from your command line.

Install HTTrack Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install HTTrack, run, and remove HTTrack on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, HTTrack is an exclusive utility to copy web pages to a local disk for offline development and browsing to test web applications. 


How to Install Httrack on Kali Linux ?

You can install Httrack by running the following commands:

$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install httrack

Install 11ty on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Eleventy (11ty) on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. In fact, 11ty is a nice static site generator powered by NodeJS. 

Disable Screen Timeout in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the different methods you can apply to disable the screen lock in ubuntu. In fact, the screen delay option exists to conserve power when your computer is idle. If the default timeout settings are hindering your day-to-day workflow.

It is important to clarify that the screen lock provides a light security mechanism, if someone has physical access to your device, even with a screen lock, he will be able to gather the information from the disk or to reset the root password.

Install Oracle Java 16 On Ubuntu 18.04 / 20.04 / 21.04 - A step by step Process ?

This article covers the right steps to successfully install Oracle Java 16 on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, The Java JDK (Java Development Kit) is a software development environment used for developing Java Applications. The JDK is a collection of programming tools, notably JRE (Java Runtime Environment), Java (Loader for Java Application), Javac (Compiler), Jar (Archiver), etc. You can now proceed and start developing your Java applications with the enhanced features provided with the latest Java 16 version.

To Check the java version Installed on the system, sumply issue the following command:

$ java -version


How to Set Default Java Version on Ubuntu Linux system ?

1. You can Use the alternatives command to set the default java version.

Simply run the below command on the terminal:

$ sudo update-alternatives --config java

Then you will be given an output such as this to Select Java:

There are different choices for the alternative java (providing /usr/bin/java).


  Selection    Path                                         Priority   Status
------------------------------------------------------------
  0            /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64/bin/java   1111      auto mode
  1            /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64/bin/java   1111      manual mode
  2            /usr/lib/jvm/jdk-11.0.12/bin/java             2         manual mode
  3            /usr/lib/jvm/jdk-16.0.2/bin/java              1         manual mode
* 4            /usr/lib/jvm/jdk1.8.0_301/bin/java            3         manual mode
Press  to keep the current choice[*], or type selection number: 1

2. Then, Enter the number below the selection column to set the default Java version and press Enter button to proceed.

Install Protobuf on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can easily install the Protobuf library on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Protocol Buffer, abbreviated as Protobuf, is an open source library developed by Google that allows to serialize or deserialize structured data. It is basically used to communicate with one another over a network and to store data when building applications.


How to Install Protobuf Using Command Line on Ubuntu ?

1. Update all the previous packages installed on your system:

$ sudo apt update

2. Now to install Protobuf compiler on your Ubuntu system, run the below mentioned command:

$ sudo apt install protobuf-compiler


How to Remove Protobuf from Ubuntu System using software center ? 

1. Open the ubuntu software manager and click on installed tab.

2. Now search for "Protobuf" from the list of apps and click on "Remove" button in front of it.

3. A permission dialogue box will get open click on "Remove" to uninstall the application. 

And now protobuf will be uninstalled successfully and no longer exist in the list.

Install GDebi on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of the GDebi tool on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Gdebi is a lightweight deb packages installer is default in Ubuntu Desktop. It help you to Install and Manage Packages you downloaded from 3rd Party sites and Software centre.


How to Install GDebi through Command Line ?

If you don't have gdebi installed you'll get the below error:

$ sudo gdebi command not found

1. Update the APT Repository:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Install Gdebi now:

$ sudo apt-get install gdebi

Install Scribus on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by Step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Scribus on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Scribus is an open-source cross-platform application for designing and publishing brochures, newspapers, magazines, posters, books, and even newsletters.


How to Install Scribus in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

1. Update the system repository:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install Scribus and related dependencies (if any):

$ sudo apt install scribus

Install Vsftpd with SSL / TLS on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Procedure ?

This article covers a complete guide on how to install Vsftpd with SSL/TLS on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, sftpd (i.e. very secure FTP daemon) is an FTP server software for Linux and other Unix-like systems. An FTP server software facilitates the transfer of files from a client computer to the server and vice versa.

Install OpenMAINT on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers and easy step by step guide on how to install OpenMAINT on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, OpenMAINT helps in management of mobile assets (buildings, infrastructure, etc.), plants and technical devices (electric panels, heating and cooling, light fixture, fire extinguishers, etc.), furniture, etc., and the related logistical, economical and maintenance activities (scheduled and corrective ones).

Enable SSH on Debian 9 System - Step by Step procedure ?

This article covers how to install and Enable SSH service on Debian 9 system. In short, SSH stands for Secure Shell. SSH is used for connecting to a remote computer accessing files and perform administrative tasks. You can now login remotely to your server using any SSH client from Linux or Windows system. To increase security of SSH connection by Changing default SSH port to custom one on you system. Get more details about SSH server from official SSH site.


How to Install SSH Server ?

On the system that acts as a server, run the following command:

$ sudo apt install openssh-server

You can check the status of the SSH service with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl status ssh

The system confirms that the SSH service is running.

Install Pip on Ubuntu 18.04 System - Step by Step Procedure ?

This article covers how to install PIP on Ubuntu 18.04 for Python 3 and Python 2. In fact, PIP is the default package manager for Python packages which allows you to install, and manage Python packages in an easy and convenient manner. 


How to Install pip for Python3 ?

Pip3 can be installed on Ubuntu using the APT package manager. 

1. To start off, update the package lists as shown:

$ sudo apt update

2. To install pip3 run the command:

$ sudo apt install python3-pip

3. Verify that pip3 is installed by running the command:

$ pip3 --version


For assistance on more command options and usage of pip3, run the below command:

$ pip3 --help

Install Python on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the different ways to install Python on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Python is an object-oriented, high-level programming language. It is open-source with a large community. Python is used as a key language among the top tech companies like Google. Now you can start developing your Python 3 project.

Install Laravel on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to Install and Set up Laravel Application on your Ubuntu Linux System. Laravel is a widely used open-source PHP framework for web application development. The MVC (Model-View-Controller) architectural pattern is implemented in Laravel.


How to Install  and Manage Apache Web Server on Ubuntu?

1. Update all available repositories on your system and install the Apache webserver using the apt command below:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install apache2

2. Start the Apache service and add it to the system boot:

$ systemctl start apache2
$ systemctl enable apache2

3. Now check the Apache service status using the following command:

$ systemctl status apache2

Install the Brackets Code Editor on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Guide ?

This article covers how you can install Brackets code editor on Ubuntu OS via either the command line or the GUI. Brackets is a powerful text editor focused on web development and especially on the frontend.


Features of Brackets code editor:
  • Cross-platform: It has binaries for Windows, Linux, and macOS. This makes the transition to Linux easy if you come from another system.
  • Open Source: With an open code, you can examine it. And above all, you will not have license problems.
  • Support extensions: Supports many different extensions that help even more with the functionality of the program.
  • Preprocessor Support: Work with preprocessors (LESS and SCSS) in a whole new way.
  • Live Preview: Get a real-time connection to your browser.
  • Inline Editors: Instead of jumping between file tabs, Brackets lets you Open a window into the code you care about most.

Install Eclipse IDE on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can either use the direct download or the snap method to install Eclipse IDE on your Ubuntu system. Eclipse is a really powerful IDE that supports many programming languages. It provides numerous plugins and extensions for enhancing the functionality of your Eclipse such as source code version control (git, svn), class diagram generator, GUI builder.


How to install JRE (Java Runtime Environment) on your Ubuntu machine ?

In order to install JRE (Java Runtime Environment) on your Ubuntu machine, run the commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install openjdk-14-jre

To verify that Java was successfully installed, let's run:

$ java --version

Install Siege on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to quickly install the Siege tool on your Linux system and use it to test any specific web server. Siege is an open-source multi-threaded regression test and benchmark utility with a primary focus on load testing and benchmarking. It can stress test a single URL with a user-defined number of simulated users or read many URLs into memory and stress them simultaneously. The program reports the total number of hits recorded, bytes transferred, response time, concurrency, and return status.


To Install Siege Benchmarking Tool on Ubuntu / Debian,

1. Check and update your Ubuntu 20.04 operating system:

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y

2. Install Siege execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install siege -y

3. Confirm the siege version to make sure it's installed and to compare it to the current version from Siege's official website:

$ siege --version

Install Grafana on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Grafana on Ubuntu OS using two methods: using the APT repository and the .deb package. Grafana is multi-platform open-source analytics and interactive visualization web application that integrates with complex data from sources like Prometheus, InfluxDB, Graphite, and ElasticSearch. It provides charts, graphs, and alerts for the web when connected to supported data sources. It is expandable through a plug-in system.


Features of Grafana:

  • Data Visualization: Allows for fast and flexible visualization with many options and settings.
  • Dynamic Dashboards: Provides the ability to create dynamic and reusable panels with templated variables.
  • Metrics Exploration: Explore your data with ad-hoc queries and dynamic drill-down by splitting the view and comparing different time ranges and sources.
  • Data Logs: Provides tremendous opportunities to use data metrics in a log with labels and filters saved, which can be studied, viewed, and broadcasted.
  • Extensive Alert Capabilities: Visually define alert rules for your most important metrics. Grafana will continuously evaluate and send notifications to systems such as Slack, PagerDuty, VictorOps, and OpsGenie.
  • Mixed Data Sources: Mix different data sources on the same graph and for each query.

View and Delete Terminal History in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to view / preserve or delete terminal history on Ubuntu Linux System. Terminal history can be a benefit in case you want to revisit/recall the past commands. But it can be a security risk because they can show system tools, configurations, and settings. 

The history mechanism in Ubuntu keeps track of terminal commands you executed.

To view your command line history, Open the Ubuntu terminal and Type :

$ history

This will display the list of previous bash commands you executed in the terminal.


To delete your Ubuntu terminal history, Type:

$ history -c

This will clear your Ubuntu terminal history. Also, you need to know that command line history is user independent, means every user has their own separate history. When you execute history -c command, it will only clear terminal history of the current user.

Modify My Desktop Background in Ubuntu 20.04 - Steps to do this ?

This article covers different methods to modify Ubuntu Desktop Background as well as updating your background by using the command prompt. When you first install and run Ubuntu Linux the first thing you see when you log in is the default desktop. It has the Ubuntu brown color scheme and panels at the top and bottom of the screen. There are two predominant desktop environments available with Linux - the GNOME desktop and the KDE desktop. Which is the best desktop is matter of preference and heated disagreement in the Linux community. Both are excellent, feature rich desktops.


How to Change the desktop background in Ubuntu ?

To change the image used for your backgrounds:

1. Open the Activities overview and start typing Background.

2. Click Background to open the panel. The currently selected wallpaper is shown at the top.

3. There are two ways to change the image used for your backgrounds:

i. Click one of the background images which are shipped with the system.

Some wallpapers change throughout the day. These wallpapers have a small clock icon in the bottom-right corner.

ii. Click Add Picture… to use one of your own photos. By default, the Pictures folder will be opened, since most photo management applications store photos there.

4. The settings are applied immediately.

For another way to set one of your own photos as the background, right-click on the image file in Files and select Set as Wallpaper, or open the image file in Image Viewer, click the menu button in the titlebar and select Set as Wallpaper.

5. Switch to an empty workspace to view your entire desktop.

Install OpenLiteSpeed Webserver on Ubuntu 20.04 - Easy method ?

This article covers how to install and configure OpenLiteSpeed webserver. OpenLiteSpeed is an easy-to-use, open-source web server. It offers unbeatable features and performance to your sites along with top-notch security. Also, it understands all the apache rewrite rules and has intelligent cache acceleration features that let you implement the fastest caching on your server. Apart from all these, you get to install a customized PHP processor that is optimized for the OpenLiteSpeed server.


OpenLiteSpeed server's Frontend (default page) is located at:

http://<your-server-public-IP>:8088

It's backend (admin console) is located at:

https://<your-server-public-IP>:7080

Install VNC Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install and configure VNC Server on Ubuntu 20.04. Virtual Network Computing, or VNC, is a connection system that allows you to use your keyboard and mouse to interact with a graphical desktop environment on a remote server. It makes managing files, software, and settings on a remote server easier for users who are not yet comfortable with the command line.

After connecting to your server with SSH, update your list of packages:

$ sudo apt update

Now install Xfce along with the xfce4-goodies package, which contains a few enhancements for the desktop environment:

$ sudo apt install xfce4 xfce4-goodies

Once that installation completes, install the TightVNC server:

$ sudo apt install tightvncserver

Install and Configure JFrog Artifactory on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Install JFrog Artifactory on Ubuntu. JFrog Artifactory is the world’s most advanced repository manager designed to integrate with the majority of continuous integration and delivery tools. With JFrog Artifactory, delivering an end to end automated solution with artifacts tracking from development to production becomes a reality.

Jfrog provides you with an interactive, responsive user interface. It has more features than other artifactory management tools. For more information please visit the official site of JFrog. https://jfrog.com/open-source

Install GIMP on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the different methods to install GIMP on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Also, we have also elaborated on how to launch and remove GIMP from the system. With GIMP, you can perform almost any image editing task, from the simplest task to the most complex image manipulation technique.  Gimp can be used for photo retouching, image composition, and image authoring.


How to remove GIMP on Debian / Ubuntu ?

To completely remove the GIMP package from your system, run the following command:

$ sudo apt purge gimp
$ sudo apt clean

Next, remove the ~/.gimp directory in your home directory to get rid of the profile settings.

Ubuntu "E: Could not get lock /var/lib/dpkg/lock" error - Fix it Now ?

This article covers methods to remove locked files and processes from Ubuntu Linux system to allow you use the APT package manager for other operations. 

The dpkg service locks itself so that two processes don’t update the content simultaneously. The service is locked to avoid potential corruptions in the system. However, it also means that the user cannot, for example, run a simple apt command.

In Ubuntu, you may sometimes encounter an error when attempting to run an apt command:

Could not get lock /var/lib/dpkg/lock – open (11: Resource temporarily unavailable)
E: Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/), is another process using it?

This message lets you know that dpkg, the Debian Package Manager service, is unavailable.

Use the options in this guide to resolve the Ubuntu "Could not get lock…" error.

Install Duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the process to install duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 and how to use it. Duplicity is an open-source tool that helps people create backups of their data. It basically just encrypts the user's data and stores it into a remote server. It's a very convenient and smart way to back up data, as it does not only store the data but also any changes made to it in the long run. This attribute makes Duplicity very space-efficient.


To Install Duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS,

1. Update the Package Repository:

$ sudo apt-get update -y

2. After updating the repository, consider running the following command to install duplicity:

$ sudo apt-get install -y duplicity

3. Verify the Installation:

$ apt-cache policy duplicity

Change SSH Port on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux System - Best Method ?

This article covers how to change the ssh port on Ubuntu Linux server. You can easily change the SSH Port for Your Linux server. For better security, consider using SSH passwordless authentication with SSH public/private key pair.

The ssh port defined in sshd_config file. This file located in /etc/ssh/sshd_config location.

To open the new port run the following commands on Fedora/CentOS/RHEL/Oracle Linux using FirewallD:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-port=2222/tcp
$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload


How to Restart the sshd service ?

Type the following command on a CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux:

$ sudo service sshd restart

OR if you are using CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux with systemd:

$ sudo systemctl restart sshd

OR if you are using Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux:

$ sudo service ssh restart

OR if you are using Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux with systemd:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh

Or if you are using FreeBSD Unix, enter:

$ sudo service sshd restart

Install Bluefish Editor on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers method to Install bluefish editor on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Bluefish is a text editor. It is used to write code in various programming languages like: C, C++, JAVA, Python, HTML etc.

It is cross-platform, lightweight and easy to learn. It provides many features of IDE to support development and designing of applications.


To Install Bluefish on Ubuntu:

1. Add PPA (Personal Package Archive)

Use the following command to add PPA in our system:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:klaus-vormweg/bluefish  

2. Update Repository

Use this command to update our local repository:

$ apt-get update  

3. Install Bluefish

After updating, now, use this command to install bluefish:

$ sudo apt-get install bluefish

4. Run Bluefish

Now, we can run bluefish either by using terminal or from the application manager.

Execute this command to open bluefish editor:

$ bluefish  

Install Brave Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers different methods of installation of brave browser software on Ubuntu. 


Main features of Brave web browser:

  • Search – Choose default search engine – Google, Bing, Yahoo, DuckDuckGo e.t.c.
  • Fast Browsing – According to its creators, Brave loads pages three times as fast out of the box with nothing to install, learn or manage.
  • Easy to switch to Brave – It's easy to import your settings from your old browser. You can do it during the welcome tour or later through the menus.
  • Support your favorite sites with Brave Rewards – with Brave Rewards activated, you can support the content creators you love at the amount that works for you.
  • Privacy and Security – Brave fights malware and prevents tracking, keeping your information safe and secure. Clearing of browsing data and a built-in password manager.
  • Form autofill which saves you time when working with forms.
  • Extensions/Plugins – Brave Desktop now supports most of the Chrome extensions in the chrome web store.

Install Thunderbird on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the three different methodologies of installing Thunderbird in Ubuntu. Thunderbird is available for various distributions like macOS, Linux, Microsoft Windows etc. thereby making it a cross platform application.

To Install Thunderbird through apt:

1. First update Ubuntu repository,

$ sudo apt update

2. Now, to install Thunderbird issue the following in terminal,

$ sudo apt install thunderbird

3. Lastly, Thunderbird can accessed either through System's main Menu or from terminal (Run "thunderbird" in terminal to run the application).

Install Harbor Image Registry on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install harbor on Ubuntu. The process is the same for all the other distribution of Linux. Harbor is a component of vSphere with Kubernetes. Harbor provides an enterprise-class registry service. 

Harbor is deployed in a dedicated system namespace on the Supervisor Cluster and is composed of several vSphere Pods. 

Image registries provide a centralized repository for an organization to store container images. 

Public image registries can be used to store container images. However, for security reasons, it is better to use an on-premises image registry. 

You use an on-premises image registry for the following purposes: 

Store container images securely. 

Control access to container images. 

vSphere with Kubernetes is integrated with Harbor and is also compatible with other container image registries. 


Harbor key features includes:

  • Security and vulnerability analysis.
  • Content signing and validation.
  • Extensible API and web UI.
  • Image replication.
  • Role-based access control.
  • Multitenant.


After Harbor installation has succeeded, access Harbor web console on https://registry_domain.

Then Login with:

  • Username: admin
  • Password: Set-in-harbor.yml

Download a File on Ubuntu Using the Command Line on Ubuntu 20.04 system

This article covers Both wget and curl which are the free and open-source command-line utilities used for the non-interactive downloading of files. Remember, although both the utilities can download files from the web; they do differ a lot in terms of functionalities.

url can be used to transfer data over a number of protocols. It supports many protocols including HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, TFTP, TELNET, SCP, etc. using Curl, you can download any remote files. It supports pause and resumes functions as well.

To Install curl,

Launch command line application in Ubuntu that is Terminal by pressing the Ctrl+Alt+T key combinations. Then enter the below command to install curl with sudo:

$ sudo apt install curl

Install Django on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the different methods of Installing Django on Ubuntu 20.04. With it, you can easily perform creation of Django applications, superuser creation, and removal of Django. 

Django is a full-featured Python web framework for developing dynamic websites and applications. Using Django, you can quickly create Python web applications and rely on the framework to do a good deal of the heavy lifting.


How to install Django from Ubuntu repositories ?

1. First, update your local package index with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, check which version of Python you have installed. 18.04 ships with Python 3.6 by default, which you can verify by typing:

$ python3 -V

Install Elasticsearch on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install elasticsearch in the stable version of Ubuntu 20.04. Now you can use the hosted elasticsearch server for doing searches.

If your application generates a huge amount of data and the search procedures are slow, then using elasticsearch will be best.

Install Kazam Screen Recording Tool on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers the installation of Kazam on the Ubuntu system using the Sylvain Pineau PPA. Also, we also covered how to uninstall Kazam if for any reason you need to do that. Kazam is a simple screen recording program that captures the screencasts, screenshots, and records video files. Kazam records desktop video and multiple audio streams simultaneously with control over audio levels and the screen region being captured. 


Kazam keyboard shortcuts in Ubuntu:

  • Super+Ctrl+R: Start recording.
  • Super+Ctrl+P: Pause recording, press again for resuming the recording (The most important shortcut).
  • Super+Ctrl+F: Finish recording.
  • Super+Ctrl+Q: Quit recording.

Install GitLab in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install GitLab on your local devices or server. Also, you will learn how to integrate the GitLab CE into our local Ubuntu system. GitLab CE, or Community Edition, is an open-source application primarily used to host Git repositories, with additional development-related features like issue tracking. It is designed to be hosted using your own infrastructure, and provides flexibility in deploying as an internal repository store for your development team, a public way to interface with users, or a means for contributors to host their own projects.

Install Gradle on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the installation of Gradle on the Ubuntu system using different ways. Gradle is a free and open-source build tool primarily used for Java projects. Gradle helps you to automate, build and deliver software efficiently. Gradle uses Groovy object-oriented programming language instead of XML to define the project configurations. Gradle also supports many popular IDE platforms, such as Android Studio, Eclipse, IDEA, and NetBeans.


How to Install Java on Linux ?

Gradle needs Java to be installed on your system. You can install the latest version of Java by running the following command:

$ apt-get install default-jdk -y 

After installing Java, you can verify the Java with the following command:

$ java -version

10 Most Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands

This article covers some useful Linux commands to help you get started with working efficiently with Linux system. When operating a Linux OS, you need to use a shell — an interface that gives you access to the operating system’s services. Most Linux distributions use a graphic user interface (GUI) as their shell, mainly to provide ease of use for their users.

That being said, it's recommended to use a command-line interface (CLI) because it’s more powerful and effective. Tasks that require a multi-step process through GUI can be done in a matter of seconds by typing commands into the CLI.


How to use the cd command in Linux ?

To navigate through the Linux files and directories, use the cd command. It requires either the full path or the name of the directory, depending on the current working directory that you're in.

There are some shortcuts to help you navigate quickly:

  • cd .. (with two dots) to move one directory up.
  • cd to go straight to the home folder.
  • cd- (with a hyphen) to move to your previous directory.


How does the ls command works ?

The ls command is used to view the contents of a directory. By default, this command will display the contents of your current working directory.

There are variations you can use with the ls command:

  • ls -R will list all the files in the sub-directories as well.
  • ls -a will show the hidden files.
  • ls -al will list the files and directories with detailed information like the permissions, size, owner, etc.

Set Up UFW Firewall on Ubuntu 18.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to set up UFW on Ubuntu 18.04 system. It advised to deny all the incoming connections except necessary ports. Uncomplicated Firewall or UFW is an interface to iptables that is designed to simplify the process of configuring a firewall. While iptables is a firm and flexible tool, it can be sometimes tricky for beginners to learn how to use it to properly configure a firewall. If a user is looking to get started securing his or her network, UFW may be the appropriate solution.


UFW is installed on Ubuntu by default. If it has been uninstalled for some reason, we can install it with the following command:

$ sudo apt install ufw

By default, UFW denies all incoming connections and allows all outgoing connections. It means that a client trying to reach our server would not be able to connect. When an application from our server tries to connect any other server outside, it will be allowed. The following commands serve the purpose:

$ sudo ufw default deny incoming
$ sudo ufw default allow outgoing

Use Screen Command to Manage Terminal Sessions in Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to use screen commands in ubuntu 20.04. Screen or GNU Screen is a terminal multiplexer. In other words, it means that you can start a screen session and then open any number of windows (virtual terminals) inside that session. Processes running in Screen will continue to run when their window is not visible even if you get disconnected.


How to Install Linux GNU Screen on Ubuntu ?

1. Check if it is installed on your system by typing:

$ screen --version

2. If you don't have screen installed on your system, you can easily install it using the package manager of your distro.

Install Linux Screen on Ubuntu and Debian:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install screen

3. To Install Linux Screen on CentOS and Fedora:

$ sudo yum install screen

4. To start a screen session, simply type screen in your console:

$ screen


Most common commands for managing Linux Screen Windows:

  • Ctrl+a c Create a new window (with shell).
  • Ctrl+a " List all windows.
  • Ctrl+a 0 Switch to window 0 (by number).
  • Ctrl+a A Rename the current window.
  • Ctrl+a S Split current region horizontally into two regions.
  • Ctrl+a | Split current region vertically into two regions.
  • Ctrl+a tab Switch the input focus to the next region.
  • Ctrl+a Ctrl+a Toggle between the current and previous windows
  • Ctrl+a Q Close all regions but the current one.
  • Ctrl+a X Close the current region.

Install Android Studio on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Android Studio using different methods. Also, you will learn how to remove Android Studio in case you don't need it anymore. Android Studio is the most widely used software for android mobile application development. Android Studio is developed by Google and it can run on different operating environments like Windows, macOS, and Linux. Most of the current popular android applications are developed on Android Studio. This tool has various built-in features that provide a stable and fast environment for developing applications.


How to Install Android Studio through snap ?

You can install the android studio using snap on your Ubuntu system using the following command:

$ sudo snap install android-studio --classic

You can also install android studio using the below-mentioned command:

$ sudo snap remove android-studio

Install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on Ubuntu 18.04 system. When developing a website or web application, many users need the functionality of a database system like MySQL. However, interacting with the system solely from the MySQL command-line client requires familiarity with Structured Query Language — more commonly referred to as SQL — which can present a major hurdle for some users. phpMyAdmin was created to allow users to interact with MySQL through an intuitive web interface, running alongside a PHP development environment. 


How to Secure phpMyAdmin with Let's Encrypt SSL ?

Before starting, you will need to install the Certbot client to download and install Let's Encrypt SSL.

1. First, add the Certbot repository with the following command:

$ add-apt-repository ppa:ahasenack/certbot-tlssni01-1875471

2. Next, update the repository and install the Certbot client using the following command:

$ apt-get update -y
$ apt-get install certbot python3-certbot-nginx -y

3. Once the Certbot has been installed, run the following command to download and install the Let's Encrypt SSL for your domain:

$ certbot --nginx -d phpmyadmin.domain.com

Check Ubuntu Version using Different Methods

This article covers how to check OS version using different methods. You can get more information of Ubuntu releases at official site of the Ubuntu Releases.

If you are using Ubuntu 16.04 then you can Upgrade using this guide Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.

Ubuntu is a free, open-source Linux-based operating system, which has a long list of release versions. Finding out which Ubuntu version is running on your system can be important when troubleshooting issues or searching for installation guides.


To check the Ubuntu version, use the following command in terminal:

$ lsb_release -a

This will display you some details about your distribution including Ubuntu version:

Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description: Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
Release: 20.04
Codename: focal

Change Timezone on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Proces ?

This article covers how to change timezone in Ubuntu 18.04. If you have set up your Ubuntu system to fetch Automatic Time Zone, it will sync your system through the internet so that it will have the time zone of your closest location.

Most modern distributions such as Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, Arch, CentOS v.7.x+, and other Unix-based systems use the timedatectl utility. This command allows you to control and edit time and date settings using the command line.


To display the current time and date information use the command:

$ timedatectl

You can set your Ubuntu system to synchronize to the NIST atomic clock:

$ timedatectl set-ntp yes

If you need to turn off NTP synchronizing to be able to adjust the time and date manually, use:

$ timedatectl set-ntp no

Change Hostname on Ubuntu 18.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to change the hostname on Ubuntu 18.04 system using multiple methods. HostName is also referred to as the computer name of your system. It is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication in the computer network. Hostname helps you to access local web pages and other authorized data on your system.

The host name or computer name is usually at system startup in /etc/hostname file.


How to change the computer name on Ubuntu Linux ?

1. Type the following command to edit /etc/hostname using nano or vi text editor:

$ sudo nano /etc/hostname

Delete the old name and setup new name.

2. Next Edit the /etc/hosts file:

$ sudo nano /etc/hosts

Replace any occurrence of the existing computer name with your new one.

3. Reboot the system to changes take effect:

$ sudo reboot

Install Node.js and npm on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install nodejs and npm on your Debian system with different methods. Also, you will learn how to uninstall npm from your Debian system. Node.js is a JavaScript platform for general-purpose programming that allows users to build asynchronous network applications quickly. By leveraging JavaScript on both the front and backend, Node.js can make web application development more consistent and integrated.


To Install the Official Debian Node.js Package:

1. To get Node.js from the default Debian software repository, you can use the apt package manager. First, refresh your local package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the Node.js package, and npm the Node Package Manager:

$ sudo apt install nodejs npm

3. To verify that the install was successful, run the node command with the -v flag to get the version:

$ node -v


To Remove Node.js:

1. To remove either of these versions, type the following:

$ sudo apt remove nodejs

2. To uninstall a version of Node.js that you have enabled using nvm, first determine whether or not the version you would like to remove is the current active version:

$ nvm current

3. If the version you are targeting is not the current active version, you can run:

$ nvm uninstall node_version

This command will uninstall the selected version of Node.js.

4. If the version you would like to remove is the current active version, you must first deactivate nvm to enable your changes:

$ nvm deactivate

Install Skype on Ubuntu 18.04 System - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Skype on your Ubuntu 18.04 desktop system. Basically, Skype is the most popular platform to connect people through their computer systems. You can freely connect to anyone all around the world through text, voice, and video calls. You can also choose to call people on their telephones but that will not be free. 


To Install the Skype snap:

1. Enter the following command in order to refresh the list of available packages:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Since the Snap daemon comes by default in the latest versions of Ubuntu, we do not need to install it. If you are using an older version, you can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install snapd

3. Now type in the following command in order to install Skype Classic version:

$ sudo snap install skype --classic

Install and Use Unbound in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and configure the Unbound name resolution server in Ubuntu with basic configuration. Unbound is basically a recursive-only caching DNS server which can perform DNSSEC validation of results. Unbound is the best alternative for setting up a caching nameserver on your LAN or personal machine.


To install Unbound from official Repository, run the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install unbound -y

Install PHP Composer on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PHP Composer on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Composer is a popular dependency management tool for PHP, created mainly to facilitate installation and updates for project dependencies. It will check which other packages a specific project depends on and install them for you, using the appropriate versions according to the project requirements. Composer is also commonly used to bootstrap new projects based on popular PHP frameworks, such as Symfony and Laravel.


To Install PHP Composer on Ubuntu:

1. Update your packages:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Install the curl utility:

$ sudo apt-get install curl

3. Download the installer:

$ sudo curl -s https://getcomposer.org/installer | php

4. Move the composer.phar file:

$ sudo mv composer.phar /usr/local/bin/composer

5. Use the composer command to test the installation. If Composer is installed correctly, the server will respond with a long list of help information and commands:

# composer

Install Apache Cassandra on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Apache Cassandra on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Apache Cassandra is an open-source non-relational database that delivers high performance, linear scalability, and continuous availability. All these features make Cassandra an ideal platform for mission-critical data.

To learn more about Apache Cassandra, visit its official documentation site.


How to install Java on Ubuntu ?

1. To check whether Java is installed, run the command:

$ java -version

2. To install OpenJDK, execute the following apt command:

$ sudo apt install openjdk-8-jdk

3. Once again, confirm that Java is installed by running the command:

$ java -version


How to Install Apache Cassandra in Ubuntu ?

1. First, install the apt-transport-https package to allow access of repositories via the https protocol:

$ sudo apt install apt-transport-https

2. Next, Import the GPG key using following wget command as shown:

$ wget -q -O - https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS | sudo apt-key add -

3. Then add Apache Cassandra's repository to the system’s sources list file as shown:

$ sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/debian 311x main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/cassandra.list'

4. Before installing Apache Cassandra, you need to update the package list first:

$ sudo apt update

5. Then install the NoSQL database using the command:

$ sudo apt install cassandra

6. Usually, Apache Cassandra starts automatically. To confirm its status, run the following command:

$ sudo systemctl status cassandra

7. Additionally, you can verify the stats of your node by running the command:

$ sudo nodetool status

Enable and Disable Root User Account on Ubuntu 20.04 - Do it Now ?

This article covers how to enable and disable root user account in Ubuntu system. Considered the most privileged account on a Unix system, root can perform any tasks needed for system administration.

Navigating a specific folder, killing any process or deleting a directory, root is so powerful that it has to be managed properly.


In order to change the root password, you have to use the "passwd" and specify the root account:

$ sudo passwd root

After changing your password, the account will be automatically unlocked.

In order to switch to the root account, you can use the well-known "su" command without any arguments (the default account is root):

$ su - 


To restart your SSH server for the modifications to be taken into account:

$ sudo systemctl restart sshd

Python Get Current Directory

This article covers how to use the 'os. getcwd()' method to easily get the python current working directory. When you run a Python script, the current working directory is set to the directory from which the script is executed.

The os python module provides a portable way to interact with the operating system. The module is part of the standard Python library and includes methods for finding and changing the current working directory.

Basically, In Python, you can get and change (set) the current working directory with os.getcwd() and os.chdir().

os module is included in the standard library, so no additional installation is required.

To Get the current working directory: os.getcwd()

To Change the current working directory: os.chdir()


How to Get the current working directory: os.getcwd() ?

1. os.getcwd() returns the absolute path of the working directory where Python is currently running as a string str.

2. getcwd stands for "get current working directory", and the Unix command pwd stands for "print working directory".

Install Java on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Java Run-time Environment (JRE) and the Java Developer Kit (JDK) on Ubuntu 20.04. Java is one of the most popular programming languages. It is used for developing anything from lightweight mobile to desktop applications.

Oracle's licensing agreement for Java doesn’t allow automatic installation through package managers. To install the Oracle JDK, which is the official version distributed by Oracle, you must create an Oracle account and manually download the JDK to add a new package repository for the version you'd like to use. 


To install the Default JRE/JDK 

1. To install this version, first update the package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, check if Java is already installed:

$ java -version

If Java is not currently installed, you’ll see the following output:

Output
Command 'java' not found, but can be installed with:
apt install default-jre
apt install openjdk-11-jre-headless
apt install openjdk-8-jre-headless

3. Execute the following command to install the default Java Runtime Environment (JRE), which will install the JRE from OpenJDK 11:

$ sudo apt install default-jre

The JRE will allow you to run almost all Java software.

4. Verify the installation with:

java -version

Install the Let's Encrypt Certificate Using Certbot in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it on Nginx web server ?

This article covers how to install Certbot, to get let's encrypt certificates. SSL/TLS encryption is an integral part of the network infrastructure. Any web and mail server allows you to enable data encryption.

To begin, you must have a domain name. Its DNS A-record must contain the public address of your server. If the firewall is enabled, open access for HTTP and HTTPS traffic:

$ sudo ufw allow 80
$ sudo ufw allow 443


To Install the "Let's Encrypt" package on Ubuntu:

1. Run the command below to install Let's Encrypt.

$ sudo apt install letsencrypt

2. Check the "certbot.timer" utility for automatic certificate renewal.

$ sudo systemctl status certbot.timer

Install PHP on Ubuntu 20.04 - Running Apache Web Server

This article covers the PHP installation on Ubuntu 20.04 system.  Basically, popular Content Management platforms such as WordPress, Drupal, and Magento are based on PHP.


To Install PHP on Ubuntu 20.04:

1. Update your server.

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. Install PHP on Ubuntu 20.04, just run the following command.

$ apt-get install php

3. To verify if PHP is installed, run the following command.

php -v


To Install PHP 7.4 modules (extensions):

Run the command below.

apt-get install php-pear php-fpm php-dev php-zip php-curl php-xmlrpc php-gd php-mysql php-mbstring php-xml libapache2-mod-php

To check all the PHP modules available in Ubuntu, run:

$ apt-cache search --names-only ^php


How to install PHP 8.0 on Ubuntu 20.04 or 18.04 ?

1. First, update your Ubuntu server:

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. Add the PHP repository (by Ondřej Surý):

$ apt-get install software-properties-common
$ add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php

3. And finally, update your package list:

$ apt-get update

4. Install PHP 8.0 with the following command:

$ apt-get install php8.0

5. To check if PHP 8.0 is installed on your server, run the following command:

$ php -v

6. Install PHP 8.0 modules (extensions)

You may need additional packages and modules depending on your applications. The most commonly used modules can be installed with the following command:

$ apt-get install libapache2-mod-php8.0 php8.0-fpm libapache2-mod-fcgid php8.0-curl php8.0-dev php8.0-gd php8.0-mbstring php8.0-zip php8.0-mysql php8.0-xml


How to change the PHP version you're using ?

If you have multiple PHP versions installed on your Ubuntu server, you can change what version is the default one.

1. To set PHP 7.4 as the default, run:

$ update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php7.4

2. To set PHP 8.0 as the default, run:

$ update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php8.0

3. You can verify what version of PHP you’re using with the following command:

$ php -v

Check Uptime on Ubuntu Linux Server - How to do it ?

This article covers how to easily print out the uptime on any Linux distribution such as Debian and Ubuntu. You will learn how to easily perform an audit of your system's uptime. It's an important command for system administrators to know how long the system has been running. Uptime tool helps troubleshooting issues related to power and scheduling.


On any UNIX-like system, the uptime command will come pre-installed. That applies to Ubuntu as well. Verify the existence of the tool by running these commands:

$  which uptime
$ uptime --version


To check the system uptime, run the following command:

$ uptime

Install PHP 7.3 on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PHP 7.3 on Ubuntu 18.04 server. Also, you will learn how to configure PHP with Apache and Nginx web servers. 


How to Install PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu ?

Use the following set of commands to enable PPA for PHP 7.4 in your Ubuntu system and install it. You can use this version for production use also.

$ sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install -y php7.4

Now use the following command to check installed php version on your system.

$ php -v 


How to Install PHP 7 Modules ?

You can install the required PHP modules on your system as below command:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql php7.2-curl php7.2-json php7.2-cgi php7.2-xsl

Secure Nginx with Let's Encrypt on Ubuntu 18.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install certbot client, obtain Let's Encrypt SSL certificate and configured to Nginx to use the certificates. Also, you will learn how to set up a cronjob for automatic certificate renewal.

Let's Encrypt is a Certificate Authority (CA) that provides an easy way to obtain and install free TLS/SSL certificates, thereby enabling encrypted HTTPS on web servers. 


To Install Certbot on Ubuntu:

1. First, add the repository.

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot

You'll need to press ENTER to accept.

2. Install Certbot's Nginx package with apt:

$ sudo apt install python-certbot-nginx

Configure Nginx Server Blocks on Ubuntu 18.04

This article covers how to create an Nginx server blocks to host multiple website on a single Ubuntu machine. When using the Nginx web server, server blocks (similar to the virtual hosts in Apache) can be used to encapsulate configuration details and host more than one domain off of a single server.

Install phpMyAdmin with Apache on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install phpMyAdmin with Apache on Ubuntu 18.04 system. While many users need the functionality of a database management system like MySQL, they may not feel comfortable interacting with the system solely from the MySQL prompt. phpMyAdmin was created so that users can interact with MySQL through a web interface. 


Important php packages includes:

  • php-mbstring: A module for managing non-ASCII strings and convert strings to different encodings.
  • php-zip: This extension supports uploading .zip files to phpMyAdmin.
  • php-gd: Enables support for the GD Graphics Library.
  • php-json: Provides PHP with support for JSON serialization.
  • php-curl: Allows PHP to interact with different kinds of servers using different protocols.

Secure Apache with Let's Encrypt on Ubuntu 18.04 - How to do about it ?

This article covers how to install Let’s Encrypt SSL on Ubuntu 18.04 by using Certbot. Enabling an encrypted connection to the web server is fundamental because it allows you to use the secure HTTPS protocol for your website. Let's Encrypt, a Certification Authority issues a free certificate completely in line with the required security standards. Let's Encrypt simplifies the process for installing the security certificate to help even the less experienced user secure a website through the use of the Certbot client.


To Install Certbot client on Ubuntu:

1. First, add the Certbot repository:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot

You'll need to press ENTER to accept.

2. Install Certbot's Apache package with apt:

$ sudo apt install python-certbot-apache

Configure Apache Virtual Hosts on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to create apache virtual host files to host multiple domains on a single Ubuntu server. Each website published on the Internet is hosted on a web server (host), connected to the network with a public IP address and able to manage requests for web pages on a browser (client) such as Chrome, Firefox or Internet Explorer.

If you need to host a website on your machine, first, install a web server. Among those available, one of the best known is Apache, an open source software compatible with both Unix and Windows systems. 


How to Install Apache on Ubuntu ?

1. To install Apache 2 through the official Ubuntu repositories, proceed by typing:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt install apache2

Since Apache communicates externally, it should be inserted among the exceptions of your Firewall. 

2. In case of using UFW, allow bidirectional communications between Apache and a Client by typing:

$ sudo ufw allow 'Apache Full'

3. Apache should already be running. To check its stateuse the command:

$ sudo systemctl status apache2

Install MariaDB on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install MariaDB on Ubuntu 18.04 server. Also, you will learn how to secure and connect to MariaDB server. MariaDB is an open-source relational database management system, commonly used as an alternative for MySQL as the database portion of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. Basically, It is intended to be a drop-in replacement for MySQL.


How to Install MariaDB ?

1. To install it, update the package index on your server with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2, Then install the package:

$ sudo apt install mariadb-server

Install Apache on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to successfully install Apache on your Ubuntu 18.04 server. The Apache HTTP server is the most widely-used web server in the world. It provides many powerful features, including dynamically loadable modules, robust media support, and extensive integration with other popular software.


To install Apache on Ubuntu:

1. Update your local package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install the apache2 package:

$ sudo apt install apache2

Download Ubuntu 18.04 LTS ISO File – Desktop & Server

This article covers a review about Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver). You can find the Ubuntu 18.04 release notes on its official website.


Ubuntu 18.04.4 (Bionic Beaver) was released on February 12, 2020, the long-term support (LTS) release of the Ubuntu, this was the 4rd point release of the 18.04 LTS and it was available for desktop / laptop computers and servers. Ubuntu 18.04.4 desktop didn't support 32-bit CPU architecture, and is only available to install 64-bit (x86-64) versions. Compared to previous releases, this Ubuntu version includes security updates and fixed bugs.

Install Ruby on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the method of installing Ruby on a Ubuntu 20.04 system.

Also, if you want to remove this programming language from your Ubuntu 20.04 system, then you can also do this by the method that we mentioned in this guide.


To Update RubyGem Package Manager:

RubyGems is a Ruby Package Manager, coming with the gem command-line tool. It's automatically installed when we install Ruby on the system.

To update the RubyGem to the latest version, run the following command.

$ gem update --system


How To Install Ruby on Rails on Ubuntu ?

Here, we will install the latest version of Ruby on Rails through the RubyGem package manager.

Install Ruby on Rails using the gem command below:

$ gem install rails

Once all installation is completed, check the Ruby on Rails version:

$ rails --version


To Install and Configure PostgreSQL on Ubuntu System:

1. Install the PostgreSQL database server to the Ubuntu 20.04 using the apt command below:

$ sudo apt install postgresql postgresql-contrib libpq-dev -y

2. Once all installation is completed, start the PostgreSQL service and add it to the system boot:

$ systemctl start postgresql
$ systemctl enable postgresql

Install MongoDB on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install MongoDB on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS using either the apt package manager or by downloading and installing through the archive. For more information, visit MongoDB's official documentation.


MongoDB is an open-source and cross-platform document-oriented database system written in C++. It stores data in collections of JSON-like, flexible documents and used to create powerful websites and applications. 

Due to its scalability and high performance, it is used for building modern applications that require powerful, mission-critical and high-availability databases.


To Configure MongoDB on Ubuntu:

MongoDB default configuration file is located at /etc/mongod.conf

By default, each user will have access to all databases and perform any action. 

For production environments, it is recommended to enable the MongoDB authentication.

i. You can do it by editing the file /etc/mongod.conf:

$ nano /etc/mongod.conf

2. Add the following lines:

security:
  authorization: enabled

3. Save and close the file then restart the MongoDB service to apply the changes:

$ systemctl restart mongod


Advantages of MongoDB:

1. Absence of a schema

2. Based on the collections of various documents

3. A clear structure of every object

4. Highly scalable

5. Internal memory is used to store data, which lets us get data faster.

6. Data is stored as JSON objects.

7. MongoDB supports document-based queries

Install Signal Messaging App on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the different methods for installing the Signal messaging app on Ubuntu 20.04 desktop. Now you can use the Signal app on both your Smartphone and desktop system at the same time.
Signal is an popular messaging application as an alternative of WhatsApp.

It is available as Desktop application for Windows, Linux and macOS systems.

To Install Signal Desktop on Ubuntu:

Signal application is available as snap package for the Linux systems. The Ubuntu 20.04 systems have default Snapd install and recommended for packages installation.
* Open a terminal as sudo user and type:

# sudo snap install signal-desktop 

This will install Signal desktop application on your Ubuntu system.

Install Apache Maven on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process ?

This article covers methods to easily install Apache Maven on the Ubuntu system. You will also learn how to uninstall Apache Maven from Ubuntu if you ever need to do so.

Apache Maven is a free and open-source project management tool primarily for Java projects. It is based on POM and also used to build and manage projects written in C#, Ruby, Scala, and others.


To Install Apache Maven on Ubuntu:

1. Apache Maven is based on Java. So Java must be installed in your server. You can install the Java using the following command:

$ apt-get install default-jdk -y

2. By default, Apache Maven is available in the Ubuntu 20.04 default repository. You can install it with the following command:

$ apt-get install maven -y

3. Once the installation is completed, you can verify the Apache Maven version with the following command:

$ mvn -version

Install Dropbox on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process ?

This article covers how to install Dropbox on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. Dropbox online storage provides us support for Ubuntu Linux. 

Dropbox provides us online storage to store or backup our data automatically. We use Dropbox to backup our contents with some security and peace of mind. 

In the event of our PCs crash, Our data will be saved and ready to be restored onto server.


To install Dropbox from Command Line on Ubuntu:

1. Install the wget package using the apt command,

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install wget

2. Dropbox cli version is available for both 32 and 64 bit editions, we will download Dropbox upon out version.

For 32-bit,

$ cd ~ && wget -O - "https://www.dropbox.com/download?plat=lnx.x86" | tar xzf -

For 64-bit, 

$ cd ~ && wget -O - "https://www.dropbox.com/download?plat=lnx.x86_64" | tar xzf -

3. Run the following command to start the Dropbox from .dropbox-dist folder.

$ ~/.dropbox-dist/dropboxd


To manage Dropbox service:

1. Enable dropbox service using command below.

$ sudo systemctl enable dropbox

2. Start dropbox service using command below.

$ sudo systemctl start dropbox

3. Check running of the service using command below.

$ sudo systemctl status dropbox

Install and Use Curl Command on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to set up curl command on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS machine. curl command is a tool to download or transfer files/data from or to a server using FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, SCP, SFTP, SMB and other supported protocols on Linux or Unix-like system.


To Install cURL for Ubuntu Linux:

1. Update your Ubuntu box, run: 

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

2. Next, install cURL, execute: 

$ sudo apt install curl

3. Verify install of curl on Ubuntu by running: 

$ curl --version

Use SED Command to Find and Replace String in Files - How to perform this task on Ubuntu?

This article covers how to use the Sed command on Ubuntu 20.04. Searching and replacing a string of text in a file with the Sed command isn't complicated as you imagine.

sed is a stream editor. It can perform basic text manipulation on files and input streams such as pipelines. 

With sed, you can search, find and replace, insert, and delete words and lines. 

It supports basic and extended regular expressions that allow you to match complex patterns.


To Find and replace text within a file using sed command:

The procedure to change the text in files under Linux/Unix using sed:

1. Use Stream EDitor (sed) as follows:

$ sed -i 's/old-text/new-text/g' input.txt

2. The s is the substitute command of sed for find and replace

3. It tells sed to find all occurrences of 'old-text' and replace with 'new-text' in a file named input.txt

4. Verify that file has been updated:

more input.txt

Install Cockpit on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process to do this ?

This article covers how to install Cockpit on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Cockpit is a free and open source web console tool for Linux administrators and used for day to day administrative and operations tasks. 


To Install the Cockpit package on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Server, run the command:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install cockpit -y

Once cockpit package is installed successfully then start its service using the following systemctl command,

$ sudo systemctl start cockpit

Run the following to verify the status of cockpit service,

$ sudo systemctl status cockpit


Features of Cockpit:

Cockpit allows you to perform:

1. Service Management – Start, stop, restart, reload, disable, enable, mask e.t.c

2. User Account Management – Add users, delete, Lock, assign Administrator role, set password, force password change, Add Public SSH keys e.t.c.

3. Firewall Management

4. Cockpit Container management

5. SELinux Policy management

6. Journal v2

7. iSCSI Initiator configurations

8. SOS-reporting

9. NFS Client setup

10. Configure OpenConnect VPN Server

11. Privileged Actions – Shutdown, Restart system

12. Join Machine to Domain

13. Hardware Device Management

14. System Updates for dnf, yum, apt hosts

15. Manage the Kubernetes Node

Install Docker Compose on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process to perform it ?

This article covers how to install and run Docker Compose on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS machine. Docker Compose is yet another useful Docker tool. It allows users to launch, execute, communicate, and close containers with a single coordinated command. Essentially, Docker Compose is used for defining and running multi-container Docker applications.


To Install Docker Compose on Ubuntu:

1. Start by updating the default repository to ensure you download the latest Docker Compose:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then, upgrade the system to ensure all local packages and programs are up to date:

$ sudo apt upgrade

3. Then install Docker Compose from the Ubuntu repository by running:

$ sudo apt install docker-compose


To install Install curl on Ubuntu:

To download the binary package using an URL, you need curl. You can check whether you have this command-line utility by typing in the terminal window:

$curl

If the output displays "try 'curl --help' or 'curl --manual' for more information", move on to the next step. 

This message means curl is installed.

However, if the terminal says "command not found", you need to install curl with:

$ sudo apt install curl


To Check Docker Compose Version on Ubuntu:

To verify the installation, check the Docker Compose version by running:

$ docker–compose –version


To uninstall Docker Compose on Ubuntu:

Uninstalling Docker Compose from your Ubuntu system is a simple 3-step process.

1. Delete the Binary

First, delete the binary with the command:

$ sudo rm /usr/local/bin/docker-compose

2. Uninstall the Package

Then, use the apt remove command to uninstall the software:

$ sudo apt remove docker-compose

3. Remove Software Dependencies

Finally, remove the unwanted software dependencies by running:

$ sudo apt autoremove

Setup Teampass Passwords Manager on Ubuntu 20.04 - Do it Now ?

This article covers perform the installation of TeamPass using the LAMP stack on Ubuntu. Now you can easily manage your credentials within your Organization to save credentials and manage access to every individual. 

TeamPass is a Collaborative Passwords Manager used for managing passwords and sharing them among team members.


To Download Teampass on Ubuntu:

1. Start by cloning the Teampass repository to your web server root directory as shown below;

$ git clone https://github.com/nilsteampassnet/TeamPass.git /var/www/html/teampass

2. Set the ownership of the teampass web directory to web server user (www-data)

$ chown -R www-data.www-data /var/www/html/teampass/

3. Next, edit the /etc/php/7.2/apache2/php.ini configuration file and increase the script execution time from 30 to 60 secs.

vim /etc/php/7.2/apache2/php.ini
...
;max_execution_time = 30
max_execution_time = 60
...

4. Restart Apache web server

$ systemctl restart apache2


To Finalize TeamPass installation on Ubuntu:

Final installation of Teampass can be done from the browser. 

Hence, navigate to the browser and enter the Teampass server URL, 

http://Server_IP/teampass

This will redirect you to Teampass welcome page

Install and Configure Apache Kafka on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to implement this task ?

This article covers how to install and configure Apache Kafka on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS machine. Apache Kafka is a distributed events streaming platform which has the ability to handle the high-performance data pipelines. It was originally developed by Linkedin then to be public as an open-source platform and used by many IT companies in the world.


Terms related to Apache Kafka Infrastructure:

1. Topic: A topic is a common name used to store and publish a particular stream of data. For example if you would wish to store all the data about a page being clicked, you can give the Topic a name such as "Added Customer".


2. Partition: Every topic is split up into partitions ("baskets"). When a topic is created, the number of partitions need to be specified but can be increased later as need arises. Each message gets stored into partitions with an incremental id known as its Offset value.


3. Kafka Broker: Every server with Kafka installed in it is known as a broker. It is a container holding several topics having their partitions.


4. Zookeeper: Zookeeper manages Kafka's cluster state and configurations.


Main advantages of using Apache Kafka:

1. Message Broking: In comparison to most messaging systems Kafka has better throughput, built-in partitioning, replication, and fault-tolerance which makes it a good solution for large scale message processing applications


2. Website Activity Tracking


3. Log Aggregation: Kafka abstracts away the details of files and gives a cleaner abstraction of log or event data as a stream of messages.


4. Stream Processing: capturing data in real-time from event sources; storing these event streams durably for later retrieval; and routing the event streams to different destination technologies as needed


5. Event Sourcing: This is a style of application design where state changes are logged as a time-ordered sequence of records.


6. Commit Log: Kafka can serve as a kind of external commit-log for a distributed system. The log helps replicate data between nodes and acts as a re-syncing mechanism for failed nodes to restore their data.


7. Metrics: This involves aggregating statistics from distributed applications to produce centralized feeds of operational data.


To install Apache Kafka on Ubuntu:

1. Update your fresh Ubuntu 20.04 server and get Java installed as illustrated below.

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
$ sudo apt install default-jre wget git unzip -y
$ sudo apt install default-jdk -y

2. Fetch Kafka on Ubuntu 20.04.

$ cd ~
$ wget https://downloads.apache.org/kafka/2.6.0/kafka_2.13-2.6.0.tgz
$ sudo mkdir /usr/local/kafka-server && cd /usr/local/kafka-server
$ sudo tar -xvzf ~/kafka_2.13-2.6.0.tgz --strip 1

3. Create Kafka and Zookeeper Systemd Unit Files

i. Let us begin with Zookeeper service.

$ sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/zookeeper.service
[Unit]
Description=Apache Zookeeper Server
Requires=network.target remote-fs.target
After=network.target remote-fs.target
[Service]
Type=simple
ExecStart=/usr/local/kafka-server/bin/zookeeper-server-start.sh /usr/local/kafka-server/config/zookeeper.properties
ExecStop=/usr/local/kafka-server/bin/zookeeper-server-stop.sh
Restart=on-abnormal
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target


ii. Then for Kafka service. Make sure your JAVA_HOME configs are well inputted or Kafka will not start.

$ sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/kafka.service
[Unit]
Description=Apache Kafka Server
Documentation=http://kafka.apache.org/documentation.html
Requires=zookeeper.service
After=zookeeper.service
[Service]
Type=simple
Environment="JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64"
ExecStart=/usr/local/kafka-server/bin/kafka-server-start.sh /usr/local/kafka-server/config/server.properties
ExecStop=/usr/local/kafka-server/bin/kafka-server-stop.sh
Restart=on-abnormal
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target


iii. Reload the systemd daemon to apply changes and then start the services. 

$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload
$ sudo systemctl enable --now zookeeper
$ sudo systemctl enable --now kafka
$ sudo systemctl status kafka zookeeper


4. Install Cluster Manager for Apache Kafka (CMAK) | Kafka Manager.

$ cd ~
$ git clone https://github.com/yahoo/CMAK.git


5. Configure CMAK on Ubuntu.

Add and Remove Users on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to perform this task ?

This article covers how you can add and remove users on Ubuntu and assign them administrator privileges. Based on your convenience, you can either choose to add and remove users either through the command line or GUI. 

Ubuntu, like any other Linux distribution, is a multi-user operating system. Each user can have different permission levels and specific settings for various command-line and GUI applications.

Knowing how to add and remove users is one of the basic skills a Linux user should know.


To add a user in Ubuntu via GUI:

1. Open the Activities overview and start typing Users.

2. Click on Users to open the panel.

3. Press Unlock in the top right corner and type in your password when prompted.

4. Press the + button, below the list of accounts on the left, to add a new user account.


To remove a user from Ubuntu:

1. Open the terminal app.

2. Login to server using the ssh user@server-ip-here command.

3. Run sudo deluser --remove-home userNameHere command to delete a user account on Ubuntu.

4. Verify it by running id command.


To Remove a Linux user:

1. Log in to your server via SSH.

2. Switch to the root user: sudo su -

3. Use the userdel command to remove the old user: userdel user's username.

Optional: You can also delete that user's home directory and mail spool by using the -r flag with the command: userdel -r user's username.


To Add a User to Linux:

1. Log in as root.

2. Use the command useradd "name of the user" (for example, useradd linuxapt)

3. Use su plus the name of the user you just added to log on.

4. "Exit" will log you out.


Linux operations commands:

1. adduser : add a user to the system.

2. userdel : delete a user account and related files.

3. addgroup : add a group to the system.

4. delgroup : remove a group from the system.

5. usermod : modify a user account.

6. chage : change user password expiry information.


How do I assign a user to a group in Linux?

1. To create a new group, enter the following: sudo groupadd new_group.

2. Use the adduser command to add a user to a group: sudo adduser user_name new_group.

3. To delete a group, use the command: sudo groupdel new_group.

4. Linux comes with several different groups by default.

Install Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to install Nginx on the Ubuntu system. Also, you will learn how to configure the firewall and manage Nginx services. 

Finally, you will see how to uninstall Nginx in case you no longer need it in your system.

Nginx is a free, open-source Linux application for web servers. It works as a reverse proxy server by directing web traffic to specific servers.

Also, Nginx is used for security and load-balancing, but can also function independently as a web server.


To Install Nginx From Ubuntu Repositories:

1. Update Software Repositories

It is important to refresh the repository lists before installing new software. This helps make sure that the latest updates and patches are installed.

Open a terminal window and enter the following:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Nginx is included in the Ubuntu 20.04 default repositories. Install it by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install nginx


How to manage Nginx on Ubuntu ?

The behavior of Nginx can be adjusted. Use this to start or stop Nginx, or to enable or disable Nginx at boot.

Start by checking the status of the Nginx service:

$ sudo systemctl status nginx

If the status displays active (running), Nginx has already been started. 

Press CTRL+z to exit the status display.

If Nginx is not running, use the following command to launch the Nginx service:

$ sudo systemctl start nginx

To set Nginx to load when the system starts, enter the following:

$ sudo systemctl enable nginx

To stop the Nginx service, enter the following:

$ sudo systemctl stop nginx

To prevent Nginx from loading when the system boots:

$ sudo systemctl disable nginx

To reload the Nginx service (used to apply configuration changes):

$ sudo systemctl reload nginx

For a hard restart of Nginx:

$ sudo systemctl restart nginx

To Test the Configuration

$ sudo nginx –t

The system should report that the configuration file syntax is OK, and that the configuration file test is successful.

Install KDE Plasma on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to install KDE Plasma on Ubuntu 20.04 system. The Plasma desktop option will be available along with the standard Ubuntu system. Also, you will learn the steps to uninstall KDE Plasma from the Ubuntu system. 

KDE is the short form for K Desktop Environment.

Plasma is the desktop environment and KDE is the umbrella project responsible for the development of Plasma desktop and a bunch of other applications.


To Install KDE desktop environment on Ubuntu:

For KDE Full - This is the complete KDE pack. It comes with the complete package and core KDE plasma desktop. 

$ sudo apt install kde-full


For KDE Standard - It includes Plasma desktop with standard set of KDE apps such as Kate (default text editor), Konqueror (default web browser), Kget (Download Manager), KMail (email client), Dolphin (File Manager) and so on. 

$ sudo apt install kde-standard


To install KDE Plasma Desktop:

Run the command - $ sudo apt install kde-plasma-desktop

Install Flask on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to install Flask on Ubuntu 20.04. Flask is a powerful web framework for any developer. Unlike Django , by default Flask doesn’t include ORM, form validation, or any other functionalities provided by third-party libraries. Flask is built with extensions in mind, which are Python packages that add functionality to a Flask application.

Flask packages are included in the official Ubuntu repositories and can be installed using the apt package manager. 

This is the simplest way to install Flask on Ubuntu 20.04, but not as flexible as installing in a virtual environment. 

Also, the version included in the repositories may lag behind the latest version of Flask.


To install Flask on Ubuntu 20.04:

1. Ubuntu 20.04 ships with Python 3.8. You can verify that Python is installed on your system by typing:

$ python3 -V

2. The recommended way to create a virtual environment is by using the venv module, which is provided by the python3-venv package. Run the following command to install the package:

$ sudo apt install python3-venv

3. Create a new directory for the Flask application and switch into it:

$ mkdir flask_app && cd flask_app

4. Run the following command inside the directory to create the virtual environment:

$ python3 -m venv venv

The command will create a directory called venv, which contains a copy of the Python binary, the Pip package manager , the standard Python library, and other supporting files. You can use any name you want for the virtual environment.

5. To start using the virtual environment, you need to activate it with the activate script:

source venv/bin/activate

6. Now that the virtual environment is activated, use the Python package manager pip to install Flask:

$ pip install Flask

7. To verify the installation, run the following command, which prints the Flask version:

$ python -m flask --version

List Installed Packages in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to perform this task ?

This article covers how you can list installed packages on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. Also, you can also filter a specific package from the list and count the number of installed packages on your system.


You can list all installed packages with apt command or apt-get command on Ubuntu Linux.

You need to use the apt or apt-get or dpkg command to list all installed packages on an Ubuntu Linux server from the bash shell prompt.


To see what packages are installed on Ubuntu Linux:

1. Open the terminal application or log in to the remote server using ssh (e.g. ssh user@sever-name).

2. Run command apt list --installed to list all installed packages on Ubuntu.

3. To display a list of packages satisfying certain criteria such as show matching apache2 packages, run apt list apache.


To List all installed packages only:

The apt command displays both installed and packages available to install:

$ apt list --installed


To list or find out if a specific package installed or not:

Run package policy as follows:

$ apt list -a pkgNameHere

Schedule a Job in Cron to Run Every Hour in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to implement it ?

This article covers how a cron job can be scheduled to run every hour on Ubuntu System. Most Linux users are familiar with the Crontab job scheduler, which acts as a silent daemon that performs all the tasks assigned to it automatically, without any human intervention. 

This job scheduler makes the life of a Linux user much easier, as the user can hand over all the frequently occurring tasks to the Crontab scheduler so that these tasks can be executed automatically according to a specified schedule.


To Start Crontab Service

Run the following command:

$ sudo systemctl start cron


To Check Status of Crontab Service

Execute the command:

$ sudo systemctl status cron


To Launch Crontab File:

Execute the command:

$ crontab –e


To Run a program or script every 5 or X minutes or hours on Linux:

1. Edit your cronjob file by running crontab -e command.

2. Add the following line for an every-5-minutes interval. */5 * * * * /path/to/script-or-program.

3. Save the file, and that is it.

Install Skype on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to perform it ?

This article covers the different methods to install Skype on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS including both the GUI and the command line. 


To install the Skype snap, open your terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and run the following command:

$ sudo snap install skype --classic

That's it. You have installed Skype on your Ubuntu machine, and you can start using it.


How to install Skype with apt on Ubuntu ?

Skype is available from the official Microsoft Apt repositories. To install it, follow the steps below:

1. Open your terminal and download the latest Skype .deb package using the following wget command:

$ wget https://go.skype.com/skypeforlinux-64.deb

2. Once the download is complete, install Skype by running the following command as a user with sudo privileges :

$ sudo apt install ./skypeforlinux-64.deb

You will be prompted to enter your password.

3. When a new version is released, you can update the Skype package through your desktop standard Software Update tool or by running the following commands in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update

$ sudo apt upgrade

Install Pepper Flash on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install the Pepper Flash plugin for the Mozilla Firefox browser on Ubuntu 20.04. After the successful installation of this plugin, we can easily use it for enjoying feature-rich content while browsing. 

We have also shared with you the method of removing this plugin from your system whenever you feel like it at the end of this guide.


How can I install Pepper Flash Player on Ubuntu? 

How can I setup Flash Player for Chromium web browser on Ubuntu?  

Pepper Flash Player is maintained by Google and is newer than Adobe Flash Player. 

Pepper Flash Player can be used with Chromium web browser.

The Pepper Flash Player is available on the Canonical Partners Repository. 

This repository is disabled by default on Ubuntu . 

1. Enable it by running the command:

$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://archive.canonical.com/ $(lsb_release -sc) partner"

2. Then, Update your package list after enabling the repository

$ sudo apt update

3. You can then install Pepper Flash Player in your Ubuntu 18.04 Desktop.

$ sudo apt -y install pepperflashplugin-nonfree

4. To update Pepperflash, use:

$ sudo update-pepperflashplugin-nonfree --install

5. After the installation of Pepper Flash Player on Ubuntu, make sure Flash is allowed to run in:

chrome://settings/content/flash

Install UrBackup Server and Client on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install and setup the UrBackup server on Ubuntu 20.04. Here, you will also learn how we can add a Linux host to be backed up. 

The main reason for data backup is to save important files if a system crash or hard drive failure occurs, you will lose your data. 

Therefore, a backup solution is much important for any data critical organization.

UrBackup is a free and powerful network backup solution for personal and enterprise. It has almost all features you need from a backup software. UrBackup supports Linux, Windows and Mac OS X.


Benefits of having UrBackup Server on your network are:

1. Centralized backup management

2. Supports multiple clients

3. Supports multiple simultaneous backups

4. Easy to restore


To Install client on Debian or Ubuntu:

1. Install the dependencies UrBackup needs: WxWidgets >= 2.9.0 On Debian/Ubuntu you can do that with apt or your favourite package manager:

$ apt install build-essential "g++" libwxgtk3.0-dev "libcrypto++-dev" libz-dev

2. Download the UrBackup client source files and extract them via e.g.

$ wget https://hndl.urbackup.org/Client/2.4.11/urbackup-client-2.4.11.tar.gz

$ tar xzf urbackup-client-2.4.11.tar.gz


3. Build the UrBackup client and install it:

$ cd urbackup-client-2.4.11

./configure

make -j4

sudo make install


4. Make sure that the UrBackup client backend runs correctly:

$ sudo urbackupclientbackend -v info


5. Start the UrBackup client backend on startup by adding it e.g. to rc.local:

$ sudo chmod +x /etc/rc.local

editor /etc/rc.local

Now add /usr/local/sbin/urbackupclientbackend -d before the exit 0.


6. Start the UrBackup client frontend and setup your paths by executing:

$ urbackupclientgui

and clicking on the tray icon and add paths. You can also do that on the server.


To Install UrBackup Client on Windows:

If you have a fully functioning UrBackup Server on Ubuntu, then you can install UrBackup client on client computers. For example, you can install UrBackup client on Windows 10.

1. Download UrBackup client for Windows 10: https://hndl.urbackup.org/Client/2.4.11/UrBackup%20Client%202.4.11.exe

2. After you install the client software on Windows 10, it will automatically search and connect to the UrBackup server. 

3. You will see the client computer listed on your UrBackup web administration console.

4. There will be an UrBackup icon in your taskbar where you can do several things such as:

i. Change settings

ii. Add/remote backup path

iii. Change component to backup

iv. See the status

Use Picture-in-Picture Mode in Google Chrome - How to do it ?

This article covers how to enable Picture-in-Picture mode (PiP) in the Google Chrome browser on Ubuntu 20.04. Users need to know notice that in case if they close their browser window, it will also close the smaller window. 

Also, you will learn how to disable the PiP mode in the Google Chrome browser.


How do I enable picture in picture on Chrome?

Here's how it works: open Chrome, go to a website that contains a video and play it fullscreen. 

From there, press the Home button to go to your Android Home Screen and the playing video will automatically transition to Picture-in-Picture. 

That's all!


What is picture in picture mode?

PIP is a special type of multi-window mode mostly used for video playback. 

It lets the user watch a video in a small window pinned to a corner of the screen while navigating between apps or browsing content on the main screen. 

Your app controls when the current activity enters PIP mode.

Install Spotify on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to do it ?

This article covers the different methods of installation of Spotify on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. 

Spotify is a Popular music streaming application used globally and users can use any of the methods discussed above for its installation. 

The uninstallation process is also quite easy and we covered it for the ease of our readers. 

Users can also update Spotify with each newly released version.


Where is Spotify installed Linux?

If you followed the instructions on https://www.spotify.com/download/linux/ and installed from Ubuntu Software or snap, it should be located at /snap/bin/spotify . 

If you installed the debian package, it should be located at /usr/bin/spotify .


To update Spotify on Ubuntu:

1. Update list of available packages:

$ sudo apt-get update.

2. Install Spotify:

$ sudo apt-get install spotify-client.


To uninstall Spotify on Linux:

1. Quit Spotify.

2. Uninstall. sudo apt-get remove spotify-client.

3. Remove old config and cache.

cd $HOME/.config. rm -r spotify. cd $HOME/.cache. rm -r spotify.

4. Reinstall by following instructions on https://www.spotify.com/download/linux. 


To Install via command line on Ubuntu:

If you don't have access or don't want to use Ubuntu Software, it is possible to install Spotify from the command line with snap. 

Run the following command in your terminal:

$ snap install spotify

Install Tor Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to do it ?

This article covers how you can install the Tor browser on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux distribution. Now, you can use and do web browsing privately and in a secure way on your system. You can visit your local websites, your network service providers may block this browser.

When you use the Tor Browser, the connection to the website you are viewing is encrypted and protected from network surveillance and traffic analysis.


To Install Tor Browser Launcher on Ubuntu:

1. Add the Tor Browser Launcher PPA repository using the following command: 

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:micahflee/ppa.

2. Once the repository is enabled, update the apt package list and install the Tor Browser Launcher package by typing: 

$ sudo apt update 
$ sudo apt install torbrowser-launcher.


To uninstall Tor Kali Linux:

1. Locate your Tor Browser folder. On Linux, there is no default location, however the folder will be named "tor-browser_en-US" if you are running the English Tor Browser.

2. Delete the Tor Browser folder.

3. Empty your Trash.


To Update Tor Browser on Ubuntu ?

To help keep you secure, Tor Browser will automatically update itself when a new version is released.

Execute the following commands in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install torbrowser-launcher

Install Wine on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step process to do it ?

This article covers how to install Wine on Ubuntu 20.04. We used the WineHQ repositories and downloaded them directly for their installation.
Users can use it now for running all Windows-based applications.

To Install Wine from a Standard Ubuntu Repository (recommended):
We recommend that you install Wine on your system through the standard Ubuntu repository, as this way you can have a more stable version on your system.
1. Run the following command in the Terminal as a root user in order to install Wine on a 64-bit version of Ubuntu:
$ sudo apt install wine64
2. Please enter y when you are prompted with a y/n option for installation.
After that, the Wine application will be installed and ready for use.
3. For a 32-bit Ubuntu system, you can use the following command:
$ sudo apt install wine32
4. You can verify the version of Wine through the following command:
$ wine --version

To Install Wine without Internet:
To install Wine on an Ubuntu machine without internet access, you must have access to a second Ubuntu machine (or VM) with an internet connection to download the Wine .deb package and its dependencies.
On the machine with internet, add the WineHQ repository and run apt update.
Next, cache just the packages necessary for installing wine, without extracting them:
sudo apt-get clean
sudo apt-get --download-only install winehq-devel
sudo apt-get --download-only dist-upgrade

Copy all of the .deb files in /var/cache/apt/archives to a USB stick:
cp -R /var/cache/apt/archives/ /media/usb-drive/deb-pkgs/

Finally, on the machine without internet, install all of the packages from the flash drive:
cd /media/usb-drive/deb-pkgs
sudo dpkg -i *.deb

Install MariaDB on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step process to do it ?

This article covers how to install MariaDB on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. Also you will learn how to secure it by configuring some security options and then, in the end, we have tested the connection to MariaDB. The #Ubuntu server should have a non-root administrative user and a firewall configured with UFW.

By following the above simple steps, you can easily setup MariaDB on your ubuntu system. 

For more information, visit MariaDB's official documentation .

MariaDB is one of the most widely used and open-source database management systems. 

MariaDB is considered as a replacement for #MySQL and has much more features and capabilities that you cannot find in MySQL.


To install #MariaDB on Debian:

1. Update your package index using apt;

$ sudo apt update

2. Install the mariadb-server package using apt. The package also pulls in related tools to interact with MariaDB;

$ sudo apt install mariadb-server

3. Run the included mysql_secure_installation security script to restrict access to the server;

$ sudo mysql_secure_installation

Process to configure an NTP server and client on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how to configure the NTP server on the #Ubuntu machine and then sync a clock of NTP client machine. Now you can easily set up NTP server and connect multiple client machines with it for time synchronization.

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a networking protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks.

NTP is intended to synchronize all participating computers to within a few milliseconds of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).


How do I start #NTP on Linux?

In order to add command line options to the ntpd service (/etc/init. d/ntpd), one has to edit /etc/sysconfig/ntpd file and add the desired option to the OPTIONS variable, and restart the service via 'service ntpd restart'.


What port does NTP use?

NTP time servers work within the TCP/IP suite and rely on User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port 123. NTP servers are normally dedicated NTP devices that use a single time reference to which they can synchronize a network. 

This time reference is most often a Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) source.


To Sync NTP client with server via command line:

1. Edit the /etc/ntp.

2. Search for the lines beginning server .

3. Replace the server entries with the IP address or hostname of the NTP server or servers with which you want to synchronize.

4. Save the file.

5. Configure the NTP client service to start at run level 3 when the appliance boots.

Modify Zoom Background on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process ?

This article will guide you on steps to easily change the background of the Zoom application whenever he wants on #Ubuntu #Linux System. In this way, you can ensure efficient bandwidth utilization.

#Zoom is a very popular video communication tool for chatting, online meetings, screen-sharing, video conferencing etc. 

It is supported by most of the popular operating system like #Windows, Linux, Mac, and Android.

Zoom offers a few default image options to choose from, but it also allows you to upload your own image.

To make my background zoom better:

1. Click Settings. 

2. Click Virtual Background. 

Note: If you do not have the Virtual Background tab and you have enabled it on the web portal, sign out of the Zoom Desktop Client and sign in again. 

3. Click on an image to select the desired virtual background or add your own image by clicking +Add Image.

Install MongoDB ( NoSQL ) on Linux (Ubuntu 20.04) - Step by step process ?

This article will guide you on how to add MongoDB’s official #repository and install the latest stable release of MongoDB #NoSQL in the #Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. 

Also, you will learn how to completely uninstall from the system in case you no longer need it.

MongoDB stores data in db folder within data folder. But, since this data folder is not created automatically, you have to create it manually. 

Remember that data directory should be created in the root (/).

To get stats about #MongoDB server, type the command db. stats() in MongoDB client. 

This will show the database name, number of collection and documents in the database.

In MongoDB, data is stored as documents. 

These documents are stored in MongoDB in JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) format. 

#JSON documents support embedded fields, so related data and lists of data can be stored with the document instead of an external table.

Methods to Log out of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on different methods to log out of your #Ubuntu 20.04 system very conveniently. By logging out of a current user session, we essentially attempt to stop all the running #applications. 

It means that when we will log into the same user account again, we will have to start everything from scratch.

Steps to Log Out from Ubuntu #Linux:

1. To log out from Ubuntu desktop #session, go to the top right corner and click to bring the system tray. 

2. You should see Power Off / Log Out option. 

3. Click on it and it will show the Log Out option. 

4. When you click on the Log Out button, it will open a dialogue box and ask for your conformation.

You can Use #logout to log out of the #terminal. Or alternatively we can use ctrl + d to log out of the terminal session.

Step by step process to install and configure Odoo ERP on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how to install and configure the Odoo14 on #Ubuntu 20.04 system. Also you will learn how to install required #PostgreSQL and wkhtmltopdf packages on your system. 

1. Odoo Community Edition is the free basic version of Odoo supported by open source software. 

2. #Odoo #CRM (Customer Relationship Management) system is a powerful browser-based sales software designed to increase organisational efficiency. Odoo, contains all of the applications that your sales, marketing, accounts department and management teams need in the one place.

3. Once all dependencies are set up, Odoo can be launched by running odoo-bin , the command-line interface of the server. It is located at the root of the Odoo Community directory.

4. Once Odoo installed, you can verify the service is up and running and is enabled to automatically start at system #boot. 

5. By default, Odoo listens on port 8069 and you can verify it using the netstat or ss tools. 

This is another way to confirm that Odoo is up and running.

Steps by step process to install VLC media player on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on different installation methods for the VLC. We have also seen how we can uninstall this streaming #software from the system when it is not needed.

VLC Media Player is one of the most well known and arguably best media players available for any platform, including Windows. #VLC can also help you convert video files from one format to another, save YouTube videos for offline playback, and record your own videos using your webcam.

Using #Linux #Terminal to Install VLC in #Ubuntu:

1. Click on Show Applications.

2. Search for and launch Terminal.

3. Type the command: sudo snap install VLC .

4. Provide the sudo password for authentication.

VLC will be downloaded and installed automatically.

Methods to check the status of laptop battery on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on different methods to view detailed information on your battery using both the #command line and UI.

To check your #battery health you'll want to open the app, click on the relevant battery item in the sidebar, and double-check that you're faced with the Details tab.

1. Use upower command to check battery status from command line:

Type the following command:

$ upower -i /org/freedesktop/UPower/devices/battery_BAT0

2. Displaying #Linux Laptop Battery Status Using the apci #terminal command

The acpi command may not be installed by default so use apt-get command or yum command to install the same:

$ sudo yum install acpitool

3. Use /proc/acpi/ directory to get laptop battery info (deprecated method)

You can browse the same data by visiting /proc/acpi/ directory:

$ cd /proc/acpi/

$ ls -l

Steps to Install Webmin on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on the steps to install #Webmin in your Linux system. Webmin comes with a very simple webserver called miniserv.pl that is capable of doing all that is necessary for Webmin to run. However, it is not as fast or memory efficient as a well-developed server such as #Apache.

To modify the default port, 10000 to 10101, open the /etc/webmin/miniserv. conf file and modify line 1 and 16. Now you can access the Webmin through url with new custom port.

To Install Webmin on #Ubuntu:

1. Log in to your Ubuntu #server.

2. Issue the command sudo nano /etc/apt/sources. list.

3. Hit [CTRL][x] and save the file.

4. Add the downloaded key with the command sudo apt-key add jcameron-key. asc.

5. Update apt with the command sudo apt-get update.

6. Install Webmin with the command sudo apt-get install webmin.

How to use SSH to connect to a remote server in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how to #SSH remote Linux servers using #OpenSSH utility. We have also discussed some basic configurations that you may find useful when connecting via SSH. Now you can easily manage remote #Linux servers for administration and troubleshooting.

To Enable #root login over SSH:

1. As root, edit the sshd_config file in /etc/ssh/sshd_config : 

nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config.

2. Add a line in the Authentication section of the file that says PermitRootLogin yes.

3. Save the updated /etc/ssh/sshd_config file.

4. Restart the SSH server: service sshd restart.

How to block or unblock ping requests on Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on steps to block or unblock #ping requests on #Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS. Also you will learn how to unblock the ping requests in case you need to use ping for system administration and troubleshooting.

To block #ping requests in #Linux:

You can implement blocking ICMP messages in your Linux system by adding the below #kernel variable that will drop all ping packets. In order to make the above rule permanent, append following line to /etc/sysctl. conf file and, subsequently, apply the rule with sysctl command.

How to know Ubuntu version via command line ?

This article will guide you on how to check your Ubuntu version so that you can apply patches and update versions for security and performance reasons. The Process of Checking the #Ubuntu version in the #terminal ? i. Open the terminal using "Show Applications" or use the keyboard shortcut [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [T]. ii. Type the #command "lsb_release -a" into the command line and press enter. iii. The terminal shows the Ubuntu version you're running under "Description" and "Release".

Steps to update and upgrade Pi-hole with an OpenVPN Server on Ubuntu / Debian Linux server

This guide will show you how to easily update and upgrade Pi-hole with an OpenVPN on Ubuntu/Debian Linux server.

How to pair Pi-hole with an OpenVPN Server to block ads and enhance privacy on Ubuntu / Debian Linux?

This article will help you to get Pi-hole installed and to configure it Debian or Ubuntu Linux along with an OpenVPN server.

Configure automatic unattended updates in Ubuntu 20.04

Updating your Ubuntu Linux server manually is a complete waste of time and energy. You can set up an automatic process whereby the system will update new patches to improve security.

Best method to change server hostname in Ubuntu

Setting the right hostname for a server is very important in order to resolve properly when linked to a domain name.