×

Install ownCloud on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how you can install ownCloud on your Linux Mint 20 machine and use it for creating and using your own file hosting services that can provide you with the functionality of Dropbox and Google Drive.

Mkdir Command in Linux

This article covers how to use the mkdir command with some examples. In fact, The mkdir command in Linux/Unix allows users to create or make new directories. mkdir stands for "make directory". With mkdir, you can also set permissions, create multiple directories (folders) at once, and much more.

Free Command in Linux

This article covers how to use the free command with some examples. In fact, the free command provides information about unused and used memory and swap space on any computer running Linux or another Unix-like operating system.

For more information about free command type in your terminal:

$ man free

Clear apt-cache on Debian 10

This article covers how to clear the cache created by apt in a completely safe way. It is faster and simpler than manually deleting the cache directory. apt (Advanced Packaging Tool) is the package installation and dependency management tool in Debian and other Debian-based distributions. It works on top of 'Dpkg' which is nothing but the Debian package installer.

The way apt installs packages is: it downloads the package for the required software, and additionally it downloads the packages for all the dependencies for the required software.

Python super() Function

This article covers how to use the super() function in Python. The super() builtin returns a proxy object (temporary object of the superclass) that allows us to access methods of the base class.

Install Grafana on Rocky Linux 8

This article covers how you can add data sources from a myriad of environments and start monitoring your applications with Grafana on your Rocky Linux 8 system. In fact, Grafana is the open source analytics and monitoring solution that enables you to query, visualize and alert on various systems metrics that can be pulled from various time series databases such as Graphite, InfluxDB & Prometheus etc.

Install Grafana on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how you can easily install Grafana on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Grafana is capable of producing extremely fascinating charts and graphs with ability to manage and create your own dashboard for your apps or infrastructure performance monitoring.

Alias Command in Linux - With Examples

This article covers how to create aliases and use the alias command in Linux. In fact, the alias command instructs the shell to replace one string with another when executing commands. Aliases are used to customize the shell session interface. Using alias, frequently-used commands can be invoked using a different, preferred term; and complex or commonly-used options can be used as the defaults for a given command.

Display Asterisks While Typing Sudo Password in Linux (Ubuntu and CentOS Example)

This article covers how to show an asterisk as visual feedback while typing sudo password. Try once on Ubuntu or Centos by doing small changes on the file on /etc/sudoers file. 

To Show Asterisks While Typing Sudo Password in Linux, simply edit the /etc/sudoers file and add pwfeedback. This makes the asterisks visible when the password is entered. After the file is edited and saved, we type reset command for the effect to take place.

Install Terminator on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to Install and Use Terminator, the Terminal Multiplexer. In fact, The terminator is similar to the built-in terminal with added features. You can arrange Terminals in a grid, Tab, Drag and drop re-ordering the terminal, use keyword shortcuts, create and save profiles. It is inspired by programs such as gnome-multi-term, quad console, and so on.

For more information about Terminator, visit its documentation.


How to Install terminator on your Linux system ?

For kali Linux:

$ sudo apt-get install terminator

For Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt install terminator

For Arch Linux:

$ sudo pacman -S terminator

For CentOS:

$ sudo yum install terminator

Set / Unset Environment Variables in Linux

This article covers how to set and unset both local and persistent environment variables in Linux. In fact, every time you start a shell session in Linux, the system goes through configuration files and sets up the environment accordingly. Environment variables play a significant role in this process.

Environment variables are a set of key value pairs stored on your Linux and used by processes in order to be able to perform specific operations. with the export command but also by modifying some system files to make them persistent.


How to Set Environment Variables on Linux using export ?

The easiest way to set environment variables is to use the export command:

$ export VAR="value"


How to Unset Environment Variables on Linux Using unset command ?

To unset an environment variable, use the unset command with the following syntax:

$ unset <variable>


Common Set of Environment Variables on Linux:

  • USER : the current username of the user using the system;
  • EDITOR : the program run to perform file edits on your host;
  • HOME : the home directory of the current user;
  • PATH : a colon separated list of directories where the system looks for commands;
  • PS1 : the primary prompt string (to define the display of the shell prompt);
  • PWD : the current working directory;
  • _ : the most recent command executed on the system (by the user)
  • MAIL : the path to the current user’s mailbox;
  • SHELL : the shell used in order to interpret commands on the system, it can be many different ones (like bash, sh, zsh or others);
  • LANG : the language encoding used on the system;
  • DESKTOP_SESSION : the current desktop used on your host (GNOME, KDE)
  • HISTFILESIZE : number of lines of command history stored in the history file;
  • HISTSIZE : number of lines of history allowed in memory;
  • UID : the current UID for the user.

Install an SSL Certificate in Tomcat for a Java project in Linux

This article covers how to generate CSR files and install CA signed SSL certificates in Tomcat for Java projects.


The need to create a self-signed certificate ?

  • It allows you to learn to create a keystore and certificate, which is good practice for getting an actual SSL/TLS certificate provided by a Certificate Authority.
  • It allows you to use a certificate right away and make sure it works successfully.
  • It's free.

Working with System Locales in Linux

This article covers how to set a system and view the locale on Linux. In fact, Locale settings usually consist of at least a language code, a country/region code, time / date format, numbers format setting, currency format setting, Color setting, and so on.

To view the information regarding the currently installed locale use the following command on the terminal:

$ locale

For more information, see the locale, update-locale and localectl man pages with the below commands respectively:

$ man locale
$ man update-locale
$ man localectl

Generate CSR (Certificate Signing Request) in Linux ?

This article covers the process of creating a CSR file in any Linyx system which is very necessary before applying for an SSL certificate from a Certificate Authority(CA). In fact, Certificate Signing Request(CSR) is a block encrypted text which is given to Certificate Authority when applying for SSL Certificate. Generation of Certificate Signing Request(CSR) for Secure Sockets Layer(SSL) is common in Linux on various distributions. 

CSR is generated on the server, it stores information relating to the organization, domain name, country, a city which is to be included in the certificate.  The CSR Certificate can be used on any website whenever it is necessary to encrypt communications. To generate an SSL certificate, CSR certificate has to be generated. To obtain a self-signed SSL Certificate, it is necessary to create CSR, after generating submit it to a certificate authority to acquire an SSL Certificate. 

Best 4 Open-Source Remote Desktop Tools for Linux

This article covers the best remote desktop tools for accessing Linux systems remotely. These are the best 4 RDP clients or tools that ensure optimal performance and provide seamless access to Linux-based computer systems. The 4 best RDP tools are Zoho Assist, Remmina, TigerVNC, and XRDP.

Enable Snap on Rocky Linux / AlmaLinux

This article covers how you can install and enable snap of your Rocky Linux system. In fact, Snap are packages that are developed to install on Linux systems regardless of what the Linux distribution flavor is. Therefore, it doesn't matter whether you are on Ubuntu, Debian Rocky Linux, Centos, OpenSUSE, etc.


How to install Snap-Store ?

In case you are using the Graphical user interface of Rocky Linux then we can also install Snap store GUI on it to install its packages using the graphical interface rather command line:

$ sudo snap install snap-store
$ reboot

With the completion of the above installation, go to Applications and search for Snap Store. When its icon appears, click to run it.

Install and Use GNOME Shell Extensions in Linux

This article covers how you can use the basic / limited functionalities provided by the built-in extensions or use the additional extensions provided by the GNOME official site to amp up your desktop game. Or you can set your extension manually by their downloaded packages. It all depends on your preferences. In fact, GNOME shell extensions are useful in desktop environment customization, but their usability is dependent on its user.

Batch Process Images Using Converseen in Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system

This article covers all about Batch processing using Converseen. In fact, Converseen is an open source software for batch image conversion. With this tool, you can convert multiple images to another format, resize, change their aspect ratio, rotate or flip them all at once.

Now you can edit and convert all your images with just a few clicks.


How to Install Converseen on Linux ?

1. On Debian and Ubuntu-based distributions, use:

$ sudo apt install converseen

2. On Fedora, use:

$ sudo dnf install converseen

3. On Arch and Manjaro, use:

$ sudo pacman -Sy converseen

Install Yay AUR Helper in ArchLinux

This article covers how Yay AUR helper works and to easily install and manage software applications. In fact, Yay is an Aur helper which is Written in the Golang Go language and was developed with minimal dependencies and minimal user input. It performs just as well as Pacman and has an interactive search/install functionality. Also, It allows you to TAB complete, download PKGBUILDs from AUR or  ABS, and locates matching package providers during a search operation. 

Install Audacity on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how to install Audacity on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Audacity is a very powerful and popular editing application that can be very useful when manipulating audio files. With the help of this useful tool, you will not only be able to record your audios but will also be able to edit them very efficiently.


How to Install Audacity via Snap Store and Launch on Linux ?

1. Perform system update:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install Snapd:

$ sudo apt install snapd

3. Install Audacity:

$ sudo snap install audacity

4. Once Audacity has been installed via Snap, run the Audacity application by searching for the term 'audacity' in the Application menu.

5. Click the Audacity icon to open Audacity.

500 Internal Server Error - Step by step fix ?

This article covers what 500 Internal Server Error and different ways to fix it. In fact, "500 Internal Server Error" simply indicates that an error has occurred during connection to the server and that the requested page cannot be accessed. 


What does 500 internal server error mean?

The HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 500 Internal Server Error response code represents that the server is unable to fulfill a particular request that was made by a user at the frontend of the website.


How do I fix internal server error?

The best and quick ways to fix the internal server errors are:

  • Try reloading your web pages. Do it with F2 or Ctrl+F5
  • Clear cache of your browsers.
  • Delete all browser cookies.

503 Service Unavailable Error - Step by Step fix ?

This article covers what 503 Service Unavailable Error and different ways to fix it. In fact, A 503 Service Unavailable Error happens when a web server is temporarily unable to handle a request that’s been made of it. 

Install and Use FFmpeg on Debian 11

This article covers how to install and use the FFmpeg multimedia framework on Debian 11 bullseye distribution. In fact, FFmpeg is a cross-platform solution for streaming audio and video as well as recording and conversion. With FFmpeg, you can convert between various video and audio formats, set sample rates, capture streaming audio/video, and resize videos.


How to Install FFmpeg on Debian ?

1. Log in to SSH and Update Debian package lists:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install FFmpeg with the apt package manager:

$ sudo apt install ffmpeg

3. Check the installed FFmpeg version:

$ ffmpeg -version

Install Volatility on Linux Mint 20

This article covers to install Volatility on your Linux Mint 20 system via a step by step guide. In fact, Volatility is a powerful tool used for analyzing memory dumps on Linux, Mac, and Windows systems.

Hardlink and Softlink in Linux – How it works with Examples

This article covers how both hard links and soft links also known as symbolic links works in a Linux system. In fact, Soft links, also called symbolic links, are files that points to other files on the filesystem while Hard links to a file are instances of the file under a different name on the filesystem.


What are inodes?

Inodes are essentially identification cards for your file. They contain the file metadata, the file permissions, the file type, the file size but most importantly the physical address of this file on the disk.

Install SlimJet Browser on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to install, run, and remove a fantastic, graphical user interface-based browser for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS terminal. In fact, SlimJet is a privacy-focused browser and comes with a built-in adblocker. This means that it DOES NOT send any usage statistics back to Google’s server like Google Chrome which is ultimate for privacy. 

To Install Slimjet on Debian, Ubuntu & Mint, run the below commands respectively:

[For 64-bit DEB based systems]

$ wget http://www.slimjet.com/release/archive/8.0.4.0/slimjet_amd64.deb
$ sudo dpkg -i slimjet_amd64.deb

[For 32-bit DEB based systems]

$ wget http://www.slimjet.com/release/archive/8.0.4.0/slimjet_i386.deb
$ sudo dpkg -i slimjet_i386.deb

Install Lynx Browser on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to install, run, and remove the oldest terminal-based browser Lynx for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS terminal. In fact, Lynx is a terminal-based web browser for all Linux distributions which shows the result as plain text on the terminal. 

Install Links Browser on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to install, run, and remove the Links browser for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS terminal. In fact, Links provides a pull-down menu system, renders complex pages, has partial HTML 4.0 support (including tables, frames and support for multiple character sets and UTF-8), supports color and monochrome terminals and allows horizontal scrolling.


How To Install links on Ubuntu ?

1. Update system:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Install links:

Ater updating the OS run following command to install the package:

$ sudo apt-get install links

Install Elinks on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to install, run, and remove Elinks browser on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Elinks runs in the terminal. Not only it saves bandwidth but also consumes a few system resources. On a server where resources are always constrained, elinks can be the best choice to access the web.


Step by step installation of elinks:

1: Update system:

$ sudo apt-get update

2: Install: elinks

Ater updating the OS run following command to install the package:

$ sudo apt-get install elinks


How to Completely remove elinks with all configuration files from Ubuntu?

Following command should be used with care as it deletes all the configuration files and data:

$ sudo apt-get purge elinks

or you can use following command also:

$ sudo apt-get purge --auto-remove elinks

Above command will remove all the configuration files and data associated with elinks package. You can can't recover the delete data, so, use this command with care.

Install Browsh on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to download, install and remove Browsh on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Browsh is a free and open source text based command line web browser for Linux,BSD and Windows which supports HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, and video, photos and WebGL content.

Install MiddleMan on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers the installation of ruby, middleman, and related gems on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux system. In fact, Middleman is a Ruby-powered static site generator which follows an easy-first approach to building static sites. It has powerful features for maintaining static blogs, like easy tag generation, quick commands for listing categorized articles and pagination.

You can install Middleman with Ruby using this command:

$ gem install middleman

Linux vmstat Command

This article covers how to use the vmstat command in Linux. In fact, vmstat command in Linux/Unix is a performance monitoring command of the system as it gives the information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, disk, and CPU scheduling. All these functionalities makes the command vmstat also known as virtual memory statistic reporter.

Linux su Command - With Examples

This article covers how to use the su command in Linux and the difference between su and sudo. In fact, the su command changes the current user ID to that of the superuser, or another specified user.

su command syntax is:

su [options] [username]

If no username is specified, su defaults to becoming the superuser (root).


options to use with the su command:

  • Username – Replace username with the actual username you want to log in with. This can be any user, not just root.
  • –c or –command [command] – Runs a specific command as the specified user.
  • – or –l or –login [username] – Runs a login script to change to a specific username.  You’ll need to enter a password for that user.
  • –s or –shell [shell] – Allows you to specify a different shell environment to run in.
  • –h or –help – Show the help file for the su command.
  • –p or ––preserve–environment – Preserve the shell environment (HOME, SHELL, USER, LOGNAME).


How to enable the Root User in Ubuntu ?

To enable the root user account on Ubuntu, use the following command to set a password for it. Bear in mind that Ubuntu recommends against this:

$ sudo passwd root

Sudo will prompt you for your current user account's password before you can set a new password. Use your new password to log in as root from a terminal login prompt or with the su command. You should never run a full graphical environment as the root user – this is a very poor security practice, and many programs will refuse to work.

Install NetHogs on Linux Mint 20 - Follow these steps ?

This article covers how to install the NetHogs network bandwidth monitoring utility very easily on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, you will be able to get the network bandwidth usage in real-time very efficiently without any sort of hassle.

Extract Files to a Specified Folder in Linux

This article covers the process of extracting compressed files to a specific directory in Linux. 

To Unzip files in particular directory or folder under Linux, run the command:

$ unzip {.zip-file-name}-d {/path/to/extract}

iftop Command in Ubuntu Linux system - With Examples ?

This article covers how to use IFTOP utility in Linux. In fact, iftop is a network analyzing tool used by system administrators to view the bandwidth related stats. It basically acts as a diagnostics to diagnose which program is causing the problem to the network.


How to Install  iftop command on Linux system ?

1. For RedHat based Linux:

$ yum install epel-release
$ yum install  iftop

2. For Debian or Ubuntu Linux:

$ sudo apt install iftop

Install HexChat on Debian - The easiest method ?

This article covers how to install and remove HexChat 10 buster edition. In fact, HexChat is a nice chatting utility to connect with IRC servers.

Installing hexchat package on Ubuntu is as easy as running the following commands on terminal:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install hexchat


How to Install HexChat in Linux ?

Run the below command as per your Linux distribution:

$ sudo apt install hexchat [On Debian/Ubuntu & Mint]
$ sudo yum install hexchat [On CentOS/RHEL 7]
$ sudo dnf install hexchat [On CentOS/RHEL 8 & Fedora]
$ sudo yay -S hexchat [On Arch Linux]
$ sudo zypper install hexchat  [On OpenSUSE Linux]
$ sudo pkg install hexchat [On FreeBSD]

Reading a File with Spaces in Linux - How it Works ?

This article covers how you can read files and also handle directories with filenames that contain spaces in Linux. To to use files with spaces you can either use the escape character or use the double quotes. is called escape character, used to not expansion of space, so now bash read the space as part of file name.


How to Navigate to a directory with spaces in the directory name ?

To navigate to a directory with spaces in its directory name, use the syntax below:

$ cd  directory\ name

To navigate to the directory 'linoxapt files' execute the command below:

$ cd linoxapt\ files

HTTrack Advanced Configurations on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers  every aspect of HTTrack settings. In fact, WebHTTrack backs up complete websites for offline access and modifies the links automatically. Despite ubiquitous Internet access, users often have good reason to create offline copies of websites – be it for archiving or to provide the content on your intranet. However, manual mirroring can be time-consuming and cumbersome. Tools like WebHTTrack can help, and they allow convenient updating of the content. Now you are ready to mirror any website using HTTrack on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux distribution. 

Install Alpine email client on Debian 10 - Follow these steps ?

This article covers how to install, run, and remove Alpine on Debian 10, which is an amazing email client full of features to run in the terminal forever. In fact, Alpine is a CLI email client for BSD and GNU/Linux. 


How to install Alpine on Linux ?

For EL7:

$ sudo yum -y install alpine

For Fedora:

$ sudo dnf -y install apline

For Debian & Ubuntu & derivatives:

$ sudo apt -y install alpine

Install Python 3.9 on Debian 11 - Best steps to follow ?

This article covers on how to install Python 3.9.7 on Debian 11. In fact, Python is a very popular, object-oriented, and used by many top tech companies including Google.

Install w3m Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Easy steps to follow ?

This article covers how to install, run, and remove a fantastic, multi-color, and terminal-based browser w3m for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS terminal. In fact, If you're looking for text-based web browser To use it from the terminal and Lynx does not convince you, W3M can be a good alternative. This is a modern text-based terminal web browser for Gnu / Linux it has a lot to offer. 

Install Pelican on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Pelican using pip on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Pelican is a Python-based static site generator which is a great choice for Python users who want to self-host a simple website or blog.

To Install pelican package on Ubuntu, simply execute the following command on terminal:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install pelican


How to install pelican-foli on Ubuntu via Snaps ? 

1. Enable snapd

snapd can be installed from the command line:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd

2. Install pelican-foli, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install pelican-foli

Install phpMyAdmin on AlmaLinux / CentOS 8 - Follow the steps outlined here ?

This article covers the installation and configuration procedure of phpMyAdmin on CentOS 8 / AlmaLinux 8. It is one of the most popular database administration tools used by hosting companies and system administrators for performing database activities such as creating, deleting, querying tables, columns, relations, indexes, users, permissions, etc. Now, you can create and manage all the databases conveniently without the need of running SQL queries.

Install Yarn on Rocky Linux 8 / AlmaLinux 8 - Best method ?

This article covers the process of installing Yarn on Rocky Linux system. In fact, Yarn is a tool for managing, updating, and sharing your Java code. Yarn works through node.js helping to track libraries, dependencies, and even enables you to share solutions with other developers.

Linux Server Hardening – Best practices to apply ?

This article covers some best practices to harden Linux systems. In fact, Securing your Linux server(s) is a difficult and time consuming task for System Administrators but its necessary to harden the server’s security to keep it safe from Attackers and Black Hat Hackers. You can secure your server by configuring the system properly and installing as minimum software as possible.

Rsync and BTRFS in Linux - Their differences ?

This article covers how Rsync and BTRFS differ from each other. In fact, the really main difference is that RSYNC can create snapshots on an external disks. Not the same BTRFS. So, if your need is to prevent an unrecoverable crash of your hard disk, you must use RSYNC. After that using a live boot media (pendrive or DVD) you can install on the live boot media Timeshift and the restore your system from the external disk.

Top 5 Visual Studio Code Extensions for Linux Users

This article covers a variety of extensions for Linux users. The features that Visual Studio Code includes out-of-the-box are just the start. VS Code extensions let you add languages, debuggers, and tools to your installation to support your development workflow. VS Code's rich extensibility model lets extension authors plug directly into the VS Code UI and contribute functionality through the same APIs used by VS Code.

Install PostgreSQL 13 on Debian 11 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers a step-by-step procedure of installing PostgreSQL 13 on Debian 11 Bulls-Eye. In fact, PostgreSQL is an open source, powerful, resilient and fault tolerant relational database management system powering many mission critical applications. 


Features of PostgreSQL 13 includes:

  • Improvements from de-duplication of B-tree index entries – Space savings and performance gains from.
  • Queries that use aggregates or partitioned tables gets improved performance.
  • Incremental sorting.
  • Better query planning when using extended statistics.
  • Parallelized vacuuming of indexes.

Linux chage Command - An overview with examples ?

This article covers how to use the chage command in Linux. In fact, With the help of chage command we can view the aging information of an account, date when the password was previously changed, set the password changing time, lock an account after certain amount of time etc

To get the  details of the password aging information use the "chage" utility with this add the option -l to display all the details

chage command Syntax is given below:

# chage  -l  <username>

Linux pwd Command - An overview with examples

This article covers how to use the pwd command in Linux. In fact, pwd Linux command is mainly used for printing the name of the current working directory. Examples of printing the current working directory, avoiding symlinks and how to get the current working directory in shell scripts.

Install Stacer System Optimizer & Monitoring Tool on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the different ways and steps to perform the installation of Stacer on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Stacer lets you perform several Linux optimization and monitoring tasks through a single utility. Now you can manage and monitor your system easily and efficiently using a graphical tool.

To install the latest version of Stacer in Debian and Ubuntu-based Linux distributions, use the following PPA y running the commands:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:oguzhaninan/stacer
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install stacer

Allow Remote Connections to MySQL - Best Method ?

This article covers how to allow remote connections to a MySQL server. Hosting databases and web servers on a separate database server can improve security, hardware performance, and enable you to scale resources quickly.

One of the most frequently observed database bottlenecks encountered by large projects is high MySQL traffic. Sure, we could talk about moving to a bigger cloud instance size, faster cores, and better storage, but that’s too obvious and costly. Instead, we would like to focus on several tips that can reduce traffic with a bit of configuration.


Methods to reduce Internet traffic when connecting to the remote host:

  • Disable and/or optimize the high-load features of your application.
  • Use ProxySQL to enable connection pooling. This will prevent your application from overloading MySQL with a multitude of concurrent connections. Another nice feature of ProxySQL helps cache query results for a certain period of time.
  • Monitor your databases for performance bottlenecks.
  • Identify and optimize queries that cause high load. If you use dbForge Studio for MySQL, you get a specialized tool—Query Profiler—which helps you deal with this task easily.
  • Add missing indexes and eliminate redundant and unused ones.
  • Conduct a thorough check of your background operations. Some of them can be postponed, some may work just as effectively with limited resources (e.g. limited concurrencies for batch jobs), and some may be perfectly running on replicas.

Configure Nginx Server Block and Secure Nginx with Let's Encrypt SSL on Rocky Linux 8 / CentOS 8

This article covers how you can configure an Nginx server block and secure your web server using Let's Encrypt SSL. In fact, Let’s Encrypt SSL certificate is a digital certificate provided by Let’s Encrypt CA ( Certificate Authority) to secure a web server.


How to Install Certbot on your RHEL-based distros / Linux system ?

1. First, install the EPEL repository which provides additional and high-quality packages for RHEL-based distros:

$ sudo dnf install -y epel-release

2. Once installed, install certbot and certbot module for Nginx:

$ sudo dnf install certbot python3-certbot-nginx

This installs certbot, certbot module for Nginx host of other packages and dependencies.

Check your HDD / SSD Health in Ubuntu 20.04 - The best way ?

This article covers the different ways to check the health of your Hard Disk Drives and Solid-State Drives. In fact, SMART (Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology) is a feature enabled in all modern hard disk drives and SSDs to monitor/test reliability. It checks different drive attributes to detect the possibility of drive failure. 


What is the need to check Linux system SSD and HDD drives ?

If you are a system administrator and responsible for managing Linux systems in Datacenter. Then, it is recommended to check the health of the SSD and HDD drives regularly. It will help you to identify failed drives and they can be replaced before any data loss occurs. S.M.A.R.T is a tool used to monitor the health status of SSD and HDD. It also allows you to perform on-demand tests on the drive.


How to Test SSD Health using Smartctl ?

Smartctl is a command-line utility tool that can be used to check S.M.A.R.T-enabled HDD or SSD status in the Linux system.

Smartctl utility tool comes with the package smartmontools. Smartmontools is available by default in all Linux distributions including Ubuntu, RHEL and Centos and Fedora.

To install smartmontools in Linux, run the below command:

$ sudo apt install smartmontools 

To Start Smartmontools service, execute the below command:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/smartmontools start

Smartd service will start automatically after the successful installation.

If not started, start smartd service:

$ sudo systemctl start smartd

Top 5 Free and Open-Source HR Software

This article covers the best open source HR management software tools for you. They are effective and useful for small and medium businesses to efficiently manage their human resources.

Businesses are struggling to recruit good and qualified personnel, and to retain them in their service over a substantial period, the above HR management software tools can help to ease the burden of HR managers in businesses.

The listed HR software are OrangeHRM, Sentrifugo, IceHRM, Orange HRM and WaypointHR. Software such as WaypointHR and IceHRM will have to be downloaded from third-party software providers, such as SourceForge.

Set Up Passwordless SSH Login Using ssh-keygen - How to do it ?

This article covers how to enable ssh passwordless login using ssh-keygen and ssh-copy-id. In fact, SSH (Secure SHELL) can be used to transfer files from one computer to another computer over the network using a secure copy (SCP) Protocol.

ssh-keygen creates the public and private keys. ssh-copy-id copies the local-host's public key to the remote-host's authorized_keys file. ssh-copy-id also assigns proper permission to the remote-host's home, ~/.ssh, and ~/.ssh/authorized_keys.

Encrypt Apache Webserver with Let's Encrypt SSL Certificate on Rocky Linux 8 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to secure your Apache webserver with Let's Encrypt SSL certificate. In fact, Let's Encrypt SSL certificates are yet another option for securing your web site with an SSL. Once installed, the system provides automatic renewal of certificates and will encrypt traffic to your web site.

Install Bitwarden on Linux Mint 20 - Follow these steps ?

This article covers the best method to install the Bitwarden password manager on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Bitwarden stores all of your logins in an encrypted vault that syncs across all of your devices. Since it’s fully encrypted before it ever leaves your device, only you have access to your data. Not even the team at Bitwarden can read your data, even if we wanted to.

Best Open Sources Shells in Linux

This article covers the most popular shells among Linux users. In fact, Shell is an environment in which we can run our commands, programs, and shell scripts. There are different flavors of a shell, just as there are different flavors of operating systems. Each flavor of shell has its own set of recognized commands and functions. As Linux is flexible we can switch between shells easily without any additional configuration.


What is a Shell Prompt in Linux ?

The prompt, $, which is called the command prompt, is issued by the shell. While the prompt is displayed, you can type a command.

Shell reads your input after you press Enter. It determines the command you want executed by looking at the first word of your input. A word is an unbroken set of characters. Spaces and tabs separate words.

Following is a simple example of the date command, which displays the current date and time:

$date
Thu Jun 25 08:30:19 MST 2021


Functions of Linux kernel:

  • Controls all computer operations.
  • Coordinates all executing utilities.
  • Ensures that executing utilities do not interfere with each other or consume all system resources.
  • Schedules and manages all system processes.

Install and Configure Fail2ban on Ubuntu 20.04 - Do it this way ?

This article covers how to install Fail2ban and protect SSH from illegitimate attempts. For webmasters or anyone managing Linux server that is accessible over the Internet, the risks of the server being compromised is high, so implementing best security practices to help mitigate these attacks should be a priority. In fact, Fail2ban is a tool that help protect Linux servers from brute force and other automated attacks by monitoring the services logs for malicious activity. It uses regular expressions to scan the server's logs for malicious attempts and bans offending IPs for a specific length of time using the system's firewall.


How to Install Fail2ban on any Linux system ?

Fail2ban packages are automatically included in Ubuntu repositories. To install it, simply run the commands below:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install fail2ban

Once the installation is complete, the service should automatically start up and ready to be configured.

To check if the service is up and operational, run the commands below:

$ sudo systemctl status fail2ban

Install Steam on CentOS 8 - Follow this guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of the Steam application on CentOS using the Flatpak package management tool.

Upgrade Debian 10 Buster to Debian 11 Bullseye - Step by Step guide ?

This article covers a step by step guide on how to perform upgrade from Debian 10 Buster to Debian 11 Bullseye. Before this upgrade, it is crucial that you make a backup of your data and system configurations. For cloud-based VMs one can quickly backup and restore using snapshots.


The most important things you have to backup are contents of /etc, /var/lib/dpkg, /var/lib/apt/extended_states and the output of dpkg –get-selections "*".


Debian 11 comes with the following features:

  • Newer version of desktop environments such as Gnome 3.38, KDE Plasma 5.20, MATE 1.24, Xfce 4.16, LXDE 11, LXQt 0.16 e.t.c
  • Linux Kernel 5.10LTS
  • ExFAT support
  • Package updates
  • Printer and Scanner improvement
  • Supports many architectures such as 32-bit and 64-bit PC, 64-bit ARM, ARMv7, ARM EABI, little-endian MIPS, 64-bit little-endian PowerPC, 64-bit little-endian MIPS, IBM System z e.t.c thus referred to as a universal operating system


Best tools to backup Linux system data and configurations:

  • Rsync– a commandline utility tool used to backup personal and $ Home directory data
  • Deja Dup– a GUI utility used to backup personal data.
  • Timeshift– a tool used to backup system files and configurations.
  • Restic– a commandline utility toolthat saves multiple revisions of files in an encrypted repository stored on different backends.
  • Rsnapshot– this is a commandline utility tools that creates periodic snapshots for local and remote machines over ssh.
  • Other tools include: Barman, BackupPC, Bup, Lsyncd, Bareos, Bacula, Duplicati, Borg e.t.c

List Tables in a MySQL Database - Best Methods ?

This article covers how to get information of the tables in the MySQL database. The following illustrates the syntax of the MySQL SHOW TABLES command:

SHOW TABLES;

Install Shotcut on Linux Mint 20 - The complete guide ?

This article covers the installation of Shotcut on a Linux Mint 20 system with the help of the Flatpak package manager. In fact, Shotcut is a Free, Open Source, Cross-Platform Video Editor.

Install Sonar on Linux Mint 20 - The complete guide ?

This article covers the complete Installation procedure of Sonar on Linux Mint system. In fact, Sonar is a Docker utility to manager image and tag information from Docker Hub. Basically, It can display information on Docker images, tags, and layers including the packages installed in those images.

Install Bitwarden on Ubuntu 20.04 - A complete guide ?

This article covers how to install and setup free version of Bitwarden for individual use. Now start saving your passwords and other confidential information in your Bitwarden vault. Using Bitwarden you can easily and safely generate, store, and secure unique passwords from any location or device. It is compliant with Privacy Shield, HIPAA, GDPR, CCPA, SOC2 and SOC3 security standards and comes with AES-256 bit encryption, salted hashing, and PBKDF2 SHA-256.


How to Install Bitwarden via Snap ?

1. Open the terminal app (ctrl+alt+t) and run below Bitwarden password manager snap installation command:

$ sudo snap install bitwarden

2. After the installation you can open Bitwarden from the application menu or via this command.

$ bitwarden

3. It also comes with a command-line support. You can install the Bitwarden command-line cli app via the below command.

$ sudo snap install bw

Install Pandoc on Linux Mint 20 - Complete Procedure ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Pandoc on a Linux Mint 20 machine. This tool can be utilized to design a wide range of different documents. 

To check Pandoc Version, simply run the below command:

$ pandoc -v


To Update System and Install Pandoc, simply run the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install pandoc

Install OwnCloud Rocky Linux 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to successfully install OwnCloud on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, OwnCloud is an open source project that can be installed on your server to securely store and access files. Also allows you to share and collaborate contents that lets teams work on data easily from anywhere, on any device. With the support of a lot of plugins, Nextcloud becomes such a Collaboration software. You can install plugins for project management, video conferencing, collaborative editing, note-taking, email client, etc.


To Open port  80 in firewall, use the following command:

$ firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=80/tcp --permanent
$ firewall-cmd --reload


How to Install Apache or httpd web server on the Rocky Linux server ?

1. Simply Execute the dnf command below to install the httpd web server:

$ sudo dnf install httpd

Type "y" and press "Enter" to confirm and install httpd packages.

2. Now, enable and start the httpd service using the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable httpd
$ sudo systemctl start httpd

The "systemctl enable" command will enable the service to start at every boot.

3. Finally, run the command below to verify the httpd service:

$ sudo systemctl status httpd

Install GParted on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers methods to install GParted on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, GParted is an open-source GUI-based disk partition editor originally developed for Linux GNOME Desktop. It allows you to create, resize, copy and paste, move, and repair disk partitions using easy-to-use GUI. Also it supports many filesystems including btrfs, ext2/ext3/ext4, fat16/fat32, lvm2, ntfs and xfs, and a variety of storage devices such as SATA/IDE/SCSI, Flash memory, SSD and RAID.


How to Install Gparted on Debian, Ubuntu or Linux Mint ?

Gparted is part of the base repositories on Debian-based Linux, so apt-get will do the job:

$ sudo apt-get install gparted


GParted enables you to easily manage your disk partitions:

  • Create partition tables, (e.g., msdos or gpt).
  • Create, move, copy, resize, check, label, set new UUID, and delete partitions.
  • Enable and disable partition flags, (e.g., boot or hidden).
  • Align partitions to mebibyte (MiB) or traditional cylinder boundaries.
  • Attempt data rescue from lost partitions.

Install Juju on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process ?

This article covers the Installation procedure of Juju client on the Linux system Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Juju is a service-modeling tool for Ubuntu. Connect it to any cloud service, model your application, and press deploy—done. Juju takes care of lower-level configuration, deployments, and scaling, and even monitors your services.


Juju Components includes:

  • Charmed Operator Lifecycle Manager – This is an Orchestration and management system.
  • Charmed Operator Software Development Kit – This is a set of tools for creating and packaging operators.
  • Juju as a Service(jaas) – Managed juju service by canonical for enterprise customers.
  • Charmhub – This is a repository hosting re-usable charms

Python List reverse() - An overview ?

This article covers a detailed instructions on how to use the reverse() method and a few ways to reverse a list in Python. In fact, Python List reverse() function allows the programmer to reverse the sorting order of the elements stored in the lists.

What is Localhost ?

This article covers what localhost is as well as 127.0.0.1/loopback. In fact, Developers use the localhost to test web applications and programs. Network administrators use the loopback to test network connections. Another use for the localhost is the hosts file, where you can use the loopback to block malicious websites. 


Install "exa" on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install "exa" on your system and use it as a replacement for the "ls" command in Linux Mint 20. In fact, exa is a modern replacement for the venerable file-listing command-line program ls that ships with Unix and Linux operating systems, giving it more features and better defaults. It uses colours to distinguish file types and metadata. It knows about symlinks, extended attributes, and Git. And it’s small, fast, and just one single binary. Using this modern tool will simply allow you to visualize your files and directories in Linux in a much better way.

Install bpytop on Linux Mint 20 - Complete guide ?

This article covers how to install bpytop tool on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, BpyTop is a Linux command-line utility for resource monitoring. It shows usage and stats for processors, memory, disks, network, and processes. With this tool installed on your system, you can use it very efficiently for resource usage monitoring.

To check the version of Python running on your Linux distribution, type:

$ python3 --version

After installing Bpytop, you can start monitoring your Linux system resources by running the command below:

$ bpytop

Install GlassFish on CentOS 8 - A step by Step guide ?

This article covers how to install the GlassFish application server on CentOS 8. In fact, GlassFish allows developers to create enterprise applications that are portable and scalable, and that integrate with legacy technologies. Also, you will see the best way to define systemd services for running Glassfish server and firewall configurations. 

To Start and enable glassfish services, simply run the below command:

$ systemctl start glassfish.service
$ systemctl enable glassfish.service
To access Glassfish Server on CentOS / RHEL 8, simply browse the below URL to access Glassfish Admin Console, ignore the certificate warning or install it:
https://SERVER-IP-OR-DOMAIN-NAME:4848/

LDD Command in Linux - How it works ?

This article covers how to use ldd command and how to use in linux command line. In fact, the ldd is a command line tool that prints the shared library dependencies of an executable program or shared library. The ldd command can be useful when wanted to find missing dependencies.

List Loaded Kernel Module Using Lsmod Command - How it works ?

This article covers how to list loaded kernel modules using lsmod command. In fact, lsmod command nicely prints the contents of the /proc/modules. To list the currently loaded kernel modules, execute the below command:

$ lsmod

Python's map() Function - An Overview ?

This article covers how to use the map() function in Python. In fact, map() function returns a map object(which is an iterator) of the results after applying the given function to each item of a given iterable (list, tuple etc.). Sometimes you might face situations in which you need to perform the same operation on all the items of an input iterable to build a new iterable. The quickest and most common approach to this problem is to use a Python for loop. However, you can also tackle this problem without an explicit loop by using map().

Install Juju on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step procedure ?

This article covers how you can install Juju on any Linux distribution. In fact, the Juju client is a single binary executable that is published and supported on multiple operating systems and CPU architectures. 

To Install Juju on Linux from snap, run the below command:

$ sudo snap install juju --classic


To Install Juju on macOS, run the below command:

$ brew install juju

Install the Antstream Arcade on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers a step by step guide on how to install the Antstream Arcade on a Linux Mint 20 machine. Antstream Arcade is a game streaming service that lets you play arcade, Amiga, Commodore 64, and Spectrum ZX games over the internet, and might hold real appeal to Gen X gamers.


To install Antstream Arcade on Linux Mint, do the following;

1. Enable snapd

On Linux Mint 20, /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref needs to be removed before Snap can be installed. This can be accomplished from the command line:

$ sudo rm /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref
$ sudo apt update

2. snapd can be installed from the command line:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd

3. To install Antstream Arcade, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install antstream-arcade

Install Ruby on CentOS 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers steps to Install Ruby and run ruby applications on your centos 8 machine. In fact, Ruby is a dynamic, object-oriented programming language focused on simplicity and productivity. RVM (Ruby Version Manager) is a tool for installing and managing multiple Ruby versions on single operating systems. 


To Verify Active Ruby Version installed on your Linux system, run the below command:

$ ruby --version

Install Gparted on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Gparted partition editor on Ubuntu 20.04 system. GParted is a free partition editor that permits you to manage your partitions graphically. GParted allows you to copy, resize and move partitions without losing data. 


Main features of  GParted includes:

  • Shrink or increase your C: drive
  • Make room for new operating systems to be installed.
  • Perform actions on partitions such as creating, deleting, resizing, and moving, checking, copying, pasting, and labeling.
  • Tries to recover data from deleted partitions.
  • You can also manipulate file systems such as: btrfsm, xfs, exfat, nilfs2, reiserfs / reiser4, lvm2 pv, hfs / hfs+, fat16 / fat32, ext2 / ext3 / ext4, ufs, udf, ntfs, linux-swap.


How To install GParted on Ubuntu ?

1. Open the terminal by pressing 'CTRL+ALT+T' or search it manually in the activities and update the packages list:

$ sudo apt update

2. Execute the following command to install GParted on your system:

$ sudo apt install gparted

Deploy Mattermost on Ubuntu 20.04 - A Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to deploy Mattermost on Ubuntu 20.04. Mattermost is an open source collaboration and messaging platform created with security and configurability in mind providing comparable functionality to Discord or Slack. It offers group, threaded and one-to-one messaging, unlimited search history and file sharing capabilities, two-factor authorization and notifications. Mattermost also provides webhooks and bot integration for further customization. It's accessible from every type of modern device due to its responsive web interface and dedicated mobile apps.

Now, you can easily connect with your team on Mattermost using a Desktop client. Even you can add multiple Mattermost servers to single desktop client and collaborate with different team users.

Install Apache Maven on Rocky Linux / CentOS 8 - Follow the steps here ?

This article covers how to install Apache Maven on Rocky Linux. You can now visit the Apache Maven Documentation page to learn how you can get started with managing Java projects with Apache Maven. In fact, Apache Maven Maven is a build automation tool used primarily for Java-based projects, but can also be used to build and manage projects written in C#, Ruby, Scala, and other languages.

Perform Post Deployment Verification in Linux System - How to do it ?

This article covers how to avoid bad circumstances while directly working with Linux servers where a single careless change can take the system down. If you follow the above checklists and fully examine your tests then you will be able to conduct better post-deployment verifications.

Install Timeshift on Debian 10 - Step by Step Procedure ?

This article covers how to install Timeshift on Debian 10 from its stable repositories. Timeshift brings the System Restore feature in Windows or the Time Machine tool in macOS to Linux.


How to Restore Ubuntu, Debian & Linux Mint from Snapshot using Timeshift ?

  • To revert your system to Snapshot state, select the Snapshot you want to restore to and click the "Restore" tab on the top menu.
  • This will ask you to "Select target device" and options for /boot and /home.
  • Timeshift will Perform Dry run before doing the actual restore.
  • Confirm Actions to initiate Snapshot restore process.
  • Timeshift will start to sync Snapshot files to the root filesystem.
  • The system should reboot after the process is completed.

Configure Timeshift on Linux Mint - How to get it done ?

This article covers how to perform backing up and restoring a Linux Mint system using the timeshift tool to ensure that your Linux system data is fully secure with daily, weekly, and monthly backups schedule. In fact, Timeshift is a backup and system restoration utility for Linux operating systems similar to the System Restore feature in Windows operating system. This tool protects the system by taking incremental snapshots of a filesystem at regular intervals.

Install Jupyter Notebook on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by Step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Jupyter Notebook web application on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Jupyter Notebook is easy to install and can be used to streamline numerical simulation, data transformation & cleaning, machine learning, and statistical modeling.

To install Pip, Python, and Python development, simply run the below command:

$ sudo apt-get -y install python3python-pip python-dev

The command above will install the most recent version of Python and Python Pip; a reliable Python package manager that makes it easy to manage the Python packages. In addition, Python Development will be installed.

Install ImageMagick on CentOS 8 - Step by Step process ?

This article covers how to install ImageMagick on the CentOS machine via different methods. Infact, ImageMagick provides a graphical interface for working with images, it also provides commands to resize an image, blur, crop, draw on, flip, join, re-sample, and much more.

Bash Shebang in Linux - An Overview ?

This article covers how to use bash shebang in Linux. In fact, the first line in the scripts starts with the #! characters and the path to the Bash interpreter is called shebang and is used to tell the operating system which interpreter to use to parse the rest of the file.

The #! syntax used in scripts to indicate an interpreter for execution under UNIX / Linux operating systems. Most Linux shell and perl / python script starts with the following line:

#!/bin/bash

OR

#!/usr/bin/perl

OR

#!/usr/bin/python

OR

#!/usr/bin/python3

OR

#!/usr/bin/env bash

sh is the standard command interpreter for the system. The current version of sh is in the process of being changed to conform with the POSIX 1003.2 and 1003.2a specifications for the shell.

Reverse a String in Python - How to do it ?

This article covers the procedure on how to reverse a string in Python. Strings can be reversed using slicing. To reverse a string, we simply create a slice that starts with the length of the string, and ends at index 0.

To reverse a string using slicing, write:

$ stringname[stringlength::-1] # method 1 

Or write without specifying the length of the string:

$ stringname[::-1] # method2

The slice statement means start at string length, end at position 0, move with the step -1 (or one step backward).

Configure HTTP/2 in Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best way to do it ?

This article covers how to enable HTTP/2 on the Nginx webserver on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, the primary focus of HTTP/2 is to reduce overall web page loading time, thus improving performance. It also focuses on network and server resource usage as well as security because, with HTTP/2, SSL/TLS encryption is mandatory.

If the Nginx server is sitting behind a web application firewall, ensure that the web application firewall (WAF) is capable of parsing HTTP/2 traffic.

HTTP/2 protocol main advantage over its predecessor HTTP 1.1 is that it has a higher transfer speed required for content-rich websites.

Ghostscript for Changing the Resolution of a PDF - How to use this tool in Linux Mint System ?

This article covers the step by step guide to install Ghostscript on your Linux system and use it for changing the resolutions of your desired PDFs. You can use Ghostscript command line tool for compressing a PDF file. Most Linux distributions include the open source version of Ghostscript already. However, you can still try to install it just to make sure.

On Debian/Ubuntu based distributions, use the following command to install Ghostscript:

$ sudo apt install ghostscript

Hidden Files and Directories in Ubuntu Linux System - How to create and view them ?

This article covers how to create and view hidden files and directories in Linux via command line and GUI. We also covered how to unhide the files and directories in Linux through a keyboard shortcut, command line, and File Manager. In fact, Linux, by default, hides many of the sensitive system files. Hidden files are usually system or application files, concealed to prevent accidental changes.

Automatic Kernel Updates on Linux - How to Configure it ?

This article covers the procedure on how to set up automatic kernel updates on Linux. In fact, Applying security updates to the Linux kernel is a simple process that can be done with tools like apt, yum, or kexec. 

For organizations with more than a few servers, live patching is the best option. It is an automatic way to fix the Linux kernel while the server is running, making it more efficient and safer than manual methods.

Redirect Stderr to Stdout in Bash - How to get it done ?

This article covers how to redirect stderr to stdout in Bash. When redirecting the output of a command to a file or piping it to another command, you might notice that the error messages are printed on the screen. In Bash and other Linux shells, when a program is executed, it uses three standard I/O streams. Here, A file descriptor is just a number representing an open file. The input stream provides information to the program, generally by typing in the keyboard. The program output goes to the standard input stream and the error messages goes to the standard error stream. By default, both input and error streams are printed on the screen.

More about Loaded Kernel Modules and How to List their Information on a Linux Mint 20 System

This article covers how loaded kernel modules works in Linux. The kernel of a Linux system is the core that everything else in the operating system relies on. The functionality of the kernel can be extended by adding modules to it. As such, a user can fine tune their kernel settings by enabling or disabling modules. Now, you can list the information of these loaded kernel modules on your system's terminal.

How to Check Hardware Information on Ubuntu Graphically Using hardinfo

This article covers how to check the hardware information on your Linux system graphically using the hardinfo tool. In fact, a linux system is consists of different types of hardware such as processor, RAM, hard disk, network cards, etc. Linux provides various tools to check the details of these hardware parts. 

You can launch hardinfo tool from the terminal by using the below command:

$ hardinfo

Install Tilix Terminal Emulator in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers tilix features and different ways to install tilix on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, we mentioned a few usages of the tilix which are very much highlighting and should have been present in a standard terminal emulator.


How to Install Tilix Terminal Emulator on Linux ?

Open terminal and execute the below commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt-get install tilix

11 Strace Command with Examples in Linux

This article covers strace utility tool and when It can be used. In fact, you will see how to use strace commands to troubleshoot and debug system calls and processes.

Also, Strace monitors the system calls and signals of a specific program. It is helpful when you do not have the source code and would like to debug the execution of a program. strace provides you the execution sequence of a binary from start to end.

Install Hugo on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to install Hugo on your Linux Mint system. In fact, Hugo is an open-source static website generator designed for small projects and informative sites.


How to Install Hugo Using The Apt-get Utility ?

1. The first thing when installing Hugo using the apt-get is updating your server’s apt index:

$ sudo apt-getupdate

2. Once the package index is updated, run the command below to install Hugo:

$ sudo apt-get install hugo

3. Hugo will be installed automatically on your server. To check the Hugo version installed, run the command below:

$ sudo hugo version

Restore a Deleted File on Linux - How to do this with TestDisk on Linux Mint system?

This article covers how to recover the file in a few minutes using TestDisk on Linux systems. Deleting files is unavoidable as everyone likes to work in a decluttered and organized system. Whenever we delete something from our system, it does not actually get deleted, till that space gets overwritten by something else in the disk. 


What TestDisk tool can do on your Linux System:

  • Rebuild NTFS boot sectors.
  • Recover FAT32 boot sectors.
  • Recover deleted partitions and fix errors in route tables.
  • Locate blocks ext2, ext3 and ext4.
  • Copy files from deleted partitions from FAT, exFAT, NTFS and ext2 file systems.

Exclude in Grep Command in Linux - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to exclude in grep. In fact, grep is a powerful command-line tool that is used to search one or more input files for lines that match a regular expression and writes each matching line to standard output.

Install Django on Alma Linux | Rocky Linux - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Django on  Alma Linux | Rocky Linux. In fact, Django is the most popular Python web framework designed to help developers build secure, scalable, and maintainable web applications.


How to Install Python on Debian 10 Buster ?

1. Before we install any software, it's important to make sure your system is up to date by running the following apt commands in the terminal:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install Python and necessary dependencies.

Now install Python dependencies on your system using the following command:

$ sudo apt install python3 python3-pip tree

3. Confirm the Python installation and check the Python version by typing the following command:

$ pip3 -V

Control File Content in Debian 10 Buster Linux Server

This article covers how to efficiently use both diff and patch programs which help a Linux server admin to control their files and make new files when things go wrong. In fact, The grep command, which stands for global regular expression print, is one of the most versatile commands in a Linux terminal environment. It is an immensely powerful program that allows the user to sort input according to complex rules, which makes it a rather popular link in numerous command chains. The grep command is primarily used to search text or any file for lines that contain a match to the specified words/strings. By default, grep displays the matched lines, and it can be used to search for lines of text that match a regular expression(s), and it outputs only the matched lines.

Manage Linux File System on Ubuntu Linux Server

This article covers how to keep check and balance on your file system. Ext4 is the default file system on most Linux distributions for a reason. It's an improved version of the older Ext3 file system. It's not the most cutting-edge file system, but that's good: It means Ext4 is rock-solid and stable.

If you're setting up partitions on your main Linux boot drive, you'll also want to create a swap partition of at least a few GBs in size when setting up those partitions. This partition is used for "swap space". It's similar to the paging file on Windows. Linux swaps out memory to the swap space when its RAM is full. This partition must be formatted as "swap" instead of with a particular file system.

Install NetBeans on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the Installation process of NetBeans IDE on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, NetBeans is an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) application mainly used by developers to create applications using Java and other programming architectures like PHP and C++.


Features of NetBeans IDE includes:

  • A drag and drop GUI design tool for rapid UI development.
  • A feature-rich code editor with code templates & refactoring tools.
  • Integration tools such as GIT and mercurial.
  • Support for the latest Java technologies.
  • A rich set of community plugins.

Find DHCP Server IP Address in Linux Using CLI - Step by Step guide ?

This article covers the different ways of finding the IP address of your DHCP server in a Linux system. We have already dealth with how to install and configure DHCP server on Linux.


Linux System IP Scanning commands:

Scanning for IP address lets you have better control over your network. With a few commands, you can quickly map out the devices in your network and the IP addresses that they are using.

  • ipconfig: This command displays all network settings assigned to one or all adapters in the computer. You can find information such as your own IP, subnet, and Gateway. For Linux and MacOS is "ifconfig".
  • arp -a: When you issue the "arp -a", you’ll get IP-address-to-mac conversion and the allocation type (whether dynamic or static) of all devices in your network.
  • Ping: It helps determine connectivity between two hosts and find the IP address of a hostname.

Install Rust on Linux System - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the step by step Installation procedure of Rust on Linux. Now you can write rust programs on Linux. In fact, The Rust programming language, more commonly known as rust-lang, is a powerful general-purpose programming language.

Developed by Mozilla and designed by Graydon Hoare, Rust programming language is syntactically similar to C++.

We can verify from the terminal for the version of the Rust programming language installed on our system. To do so, we enter this in our terminal:

$ rustc --version

Install VidCutter on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install VidCutter on a Linux Mint 20 machine. In fact, VidCutter is a cross-platform video cutting or trimmer software for Linux.


Features of VidCutter video editor:

  • Open source Software.
  • Cross-platform app available for Linux, Windows and MacOS.
  • Supports most of the common video formats such as: AVI, MP4, MPEG 1/2, WMV, MP3, MOV, 3GP, FLV etc.
  • Simple interface.
  • Trims and merges the videos.

Limit the SSH Access with UFW on Linux Mint 20 - Best way to do it ?

This article covers how to define a new UFW rule for limiting SSH access on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, UFW, short for "uncomplicated firewall", is a frontend for the more complex iptables utility. It's designed to make managing a firewall as simple as setting ports to be open and closed, and regulating what traffic is allowed to go through.


How to install UFW on Ubuntu / Debian ?

UFW is installed by default in Ubuntu, but if it's not you can install it from apt:

$ sudo apt-get install ufw

If you're running another distro, you'll have to use that distro's package manager, but UFW is widely available. You can check the status of the firewall with:

$ sudo ufw status

Check Ubuntu Version from the Command Line

This article covers the different methods to check the Ubuntu Version by the terminal. While working with the system, we need to install multiple third-party software, which is available for version-specific. In that case, you need to find the Ubuntu version you are using.

The lsb-release is the standard package for reporting the version on Ubuntu systems. Which is basically written in the Python programming language. It provides lsb_release command-line tool to check Ubuntu version and other useful details.

Install Anaconda on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step by step procedure for the installation of Anaconda on Ubuntu OS. In fact, Anaconda is designed to provide scientific libraries and dependencies in the Python programming language. It is a package manager used in scientific computing and data science.

Install CUDA on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install CUDA on Ubuntu 20.04.

To install CUDA on Ubuntu,  execute the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nvidia-cuda-toolkit

To Check your CUDA version, run the below command:

$ nvcc --version

Install Inkscape on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers Inkscape is an open source cross-platform vector graphics editor for Linux, Windows and Mac OS X. Inkscape basically supports SVG file generation and editing and supports PNG, OpenDocument Drawing, DXF, sk1, PDF, EPS and PostScript export formats. It comes with Color selector, Color picker, gradient editor, Pattern fills, Dashed strokes and Path markers.


How to Install Inkscape vector graphics editor on Ubuntu ?

1. You can download and Inkscape from the ubuntu software center or install it from the command line by adding its PPA. To install Inkscape via command line, open the terminal app and type and enter the below command:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:inkscape.dev/stable

2. Then run the below command to update your system:

$ sudo apt-get update

3. Now, run the below command to install Inkscape on Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt-get install inkscape

Install MariaDB on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step-by-step installation procedure of the MariaDB server on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, MariaDB was developed as a "drop-in" replacement for MySQL. As such, both software packages are functionally equivalent and interchangeable.

To enable MariaDB service to start on boot time and start the service using the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl enable mariadb
$ sudo systemctl start mariadb

To verify the running status of MariaDB, run the below command:

$ sudo systemctl status mariadb

Install Cacti on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step by step procedure for installing the Cacti monitoring tool on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Cacti is a free and open-source RRD tool-based network monitoring tool that monitors network devices such as servers, routers, and switches. Cacti uses the SNMP protocol to gather data from remote systems. Data gathered is then stored in a MySQL database. 

One of the most essential tasks that any IT operation team has to keep in mind is continuous monitoring of their IT infrastructure. The concept of monitoring ensures that systems such as servers are functioning and working as desired.

Install Duplicity on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the free backup software duplicity on the CentOS 8 system. Now you will be able to maintain your critical data backups and prevent data loss. In fact, Duplicity is backup tool used to create Bandwidth-efficient and Encrypted backup in Linux based distributions. To connect to a file server for storing backup ssh, scp and sftp protocols are preferable methods, then rsync and ftp used for local file access.

Umask Command in Linux - Overview

This article covers how to use UMASK in the Linux system. On Linux operating systems, new files are created with a default set of permissions. Specifically, a new file's permissions may be restricted in a specific way by applying a permissions "mask" called the umask. The umask command is used to set this mask, or to show you its current value.

Route Command in Linux with examples

This article covers how to use the route command in a Linux system with examples. Linux provides the ip route command in order to manage the routing table. The routing table is used to set routes for different destination IP addresses. Even there is a default route in most of the cases which are used to sent IP packets to the other networks we may need to add new routes via the command-line interface by using the ip route add command.


Important Linux commands:

  • arp — Manipulate the system ARP cache.
  • ifconfig — View or modify the configuration of network interfaces.
  • ip — Display and manipulate information about routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels.
  • netstat — Print information about network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships.

Fix the Error "Unable to Launch Cinnamon-Session-Cinnamon" in Linux Mint 20

This article covers steps to resolve the "cinnamon not found" error on a Linux Mint 20 machine. 

To fix this error, simply do the following:

1. Boot to the Linux mint version.

2. Wait for the login screen and login.

3. Get the error? Click ok.

4. Get the black screen? Type CTRL-Alt F1

5. Get the prompt?

6. Login with your name and password.

7. Install cinnamon by running the following commands:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install nemo
$ sudo apt-get install cinnamon
$ reboot

Top 11 Free and Open-Source Linux Distributions for Hacking

This article covers the best free and open-source Linux distributions that provide the most efficient and capable platform to learn and perform ethical hacking tasks such as BackBox, Kali Linux, Fedora Security Lab, Parrot OS, BlackArch Linux, and Dracos Linux. Choosing the best OS for Hacking & penetration testing is a good sign to learn ethical hacking and Penetration testing concepts to enhance your skills and protecting the enterprise assets from cybercriminals.

Install LAMP Stack on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the LAMP stack on the CentOS system. If are using another Linux distribution, visit how to install LAMP stack on Debian, Ubuntu, Red Hat, and Rocky Linux. Basically, A LAMP stack is a collection of open-source software that you can use as a platform to create websites and web applications. The term LAMP is an acronym standing for Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL database system, and the PHP programming language.


In LAMP:

  • Linux serves as the server's operating system that handles all the commands on the machine.
  • Apache is a web server software that manages HTTP requests to deliver your website's content.
  • MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) whose function is to maintain user's data on a server.
  • PHP is a scripting language for server-side communication.

Install Webmin on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to Install and configure Webmin on Rocky Linux 8 using the automated installation script. Webmin web interface is used to set up user and disk management, Apache, DNS, PHP, MySQL, check CPU usage, system info, network config, and more.


How to Install Webmin using RPM package ?

It is also possible to install Webmin using the rpm package available on the download page of Webmin. This is the quickest way to get Webmin up and running on your Linux machine.

1. Install dependencies

Since Webmin is written in Perl, you need to install Perl and its dependencies:

$ sudo dnf install perl perl-Net-SSLeay perl-Data-Dumper perl-Encode-Detect

2. Download and Install Webmin RPM package

This will install the latest version of Webmin using the rpm package:

$ sudo dnf install https://www.webmin.com/download/rpm/webmin-current.rpm


How to uninstall Webmin ?

You can simply uninstall Webmin using the script /etc/webmin/uninstall.sh.

SS Command in Linux with examples

This article covers how to use the ss Command on Linux. In fact, the ss command is a modern replacement for the classic netstat. You can use it on Linux to get statistics about your network connections. 

ss displays statistics for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Unix (interprocess), and raw sockets. Raw sockets operate at the network OSI level, which means TCP and UDP headers have to be handled by the application software, not by the transport layer. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) messages and the ping utility both use raw sockets.

Cut command in Linux with examples

This article covers the procedures in which to use the cut command in Linux system. In fact, the cut command in UNIX is a command line utility for cutting sections from each line of files and writing the result to standard output. It can be used to cut parts of a line by byte position, character and delimiter. It can also be used to cut data from file formats like CSV.

Restart Bluetooth in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers methods to install, configure, enable and then restart the Bluetooth service in the Ubuntu system. From time to time when you are using Ubuntu Linux and you want to use your Bluetooth headset to watch Netflix or YouTube videos you may experience some problems with the Bluetooth connection on Linux.


How to fix the issue "Bluetooth isn't available" when you wake up the system ?

When you put your system to sleep, there are chances Bluetooth won’t be available when you wake it up. In order to make everything work fine as before in most cases you will need to restart the system.

In order to fix this issue, we need to launch the Terminal and check whether we have the 4.48 version of Bluez. You can easily do that with this command:

$ dpkg --status bluez | grep '^Version:'

When you see the results, use the following commands to update to the latest version:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bluetooth/bluez
$ sudo apt-get update

After these commands, you will be able to update the Buez using:

$ sudo apt upgrade


How to fix the issue "Bluetooth headset won't play in A2DP (High Fidelity)" ?

In order to fix this issue, you will need to make your system detect the right type of Bluetooth device by adding a simple configuration file.

1. First, let's check whether we have all the dependencies installed:

$ sudo apt install pulseaudio pulseaudio-utils pavucontrol pulseaudio-module-bluetooth

2. When we verify it, we need to create or edit this audio config file:

$ sudo gedit /etc/bluetooth/audio.conf

Then, Include the next lines:

This section contains general options
[General]
Enable=Source,Sink,Media,Socket

3. Finally, save the file and start the Bluetooth service again:

$ sudo service bluetooth restart

Install UTorrent in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install uTorrent via the command line on Ubuntu 20.04 system. µTorrent provides clients for Windows and macOS X, however it is installed as a server in Ubuntu Linux and provides a web UI for managing downloads.

Install PanWriter on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to install PanWriter on a Linux Mint 20 system. Once you have this tool installed on your Linux system, you can conveniently use it for content creation and editing with an added level of ease and satisfaction. 


How to Install PanWriter on Ubuntu ?

Open the terminal and use the following command:

$ sudo snap install panwriter

Check Link Speed in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers different methods to determine the link speed of IP networks in Ubuntu. The link speed in a basic network refers to the maximum speed that a device can communicate with the wireless router. The link speed is expressed in bits/second and may vary depending on the device and the wireless access point.

Install Kubectl on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers how you can install Kubectl on your Linux system and use it to operate your Kubernetes clusters if you are fond of using the command-line interfaces. Infact, Kubectl tool is very efficient in terms of cluster management and application deployment. 

Kubectl is a command-line tool for Kubernetes. It allows us to execute Kubernetes operations via the API. We can use Kubectl to deploy apps, check logs as well as manage all the other resources of the cluster.

Kubernetes uses an HTTP-based REST API which is the actual Kubernetes user interface employed to manage it. This means that every Kubernetes operation is represented as an API endpoint and can be carried out based on an HTTP-request sent to the endpoint. 

Install Converseen on Linux Mint 20 - Best procedure ?

This article covers how you can easily perform the Installation of Converseen batch image processor on your Linux Mint 20 system. With the help of this software, you can edit or rename a single or even multiple images very easily.


How to Install Converseen batch image processor on Linux ?

1. You can search for it in your distribution's software center.

2. You may, of course, use your distribution’s package manager to install it via command line.

On Debian and Ubuntu-based distributions, use:

$ sudo apt install converseen

On Fedora, use:

$ sudo dnf install converseen

On Arch and Manjaro, use:

$ sudo pacman -Sy converseen

Top 7 Free and Open-Source Security Tools

This article covers the best open source security tools for Linux and other leading platforms such as MISP, Privacy Badger, Clam Antivirus, AIRCRACK-NG, Wireshark, Archery, and Anchore. Basically, these security tool comes with extraordinary security features that ensure network and operating system’s reliability and provides an insight into the vulnerability state.

Top 7 Free and Open-Source Linux Distributions for Privacy and Anonymity

This article covers best functioning, free and open-source Linux distributions that provide privacy and anonymity such as Qubes, Tails, Kali, Discreete, Parrot, Whonix, and BlackArch. The good thing about Linux is that it has got a distribution for (almost) everyone’s needs. Privacy is not an exception. There are Linux distributions specifically focused on privacy. These privacy-focused Linux distributions provide you with tools and configurations to escape electronic surveillance, hide your digital footprints and retain your anonymity from advertisers, data gatherers, etc.

Top 11 OSINT Tools for Penetration Testing

This article covers the most popular and top 11 OSINT tools that are best for penetration testing. Basically, the purpose of these tests are to get more insights about the network and an operating system's health. They include Maltego, Google Dorks, Shodan, theHarvester, Recon-Ng, spiderfoot, TinEye, Check Usernames, HaveIbeenPwned, Censys and BuiltWith.

Truncate Command in Linux with examples

This article covers how to use the truncate command in Linux. The safest method to empty a log file in Linux is by using the truncate command. Truncate command is used to shrink or extend the size of each FILE to the specified size.

Uniq Command in Linux with examples

This article covers how to use the uniq command in Linux. In fact, the uniq command reports or filters out repeated lines in a file. uniq filters out adjacent, matching lines from input file INPUT, writing the filtered data to output file OUTPUT. A matching line is "adjacent" if it's immediately before or after another matching line.



Related Linux commands:

  • comm — Compare two sorted files line by line.
  • pack — Compress files using a Huffman algorithm.
  • pcat — Print the uncompressed contents of a compressed file.
  • sort — Sort the lines in a text file.
  • uncompress — Extract files from compressed archives.

Configure and Use Git on Debian - Best Procedure ?

This article covers steps to install and configure Git on a Debian 10 server. As one of the most popular version control systems currently available, Git is a common choice among open-source and other collaborative software projects. Many project's files are maintained in a Git repository, and sites like GitHub, GitLab, and Bitbucket help to facilitate software development project sharing and collaboration.


How to install Git on Debian / Ubuntu Linux System ?

1. Use the apt package management tools to update your local package index and then download and install Git:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

2. You can confirm that you have installed Git correctly by running the following command:

$ git --version

Search Your Files or Directories With Find Command in Linux Mint

This article covers how you can use the Find command to search and perform different operations efficiently. In fact, the Linux find command is a powerful tool that enables system administrators to locate and manage files and directories based on a wide range of search criteria. It can find directories and files by their name, their type, or extension, size, permissions, etc.

Check CPU is 64/32 Bit in Linux System

This article covers different ways to check CPU is 64/32 Bit in Linux System. As a system administrator and IT professional, it is very important to know whether the system's CPU architecture is 32 bit or 64 bit.

To test whether your Linux computer has a 32-bit or 64-bit CPU and to see what version of Linux is installed, open your terminal, type the following command at the prompt, and then hit Enter:

$ lscpu


How to Determine if the Linux kernel is 32-bit or 64-bit ?

Using the uname command, you can determine if your Linux kernel is 32-bit or 64-bit by running the command below:

uname -a

Install PHP 8.0 on Rocky Linux 8 - Best Procedure ?

This article covers steps to install PHP 8.0 in Rocky Linux. PHP is used to develop static or dynamic websites or web applications. Many popular CMS such as WordPress, Magento, and Joomla is written in PHP. Frameworks such as Laravel, Symfony, and CodeIgniter is also using PHP.

To list the available PHP version on your Linux terminal, run the command:

$ sudo dnf module list php

To verify PHP version, simply run the command:

$ php -v 

To install PHP packages and dependencies, run the command:

$ sudo apt install php php-cli php-fpm php-json php-common php-mysql php-zip php-gd php-mbstring php-curl php-xml php-pear php-bcmath


How to Install PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu ?

Installing PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu 19.04/18.04 is a bit different than 20.04. 1. To get started, update apt and add the required repositories:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt -y install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
$ sudo apt-get update

2. And begin the install.

$ sudo apt install php7.4

3. After the install is complete, you can check the version that is installed and in use.

$ php -v

An Overview of Source Command in Linux with Examples ?

This article covers how to use the source command in Linux. source reads and executes commands from file filename in the current shell. If filename does not contain a slash, directories in PATH are searched for filename.

Using source to execute the commands in a file is not the same as running a script. For one thing, the file does not need to be executable (e.g., with chmod u+x). For another, the commands will execute in the current shell environment; for example, any variables set will retain their value after the source is finished executing.


Source Command Syntax

The source command uses the following syntax:

$ source [filename] [arguments]

Where:

  • [filename]: The name or path to the file you want the source command to execute.
  • [arguments]: Any arguments you provide become positional parameters when the file is executed.

Install PgAdmin 4 on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can Install and easily get started with PgAdmin4 for your Linux system. pgAdmin is an advanced, open-source, full-featured, and web-based administration and management tool for the PostgreSQL database server.

Hwinfo Command in Linux - An Overview ?

This article covers how to use the hwinfo command in Linux. hwinfo command reports information about CPU, RAM, keyboard, mouse, graphics card, sound, storage, network interface, disk, partition, bios, and bridge, etc,.


The hwinfo utility displays the following information:

  • CPU : manufacturer, model, frequency
  • Motherboard : manufacturer, model, BIOS version, on-board controller
  • RAM : RAM size, RAM type (FP, EDO, SDRAM, DDRAM)
  • Hard disk controller : SCSI, IDE, on-board/card, model, BIOS version, chipset
  • Hard disks : type, manufacturer, model, size, bus system (SCSI, IDE), partitioning
  • CD-ROM drives : type, manufacturer, model, speed, internal/external, parallel port?
  • Other media : CD writer, streamer (model, manufacturer, SCSI/EIDE/floppy streamer, capacity), ZIP drives, Jaz drives, MO drives, flopticals
  • Graphics card : model, manufacturer, chipset, memory (DRAM, VRAM), memory size
  • Other peripherals : printer, parallel ports, serial ports, modem, ISDN card

Install AnyDesk on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step guide ?

This article covers how to install AnyDesk on your Linux system which can be used as a remote desktop application for interacting with different devices and controlling them remotely. Anydesk application can be installed on Windows, Linux and macOS.

Install TensorFlow on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the installation procedure of TensorFlow on CentOS 8 system. TensorFlow is a machine learning platform by Google. It is basically an open source and has a huge number of tools, libraries and other resources developed by both its developer community as well as Google and other corporations.

TensorFlow is available for all the popularly used operating systems, viz. Windows, Mac OS, GNU/Linux. It can be downloaded and installed from either Python Package Index using the pip tool and can be run in a virtual python environment. Another way to use it is to install it as a Docker container.

Install Trimage on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the best method to install the Trimage software on a Linux Mint 20 system. Basically, this tool is very helpful for performing lossless image compressions hence guaranteeing high quality images even in a compressed format.

To install Trimage software From the terminal in Linux,

1. The Trimage image compressor is available in the official repositories of practically all GNU / Linux distributions and it can be easily installed using the command line, using the corresponding command:

$ sudo apt update; sudo apt install trimage

2. Check the version number of Trimage Installed:

$ trimage --version

3. Now for launch the program from the terminal, we will only have to write in the terminal:

$ trimage

Install Timeshift on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Procedure ?

This article covers how to install Timeshift utility on Linux Mint system. Timeshift help in creating the backups of your precious data. Also,it is a fabulous tool that is used for the backup & restoration of the Linux operating system, it takes incremental backup after the first initial complete backup. TImeshit creates filesystem snapshots using Rsync or BTRFS. It has a nice GUI as well as support for CLI.

Install Syncthing on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers a step by step guide on how to Install Syncthing on Linux Mint. Once this tool is installed on your system, you can readily use it for synchronizing your files within or across your network. Basically, Whenever you create, modify, or delete any data on one Syncthing machine it will automatically be replicated to other servers. 

To verify the version of Syncthing Installed on the system, run the following command:

$ syncthing --version


Features of Syncthing file synchronization:

  • It is easy to use through a cli and GUI through Synchthing-GTK.
  • Its data syncing fully automatic – Low interaction.
  • Synthing strives to be safe from data loss – Ensures no corruption on user's files.
  • It is universally available – Runs on both Windows and Linux.

Install and Play Tetris on Ubuntu Linux System

This article covers different ways to Install Tetris on any Linux distribution.

To Install Tetris on your Ubuntu / Debian System:

1. Get your System updated and Ready for Installing Tetris clone Tint on it:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install the Available Variation of Tetris on your System:

$ sudo apt install tint

3. Launch Tint - Tetris like game - within your System's Terminal:

$ tint

Install Tor Browser on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and configure the latest Tor browser version on LinuxMint 20 system. In fact, now using the tor browser, you can browse privately and securely and visit all websites blocked by your ISP providers.


How to install Tor on Ubuntu 21.04 ?

1. We access the terminal in Ubuntu 21.04 and install Tor with the following command:

$ sudo apt install tor 

2. Install the browser itself with the following command:

$ sudo apt install torbrowser-launcher 


How to Remove Tor browser from Debian / Ubuntu / Linux Mint ?

If you are not happy with the Tor browser (installed via APT), you can remove it using the command below:

$ sudo apt purge torbrowser-launcher

If you installed it using Flatpak via software center, you can easily uninstall it from there. If you installed it from terminal, type in the following command:

$ flatpak uninstall com.github.micahflee.torbrowser-launcher

Rkhunter for Scanning Backdoors, Rootkits, and Local Exploits in Your Ubuntu Linux System - How to use it ?

This article covers an easy procedure to install rkhunter, configure, scan the system and view log to identify actual backdoor, rootkits, and local exploits. In fact, Rkhunter (Rootkit Hunter) is an open-source Unix/Linux based scanner tool for Linux systems released under GPL that scans backdoors, rootkits, and local exploits on your systems. It scans hidden files, wrong permissions set on binaries, suspicious strings in the kernel, and so on. 

To scan the entire Linux  file system, run the Rkhunter command as a root user:

$ rkhunter --check

Install PHP 8.0 on Debian / Linux Mint - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PHP 8.0 on Debian 10. To verify the installed version of PHP, use the php command below:

$ php -v


How to install PHP 7.x extensions ?

The following syntax is used to install PHP 7.x extensions:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.x-extension

or

$ sudo apt-get install php-extension


To install the most commonly used PHP 7.x extensions by running the command in the terminal:

for PHP 7.4,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.4-mysql php7.4-mbstring php7.4-xml php7.4-bcmath php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-zip

for PHP 7.3,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.3-mysql php7.3-mbstring php7.3-xml php7.3-bcmath php7.3-curl php7.3-gd php7.3-zip

for PHP 7.2,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql php7.2-mbstring php7.2-xml php7.2-bcmath php7.2-curl php7.2-gd php7.2-zip

for PHP 7.1,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.1-mysql php7.1-mbstring php7.1-xml php7.1-bcmath php7.1-curl php7.1-gd php7.1-zip

for PHP 7.0,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.0-mysql php7.0-mbstring php7.0-xml php7.0-bcmath php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-zip

Linux IP Command with Examples - An overview ?

This article covers the practical use cases of the Linux IP command. IP stands for Internet Protocol. IP command is used to show or manipulate routing, devices, and tunnels. It is similar to ifconfig command but it is much more powerful with more functions and facilities attached to it. It can perform several other tasks like configuring and modifying the default and static routing, setting up tunnel over IP, listing IP addresses and property information, modifying the status of the interface, assigning, deleting and setting up IP addresses and routes.


Linux system commands:

  • arp — Manipulate the system ARP cache.
  • ifconfig — View or modify the configuration of network interfaces.
  • netstat — Print information about network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships.
  • route — Display and manipulate the IP routing table.
  • tcpdump — Capture raw network traffic.

How to use "sed" Command to Delete a Single Line and Multiple Lines in Linux Mint 20 ?

This article covers the different ways you can use the "sed" command in Linux Mint 20. Sed command or Stream Editor is very powerful utility offered by Linux/Unix systems. It is mainly used for text substitution , find & replace but it can also perform other text manipulations like insertion, deletion, search etc. 

Top 7 Free and Best Open-Source Help Desk Management Software

Help desk management software solutions help organizations and companies streamline their query management procedures and related tasks. The help desk team instead of answering calls throughout the day, install and implement these solutions that create, track, and manages the query tickets. Thereby offering a prompt solution and response to both the questioner and responder. The Help Desk software solutions discussed in the article are OTRS, osTicket, GLPi, Mantis Bug Tracker, Sinergia, AdefHelpDesk, and Liberum.

Install and Use Logwatch on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Guide ?

This article covers how to install and use Logwatch on Ubuntu Linux System. Logwatch is a system log analyzer and send that report to email. It generates a summarized log report which contains sshd - authentication failures, sudo - sessions opened, vsftp failures, postfix, failed logins, disk space and more. To find more information, visit the Logwatch man page.

Logwatch can be installed simply from the Ubuntu repository. First update the system.

$ sudo apt-get update

To install Logwatch, execute the command:

$ apt-get install logwatch

Install or Enable Cockpit on AlmaLinux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install and get started with the Cockpit web-administration tool for monitoring system statistics, metrics, and overall health. The cockpit is accessed through a web browser and its dashboard gives you a peek of your server's health alongside other system statistics such as network usage, disk space, and utilization, current users, system uptime, running processes, and system logs.


Monitor System Resources with Glances on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install and get started with the Glances monitoring tool on Ubuntu. 

To view more help, you can use the glances –help command.

By default, Glances is included in the Ubuntu default repository. You can install it with the following command:

$ apt-get install glances -y

After installing Glances, verify the installed version of Glances using the following command:

$ glances --version


Glances monitors and display the information about:

  • RAM, Swap, and free memory usage.
  • Average CPU load of the system.
  • Total active and sleeping processes.
  • Disk I/O.
  • Display file system space.
  • Display current date and time.

Install Kong API Gateway on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the KONG API Gateway on Ubuntu 20.04. These Gateways provides services like Authentication, rate-limiting, analysis, logging etc., to your API endpoints.

To Start kong API, run the following commands:

$ kong migrations up #runs the database migrations
$ sudo kong start
$ curl -i http://localhost:8001

To Stop and see status of kong API, run the following commands:

$ sudo kong stop #stop kong
$ sudo kong health #kong status

Install ROS Noetic on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install ROS Noetic on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. ROS (Robot Operating System) is an open-source project that provides a framework and tools for robotics applications. It helps to design complex software without knowing how certain hardware works.

Add and Remove Users in Debian 10 system - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can easily remove or add a new user to your Debian 10 system. One of the most basic tasks that you should know how to do on a fresh Linux server is add and remove users. 

In order to add and delete users on Debian, you need to have sudo rights, or to belong to the sudo group.

To check your sudo rights, run the following command:

$ sudo -v

If no error messages appear, you are good to go, otherwise ask your system administrator to provide you with sudo rights.


How to add a user using useradd ?

Run the following command:

$ sudo useradd <username>

To assign a password to the user, you can use the -p flag but it is not recommended as other users will be able to see the password.

To assign a password to a user, use the passwd command:

$ sudo passwd <username>

Install TeamViewer on AlmaLinux 8 / Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily install TeamViewer on AlmaLinux 8. With TeamViewer you can control computer systems running Linux, Windows and Mac OS remotely as if you were sitting right in front of that system. It also provides a spontaneous support to unattended computers such as servers.

Install and Configure Log with Graylog in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers to install and configuren Graylog in ubuntu. With this, you can work with the log using the Graylog server. Graylog is an open-source tool that offers an integrated platform for collecting, indexing, and analyzing log data. The system essentially consists of the Graylog web interface, the Graylog servers, the Elasticsearch nodes, and a Mongo database.


How to Access Graylog Web interface ?

Open a browser on your local system or remote that can access the Ubuntu 20.04 server Ip-address. And type the http://your-server-ipaddress:9000

Replace your-server-ip-address with the actual IP address of your Server where Graylog has been installed.

Df Command in Linux - How is works ?

This article covers how to use the df command in Linux. You can use the df command when you need to know how much space is available on a particular file system or to see an overview of mounted files systems.

If you want to display all the file system, use -a option:

df -a


Options for df command includes:

  • -a, –all : includes pseudo, duplicate and inaccessible file systems.
  • -B, –block-size=SIZE : scales sizes by SIZE before printing them.
  • -h, –human-readable : print sizes in power of 1024.
  • -H, –si: print sizes in power of 1000.
  • -i, –inodes : list inode information instead of block usage.
  • -l, –local : limit listing to local file systems.
  • -P, –portability : use POSIX output format.
  • –sync : invoke sync before getting usage info.
  • –total : elide all entries insignificant to available space, and produce grand total.
  • -t, –type=TYPE : limit listing to file systems of type TYPE.
  • -T, –print-type : print file system type.

Install NtopNG on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers easy steps to install the NtopNG utility on your Linux Mint 20 system. Once it is installed on your system, you can start using it for network traffic monitoring after configuring it according to the specifications of your machine.

To check whether NtopNG is installed or not, run the command:

$ systemctl status ntopng

To start NtopNG service, execute the command:

$ systemctl start ntopng

Top 7 Best Free SSL Certificate Services

This article covers a detailed review of the leading SSL certificate provision services in the market. Many SSL certificate providers offer brilliant security and privacy-related services but at a hefty cost. However, in this article, we discuss the SSL certificate providers that offer their World Wide Web protection services either for free or offer free trials so that users can acquaint themselves with the services to make the best decisions for their products, or their organizations. Let's Encrypt and SSL For Free offer free SSL certification for all, whereas Comodo, Cloudfare, HubSpot, GeoTrust, and GoDaddy offer free trials varying between the free trial periods ranging from 14 days for up to 30 days.

Website security is a top concern for site owners and visitors alike. If your site isn't secure, people won’t feel safe browsing, purchasing, making clicks, or entering any information on your pages.

Update Firmware on Ubuntu Using fwupd - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to update firmware on Ubuntu using fwupd. Fwupd aims to make firmware update on Linux systems automatic, safe, and reliable. It is mainly used to update UEFI firmware. There are many companies that already support native firmware updates such as Dell, Lenovo, HP, Intel, and System76. 


To Install fwupd on Ubuntu, run the following command:

$ sudo apt install fwupd

To download and apply all updates for your system use the update option:

$ fwupdmgr update

Install Node.JS on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the Installation process of NodeJS on Rocky Linux. Nodejs is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine and is designed to build scalable network applications.

Install and Use Logwatch on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the Logwatch utility on your Linux server. With Logwatch, you will be able to keep an eye on your server logs and hence, you can quickly figure out any possible issues.

You can easily customize Logwatch to your preference by modifying the parameters in the /etc/logwatch/conf path. It also provides something extra in the way of pre-written PERL scripts for making log parsing easier.

All the default settings are defined in the /usr/share/logwatch/default.conf/logwatch.conf file. The recommended practice is to leave this file intact and instead create your own configuration file at the /etc/logwatch/conf/ path by copying the original config file and then define your custom settings.


Logwatch comes with a tiered approach and there are 3 main locations where configuration details are defined:

  • /usr/share/logwatch/default.conf/*
  • /etc/logwatch/conf/dist.conf/*
  • /etc/logwatch/conf/*


To install Logwatch on your server.

On Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt-get install logwatch

On Debian:

$ apt-get install logwatch

Usermod Linux Command with Examples

This article covers different use cases of using the usermod command. The usermod command in Linux is used to manage user properties at command line. The syntax of the usermod command is following:

$ usermod [option] [argument] username

Use pkill Command in Linux System - An overview ?

This article covers how to use the pkill command in Linux. pkill is basicity a wrapper around the pgrep program that only prints a list of matching processes.

The syntax for the pkill command is as follows:

$ pkill [OPTIONS] <PATTERN>

The matching <PATTERN> is specified using extended regular expressions.

For more information about pkill command, visit the pkill man page or type man pkill in your terminal.


Other Linux commands:

  • ps — Report the status of a process or processes.
  • killall — Kill processes by name.
  • kill — Send a signal to a process, affecting its behavior or killing it.

Rmmod Command in Linux - An Overview ?

This article covers the process of removing modules by using rmmod from the Linux kernel. In fact, rmmod is a simple program which removes (unloads) a module from the Linux kernel. In most cases, you will want to use modprobe with the -r option instead, as it is more robust and handles dependencies for you.


Important Linux System Commands:

  • depmod — Generate a list of kernel module dependencies and associated map files.
  • insmod — Insert a module into the Linux kernel.
  • lsmod — Show the status of Linux kernel modules.
  • modinfo — Show information about a Linux kernel module.
  • modprobe — Add and remove modules from the Linux kernel.

Rename Files and Directories in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers different methods to Rename Files and Directories Using Linux Terminal. We can rename files and directories with rename and mv commands in the Linux Terminal. The mv command can only rename one file at a time, but the rename command can rename multiple files simultaneously.


How to Rename Files and Directories Using the mv Command ?

The mv command can rename files and directories. It is also used to move files and directories from one location to another.

Syntax of mv Command:

$ mv [OPTIONS] source destination

The source can be one or more files or directories, and the destination is always a single file or directory.

Migrate to AlmaLinux 8.4 from CentOS Linux - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the process of migrating to AlmaLinux from CentOS 8. AlmaLinux OS is a new RHEL fork from the team at CloudLinux. It is meant to be a free Linux Operating System, developed in close co-operation with the community, and for the community. As of this article update, the release of AlmaLinux available is not stable fit for production use. AlmaLinux OS is now stable and can be used in Production environments.


To Migrate from CentOS 8 To AlmaLinux 8.4.

1. Download the almalinux-deploy.sh script:

$ curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/AlmaLinux/almalinux-deploy/master/almalinux-deploy.sh

2. Give the script execution bits:

$ chmod +x almalinux-deploy.sh

3. Then run the script with the commands below:

$ sudo bash ./almalinux-deploy.sh

Add a User to Sudoers on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to add users into the sudoers group. Also you will learn how to edit rules in the sudoers configuration file through the command. You can customize the sudoers file based on the user requirements. Sudo stands for superuser do. Sudo is a command used in Unix-like systems to allow a regular user to execute a program as another user. In most cases, it is the root user.

The sudo command allows authorized users to perform commands as another user, which is by default the root user. 

This option gives you administrator-level permissions to run programs on your machine. It is an alternative to using the su command.

Install Cockpit on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can easily install Cockpit on your CentOS system and manage other Linux servers. With Cockpit, you can have a quick glance at the performance of all your added servers. Also, you can monitor system resources, start and stop services, shut down the system, install updates, view network activity (send/received). create or remove user accounts, access Terminal, and much more on the remote servers. Cockpit helps to save a lot of time by letting the administrators manage the remote servers that are spread across the network using a lightweight and intuitive interface. 


Benefits of Cockpit in our GNU/Linux servers:

  • It consists of systemd service manager for ease.
  • It has a Journal log viewer to perform troubleshoots and log analysis.
  • Storage setup including LVM was never easier before.
  • Basic Network configuration can be applied with Cockpit
  • We can easily add and remove local users and manage multiple servers.


To Install  and enable Cockpit packages from repository, run the command:

$ sudo yum install cockpit

Type "y" and it will start downloading and installing the required packages.

To enable the Cockpit with the following command:

# sudo systemctl start cockpit

or

$ sudo systemctl enable --now cockpit.socket


To confirm the status of Cockpit, run the command:

# sudo systemctl status cockpit

Migrate from CentOS 8 To Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily migrate to Rocky Linux 8.4 from CentOS 8. Rocky Linux is a community enterprise operating system designed to be 100% compatible with RedHat Enterprise Linux. Rocky Linux dev team has created a migration script called migrate2rocky to easily convert an existing CentOS 8 system to Rocky Linux 8.


To Upgrade the current CentOS 8 Linux system to latest available version, run the command:

$ sudo dnf --refresh upgrade

After update is completed, Reboot your system:

$ sudo reboot

Install LAMP Stack on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LAMP stack on Rocky Linux 8.4. You can now proceed to test or host your website and applications. A LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


How to Install  and configure Apache Web Server ?

1. First, we will start by installing the Apache web server. To complete the installation, use the following command:

$ yum install httpd httpd-tools

2. Once the installation is complete, enable Apache (to start automatically upon system boot), start the web server and verify the status using the commands below:

$ systemctl enable httpd
$ systemctl start httpd
$ systemctl status httpd

3. To make your pages available to public, you will have to edit your firewall rules to allow HTTP and HTTPS requests on your web server by using the following commands:

$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http 
$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https 
$ firewall-cmd --reload
4. Verify that the web server is running and accessible by accessing your server’s IP address:
$ echo "Hello there, Apache webserver is now running" > /var/www/html/index.html

5. And restart tht Web Server to reflect the changes made:

$ systemctl restart httpd

From your browser,

http://IP_address


How to Install PHP on CentOS ?

1. To install PHP on your RHEL 8 use the command below:

$ yum install -y php-mysqlnd php-dom php-simplexml php-xml php-xmlreader php-curl php-exif php-ftp php-gd php-iconv  php-json php-mbstring php-posix php-sockets php-tokenizer

2. Now restart your web server so that Apache knows that it will be serving PHP requests as well:

$ systemctl restart httpd

Different methods to Find the Interface Link Speed in Linux Mint 20

This article covers the different ways you can easily find out the interface link speed of any specific interface in Linux Mint 20. IP command is similar to ifconfig, which is used for assigning Static IP Address, Route & Default Gateway, and so on.

Also the ethtool command is used to query or control network driver and hardware settings:

# ethtool eth0

Find Linux Server Geographic Location in Terminal - The best Method ?

This article covers how to get the geographical information of a Linux server via the command line. IP addresses provide an easy way to track the location of the server in the world by using two useful APIs provided by ipinfo.io and ipvigilante.com to get the city, state, and country connected with a server.

To get the IP address geographic location of the server, we need to install curl command line downloader and jq command-line tool to process the JSON data from the geolocation APIs:

$ sudo apt install curl jq		#Ubuntu/Debian
$ sudo yum install curl jq #CentOS/RHEL
$ sudo dnf install curl jq #Fedora 22+
$ sudo zypper install curl jq #openSUSE

To get the server's public IP address, use the following curl command to make an API request to ipinfo.io in your terminal:

$ curl https://ipinfo.io/ip

Install Apache Maven on CentOS 8 - Easy Method ?

This article covers the installation methods( Yum package manager or via direct download method), you can easily install Apache Maven on CentOS. Apache Maven is basically a software project management and comprehension tool. 


How to check Apache Maven on Linux?

Use the following command to check the version of installed Maven on your system:

$ mvn -version

Bash For Loops - An overview with Examples

This article covers different loop formats available in Bash Scripting. Bash For loop is a statement that lets you iterate specific set of statements over series of words in a string, elements in a sequence, or elements in an array.


The syntax of the for loop is:

for VARIABLE in PARAM1 PARAM2 PARAM3
do
  // scope of for loop
done

Install bashtop on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install the "bashtop" utility on your Linux Mint 20 system. Bashtop is a command-line based resource monitor written in bash, which depicts usage and statistics for the CPU processor(s), RAM, hard disks, network sources, and other running processes. It also contains a customizable menu and a fully responsive terminal user interface. 

Now, you will be able to use this utility for monitoring the resource usage statistics on your system. 


To Run or start Bashtop application, run one of the following commands.

# bashtop
# bpytop

Install the Brackets Code Editor on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers the process of installing Brackets on a Linux Mint 20 system. Once this code editor is installed on your system, you can conveniently use it for professional-level frontend development. 

Brackets is a modern open-source code editor for HTML, CSS and JavaScript that’s built-in HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It has two great features: quick edit and live preview. It was created for front end developers and designers and has a very attractive interface. Brackets is developed by Adobe and is focused on web designers and front-end developers.


To Install Brackets Code Editor on Ubuntu:

1. make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install Brackets Code Editor.

$ sudo snap install brackets --classic

Disable SELinux on CentOS 7 - How to do it ?

This article covers method to permanently disable SELinux on CentOS 7. SELinux, also known as Security-Enhanced Linux, is a security feature embedded in the Linux kernel. SELinux leverages Mandatory Access controls (MAC) to confine users to certain rules and policies and prevents them from performing unauthorized tasks on the Linux system as specified by the IT administrator

To Check SELinux status, simply run the command:

# sestatus

Install Minikube on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Minikube on your Ubuntu 20.04 machine. Minikube is an open source tool that allows you to set up a single-node Kubernetes cluster on your local machine. The cluster is run inside a virtual machine and includes Docker, allowing you to run containers inside the node. 

Now, you can use the single-node Kubernetes with minikube to learn one of the most famous containers orchestration tools in the Cloud Native era. 


To enable and access kubernetes dashboard , run the command:

$ minikube dashboard

This will open the Kubernetes dashboard in the web browser.


To stop the minikube, run:

$ minikube stop

To delete the minikube, run:

$ minikube delete

To Start the minikube, run:

$ minikube start

Use tcpdump Command in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to use the tcpdump command for troubleshooting and analyzing the network on your Linux system. tcpdump is the world's premier network analysis tool—combining both power and simplicity into a single command-line interface.

Basically, tcpdump is a valuable tool for anyone looking to get into networking or information security.

The raw way it interfaces with traffic, combined with the precision it offers in inspecting packets make it the best possible tool for learning TCP/IP.

Protocol Analyzers like Wireshark are great, but if you want to truly master packet-fu, you must become one with tcpdump first.

Install PostgreSQL 13 on Rocky Linux - Best Method ?

This article covers PostgreSQL 13 installation on Rocky Linux 8.4. Basically, PostgreSQL is the world's most advanced open source database system. And with the release of PostgreSQL 13 there are significant improvements to the indexing and lookup system that benefit large databases, and faster response times for queries that use aggregates or partitions.


How to Enable and Start PostgreSQL Service ?

To enable and start the PostgreSQL database service so that it can start automatically with system boot:

$ sudo systemctl start postgresql-13
$ sudo systemctl enable postgresql-13

To confirm everything is working fine, check the status of PostgreSQL service:

$ sudo systemctl status postgresql-13

Install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Gitea is a self-facilitated open-source git worker written in Go. It is a fork of Gogs . Gitea incorporates a store record supervisor, venture issue following, clients administrations, notices, implicit wiki, and considerably more. 

To Install Git on Linux, run the commands: 

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

To Confirm Git Installation, execute the command: 

$ git --version

Install Puppet on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the installation of a puppet server on both master and client nodes and how to connect them. Ensure that you sign the puppet agent node certificate for both the master and client-side.

Puppet is a free and open-source automated administrative engine for Linux, Unix, and Windows operating systems. It is used for deploying, configuring, and managing servers and performs administrative tasks such as adding users, installing packages, and many more. It helps system admins to free up time and mental space by automating tasks on thousands of physical and virtual machines. It uses a client-server model. Where Puppet master controls configuration information for Puppet agents while Puppet agents talk to and pull down configuration profiles from the Puppet master.

Check Laptop Battery Status on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers different methods for checking the battery status on CentOS 8. The battery status and ACPI https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Configuration_and_Power_Interface information is stored in /proc and /sys directory. Using "upower" command or "acpi" command you can get this information.

upower is a command line tool which provides an interface to enumerate power sources on the system. Execute below command in the terminal.

The upower command will show detailed information about the battery:

$ upower -i /org/freedesktop/UPower/devices/battery_BAT1