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Install Tor Browser on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and configure the latest Tor browser version on LinuxMint 20 system. In fact, now using the tor browser, you can browse privately and securely and visit all websites blocked by your ISP providers.


How to install Tor on Ubuntu 21.04 ?

1. We access the terminal in Ubuntu 21.04 and install Tor with the following command:

$ sudo apt install tor 

2. Install the browser itself with the following command:

$ sudo apt install torbrowser-launcher 


How to Remove Tor browser from Debian / Ubuntu / Linux Mint ?

If you are not happy with the Tor browser (installed via APT), you can remove it using the command below:

$ sudo apt purge torbrowser-launcher

If you installed it using Flatpak via software center, you can easily uninstall it from there. If you installed it from terminal, type in the following command:

$ flatpak uninstall com.github.micahflee.torbrowser-launcher

Rkhunter for Scanning Backdoors, Rootkits, and Local Exploits in Your Ubuntu Linux System - How to use it ?

This article covers an easy procedure to install rkhunter, configure, scan the system and view log to identify actual backdoor, rootkits, and local exploits. In fact, Rkhunter (Rootkit Hunter) is an open-source Unix/Linux based scanner tool for Linux systems released under GPL that scans backdoors, rootkits, and local exploits on your systems. It scans hidden files, wrong permissions set on binaries, suspicious strings in the kernel, and so on. 

To scan the entire Linux  file system, run the Rkhunter command as a root user:

$ rkhunter --check

Install PHP 8.0 on Debian / Linux Mint - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PHP 8.0 on Debian 10. To verify the installed version of PHP, use the php command below:

$ php -v


How to install PHP 7.x extensions ?

The following syntax is used to install PHP 7.x extensions:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.x-extension

or

$ sudo apt-get install php-extension


To install the most commonly used PHP 7.x extensions by running the command in the terminal:

for PHP 7.4,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.4-mysql php7.4-mbstring php7.4-xml php7.4-bcmath php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-zip

for PHP 7.3,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.3-mysql php7.3-mbstring php7.3-xml php7.3-bcmath php7.3-curl php7.3-gd php7.3-zip

for PHP 7.2,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql php7.2-mbstring php7.2-xml php7.2-bcmath php7.2-curl php7.2-gd php7.2-zip

for PHP 7.1,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.1-mysql php7.1-mbstring php7.1-xml php7.1-bcmath php7.1-curl php7.1-gd php7.1-zip

for PHP 7.0,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.0-mysql php7.0-mbstring php7.0-xml php7.0-bcmath php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-zip

Linux IP Command with Examples - An overview ?

This article covers the practical use cases of the Linux IP command. IP stands for Internet Protocol. IP command is used to show or manipulate routing, devices, and tunnels. It is similar to ifconfig command but it is much more powerful with more functions and facilities attached to it. It can perform several other tasks like configuring and modifying the default and static routing, setting up tunnel over IP, listing IP addresses and property information, modifying the status of the interface, assigning, deleting and setting up IP addresses and routes.


Linux system commands:

  • arp — Manipulate the system ARP cache.
  • ifconfig — View or modify the configuration of network interfaces.
  • netstat — Print information about network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships.
  • route — Display and manipulate the IP routing table.
  • tcpdump — Capture raw network traffic.

How to use "sed" Command to Delete a Single Line and Multiple Lines in Linux Mint 20 ?

This article covers the different ways you can use the "sed" command in Linux Mint 20. Sed command or Stream Editor is very powerful utility offered by Linux/Unix systems. It is mainly used for text substitution , find & replace but it can also perform other text manipulations like insertion, deletion, search etc. 

Top 7 Free and Best Open-Source Help Desk Management Software

Help desk management software solutions help organizations and companies streamline their query management procedures and related tasks. The help desk team instead of answering calls throughout the day, install and implement these solutions that create, track, and manages the query tickets. Thereby offering a prompt solution and response to both the questioner and responder. The Help Desk software solutions discussed in the article are OTRS, osTicket, GLPi, Mantis Bug Tracker, Sinergia, AdefHelpDesk, and Liberum.

Install and Use Logwatch on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Guide ?

This article covers how to install and use Logwatch on Ubuntu Linux System. Logwatch is a system log analyzer and send that report to email. It generates a summarized log report which contains sshd - authentication failures, sudo - sessions opened, vsftp failures, postfix, failed logins, disk space and more. To find more information, visit the Logwatch man page.

Logwatch can be installed simply from the Ubuntu repository. First update the system.

$ sudo apt-get update

To install Logwatch, execute the command:

$ apt-get install logwatch

Install or Enable Cockpit on AlmaLinux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install and get started with the Cockpit web-administration tool for monitoring system statistics, metrics, and overall health. The cockpit is accessed through a web browser and its dashboard gives you a peek of your server's health alongside other system statistics such as network usage, disk space, and utilization, current users, system uptime, running processes, and system logs.


Monitor System Resources with Glances on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install and get started with the Glances monitoring tool on Ubuntu. 

To view more help, you can use the glances –help command.

By default, Glances is included in the Ubuntu default repository. You can install it with the following command:

$ apt-get install glances -y

After installing Glances, verify the installed version of Glances using the following command:

$ glances --version


Glances monitors and display the information about:

  • RAM, Swap, and free memory usage.
  • Average CPU load of the system.
  • Total active and sleeping processes.
  • Disk I/O.
  • Display file system space.
  • Display current date and time.

Install Kong API Gateway on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the KONG API Gateway on Ubuntu 20.04. These Gateways provides services like Authentication, rate-limiting, analysis, logging etc., to your API endpoints.

To Start kong API, run the following commands:

$ kong migrations up #runs the database migrations
$ sudo kong start
$ curl -i http://localhost:8001

To Stop and see status of kong API, run the following commands:

$ sudo kong stop #stop kong
$ sudo kong health #kong status

Install ROS Noetic on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install ROS Noetic on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. ROS (Robot Operating System) is an open-source project that provides a framework and tools for robotics applications. It helps to design complex software without knowing how certain hardware works.

Add and Remove Users in Debian 10 system - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can easily remove or add a new user to your Debian 10 system. One of the most basic tasks that you should know how to do on a fresh Linux server is add and remove users. 

In order to add and delete users on Debian, you need to have sudo rights, or to belong to the sudo group.

To check your sudo rights, run the following command:

$ sudo -v

If no error messages appear, you are good to go, otherwise ask your system administrator to provide you with sudo rights.


How to add a user using useradd ?

Run the following command:

$ sudo useradd <username>

To assign a password to the user, you can use the -p flag but it is not recommended as other users will be able to see the password.

To assign a password to a user, use the passwd command:

$ sudo passwd <username>

Install TeamViewer on AlmaLinux 8 / Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily install TeamViewer on AlmaLinux 8. With TeamViewer you can control computer systems running Linux, Windows and Mac OS remotely as if you were sitting right in front of that system. It also provides a spontaneous support to unattended computers such as servers.

Install and Configure Log with Graylog in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers to install and configuren Graylog in ubuntu. With this, you can work with the log using the Graylog server. Graylog is an open-source tool that offers an integrated platform for collecting, indexing, and analyzing log data. The system essentially consists of the Graylog web interface, the Graylog servers, the Elasticsearch nodes, and a Mongo database.


How to Access Graylog Web interface ?

Open a browser on your local system or remote that can access the Ubuntu 20.04 server Ip-address. And type the http://your-server-ipaddress:9000

Replace your-server-ip-address with the actual IP address of your Server where Graylog has been installed.

Df Command in Linux - How is works ?

This article covers how to use the df command in Linux. You can use the df command when you need to know how much space is available on a particular file system or to see an overview of mounted files systems.

If you want to display all the file system, use -a option:

df -a


Options for df command includes:

  • -a, –all : includes pseudo, duplicate and inaccessible file systems.
  • -B, –block-size=SIZE : scales sizes by SIZE before printing them.
  • -h, –human-readable : print sizes in power of 1024.
  • -H, –si: print sizes in power of 1000.
  • -i, –inodes : list inode information instead of block usage.
  • -l, –local : limit listing to local file systems.
  • -P, –portability : use POSIX output format.
  • –sync : invoke sync before getting usage info.
  • –total : elide all entries insignificant to available space, and produce grand total.
  • -t, –type=TYPE : limit listing to file systems of type TYPE.
  • -T, –print-type : print file system type.

Install NtopNG on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers easy steps to install the NtopNG utility on your Linux Mint 20 system. Once it is installed on your system, you can start using it for network traffic monitoring after configuring it according to the specifications of your machine.

To check whether NtopNG is installed or not, run the command:

$ systemctl status ntopng

To start NtopNG service, execute the command:

$ systemctl start ntopng

Top 7 Best Free SSL Certificate Services

This article covers a detailed review of the leading SSL certificate provision services in the market. Many SSL certificate providers offer brilliant security and privacy-related services but at a hefty cost. However, in this article, we discuss the SSL certificate providers that offer their World Wide Web protection services either for free or offer free trials so that users can acquaint themselves with the services to make the best decisions for their products, or their organizations. Let's Encrypt and SSL For Free offer free SSL certification for all, whereas Comodo, Cloudfare, HubSpot, GeoTrust, and GoDaddy offer free trials varying between the free trial periods ranging from 14 days for up to 30 days.

Website security is a top concern for site owners and visitors alike. If your site isn't secure, people won’t feel safe browsing, purchasing, making clicks, or entering any information on your pages.

Update Firmware on Ubuntu Using fwupd - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to update firmware on Ubuntu using fwupd. Fwupd aims to make firmware update on Linux systems automatic, safe, and reliable. It is mainly used to update UEFI firmware. There are many companies that already support native firmware updates such as Dell, Lenovo, HP, Intel, and System76. 


To Install fwupd on Ubuntu, run the following command:

$ sudo apt install fwupd

To download and apply all updates for your system use the update option:

$ fwupdmgr update

Install Node.JS on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the Installation process of NodeJS on Rocky Linux. Nodejs is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine and is designed to build scalable network applications.

Install and Use Logwatch on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the Logwatch utility on your Linux server. With Logwatch, you will be able to keep an eye on your server logs and hence, you can quickly figure out any possible issues.

You can easily customize Logwatch to your preference by modifying the parameters in the /etc/logwatch/conf path. It also provides something extra in the way of pre-written PERL scripts for making log parsing easier.

All the default settings are defined in the /usr/share/logwatch/default.conf/logwatch.conf file. The recommended practice is to leave this file intact and instead create your own configuration file at the /etc/logwatch/conf/ path by copying the original config file and then define your custom settings.


Logwatch comes with a tiered approach and there are 3 main locations where configuration details are defined:

  • /usr/share/logwatch/default.conf/*
  • /etc/logwatch/conf/dist.conf/*
  • /etc/logwatch/conf/*


To install Logwatch on your server.

On Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt-get install logwatch

On Debian:

$ apt-get install logwatch

Usermod Linux Command with Examples

This article covers different use cases of using the usermod command. The usermod command in Linux is used to manage user properties at command line. The syntax of the usermod command is following:

$ usermod [option] [argument] username

Use pkill Command in Linux System - An overview ?

This article covers how to use the pkill command in Linux. pkill is basicity a wrapper around the pgrep program that only prints a list of matching processes.

The syntax for the pkill command is as follows:

$ pkill [OPTIONS] <PATTERN>

The matching <PATTERN> is specified using extended regular expressions.

For more information about pkill command, visit the pkill man page or type man pkill in your terminal.


Other Linux commands:

  • ps — Report the status of a process or processes.
  • killall — Kill processes by name.
  • kill — Send a signal to a process, affecting its behavior or killing it.

Rmmod Command in Linux - An Overview ?

This article covers the process of removing modules by using rmmod from the Linux kernel. In fact, rmmod is a simple program which removes (unloads) a module from the Linux kernel. In most cases, you will want to use modprobe with the -r option instead, as it is more robust and handles dependencies for you.


Important Linux System Commands:

  • depmod — Generate a list of kernel module dependencies and associated map files.
  • insmod — Insert a module into the Linux kernel.
  • lsmod — Show the status of Linux kernel modules.
  • modinfo — Show information about a Linux kernel module.
  • modprobe — Add and remove modules from the Linux kernel.

Rename Files and Directories in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers different methods to Rename Files and Directories Using Linux Terminal. We can rename files and directories with rename and mv commands in the Linux Terminal. The mv command can only rename one file at a time, but the rename command can rename multiple files simultaneously.


How to Rename Files and Directories Using the mv Command ?

The mv command can rename files and directories. It is also used to move files and directories from one location to another.

Syntax of mv Command:

$ mv [OPTIONS] source destination

The source can be one or more files or directories, and the destination is always a single file or directory.

Migrate to AlmaLinux 8.4 from CentOS Linux - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the process of migrating to AlmaLinux from CentOS 8. AlmaLinux OS is a new RHEL fork from the team at CloudLinux. It is meant to be a free Linux Operating System, developed in close co-operation with the community, and for the community. As of this article update, the release of AlmaLinux available is not stable fit for production use. AlmaLinux OS is now stable and can be used in Production environments.


To Migrate from CentOS 8 To AlmaLinux 8.4.

1. Download the almalinux-deploy.sh script:

$ curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/AlmaLinux/almalinux-deploy/master/almalinux-deploy.sh

2. Give the script execution bits:

$ chmod +x almalinux-deploy.sh

3. Then run the script with the commands below:

$ sudo bash ./almalinux-deploy.sh

Add a User to Sudoers on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to add users into the sudoers group. Also you will learn how to edit rules in the sudoers configuration file through the command. You can customize the sudoers file based on the user requirements. Sudo stands for superuser do. Sudo is a command used in Unix-like systems to allow a regular user to execute a program as another user. In most cases, it is the root user.

The sudo command allows authorized users to perform commands as another user, which is by default the root user. 

This option gives you administrator-level permissions to run programs on your machine. It is an alternative to using the su command.

Install Cockpit on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can easily install Cockpit on your CentOS system and manage other Linux servers. With Cockpit, you can have a quick glance at the performance of all your added servers. Also, you can monitor system resources, start and stop services, shut down the system, install updates, view network activity (send/received). create or remove user accounts, access Terminal, and much more on the remote servers. Cockpit helps to save a lot of time by letting the administrators manage the remote servers that are spread across the network using a lightweight and intuitive interface. 


Benefits of Cockpit in our GNU/Linux servers:

  • It consists of systemd service manager for ease.
  • It has a Journal log viewer to perform troubleshoots and log analysis.
  • Storage setup including LVM was never easier before.
  • Basic Network configuration can be applied with Cockpit
  • We can easily add and remove local users and manage multiple servers.


To Install  and enable Cockpit packages from repository, run the command:

$ sudo yum install cockpit

Type "y" and it will start downloading and installing the required packages.

To enable the Cockpit with the following command:

# sudo systemctl start cockpit

or

$ sudo systemctl enable --now cockpit.socket


To confirm the status of Cockpit, run the command:

# sudo systemctl status cockpit

Migrate from CentOS 8 To Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily migrate to Rocky Linux 8.4 from CentOS 8. Rocky Linux is a community enterprise operating system designed to be 100% compatible with RedHat Enterprise Linux. Rocky Linux dev team has created a migration script called migrate2rocky to easily convert an existing CentOS 8 system to Rocky Linux 8.


To Upgrade the current CentOS 8 Linux system to latest available version, run the command:

$ sudo dnf --refresh upgrade

After update is completed, Reboot your system:

$ sudo reboot

Install LAMP Stack on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LAMP stack on Rocky Linux 8.4. You can now proceed to test or host your website and applications. A LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


How to Install  and configure Apache Web Server ?

1. First, we will start by installing the Apache web server. To complete the installation, use the following command:

$ yum install httpd httpd-tools

2. Once the installation is complete, enable Apache (to start automatically upon system boot), start the web server and verify the status using the commands below:

$ systemctl enable httpd
$ systemctl start httpd
$ systemctl status httpd

3. To make your pages available to public, you will have to edit your firewall rules to allow HTTP and HTTPS requests on your web server by using the following commands:

$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http 
$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https 
$ firewall-cmd --reload
4. Verify that the web server is running and accessible by accessing your server’s IP address:
$ echo "Hello there, Apache webserver is now running" > /var/www/html/index.html

5. And restart tht Web Server to reflect the changes made:

$ systemctl restart httpd

From your browser,

http://IP_address


How to Install PHP on CentOS ?

1. To install PHP on your RHEL 8 use the command below:

$ yum install -y php-mysqlnd php-dom php-simplexml php-xml php-xmlreader php-curl php-exif php-ftp php-gd php-iconv  php-json php-mbstring php-posix php-sockets php-tokenizer

2. Now restart your web server so that Apache knows that it will be serving PHP requests as well:

$ systemctl restart httpd

Different methods to Find the Interface Link Speed in Linux Mint 20

This article covers the different ways you can easily find out the interface link speed of any specific interface in Linux Mint 20. IP command is similar to ifconfig, which is used for assigning Static IP Address, Route & Default Gateway, and so on.

Also the ethtool command is used to query or control network driver and hardware settings:

# ethtool eth0

Find Linux Server Geographic Location in Terminal - The best Method ?

This article covers how to get the geographical information of a Linux server via the command line. IP addresses provide an easy way to track the location of the server in the world by using two useful APIs provided by ipinfo.io and ipvigilante.com to get the city, state, and country connected with a server.

To get the IP address geographic location of the server, we need to install curl command line downloader and jq command-line tool to process the JSON data from the geolocation APIs:

$ sudo apt install curl jq		#Ubuntu/Debian
$ sudo yum install curl jq #CentOS/RHEL
$ sudo dnf install curl jq #Fedora 22+
$ sudo zypper install curl jq #openSUSE

To get the server's public IP address, use the following curl command to make an API request to ipinfo.io in your terminal:

$ curl https://ipinfo.io/ip

Install Apache Maven on CentOS 8 - Easy Method ?

This article covers the installation methods( Yum package manager or via direct download method), you can easily install Apache Maven on CentOS. Apache Maven is basically a software project management and comprehension tool. 


How to check Apache Maven on Linux?

Use the following command to check the version of installed Maven on your system:

$ mvn -version

Bash For Loops - An overview with Examples

This article covers different loop formats available in Bash Scripting. Bash For loop is a statement that lets you iterate specific set of statements over series of words in a string, elements in a sequence, or elements in an array.


The syntax of the for loop is:

for VARIABLE in PARAM1 PARAM2 PARAM3
do
  // scope of for loop
done

Install bashtop on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install the "bashtop" utility on your Linux Mint 20 system. Bashtop is a command-line based resource monitor written in bash, which depicts usage and statistics for the CPU processor(s), RAM, hard disks, network sources, and other running processes. It also contains a customizable menu and a fully responsive terminal user interface. 

Now, you will be able to use this utility for monitoring the resource usage statistics on your system. 


To Run or start Bashtop application, run one of the following commands.

# bashtop
# bpytop

Install the Brackets Code Editor on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers the process of installing Brackets on a Linux Mint 20 system. Once this code editor is installed on your system, you can conveniently use it for professional-level frontend development. 

Brackets is a modern open-source code editor for HTML, CSS and JavaScript that’s built-in HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It has two great features: quick edit and live preview. It was created for front end developers and designers and has a very attractive interface. Brackets is developed by Adobe and is focused on web designers and front-end developers.


To Install Brackets Code Editor on Ubuntu:

1. make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install Brackets Code Editor.

$ sudo snap install brackets --classic

Disable SELinux on CentOS 7 - How to do it ?

This article covers method to permanently disable SELinux on CentOS 7. SELinux, also known as Security-Enhanced Linux, is a security feature embedded in the Linux kernel. SELinux leverages Mandatory Access controls (MAC) to confine users to certain rules and policies and prevents them from performing unauthorized tasks on the Linux system as specified by the IT administrator

To Check SELinux status, simply run the command:

# sestatus

Install Minikube on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Minikube on your Ubuntu 20.04 machine. Minikube is an open source tool that allows you to set up a single-node Kubernetes cluster on your local machine. The cluster is run inside a virtual machine and includes Docker, allowing you to run containers inside the node. 

Now, you can use the single-node Kubernetes with minikube to learn one of the most famous containers orchestration tools in the Cloud Native era. 


To enable and access kubernetes dashboard , run the command:

$ minikube dashboard

This will open the Kubernetes dashboard in the web browser.


To stop the minikube, run:

$ minikube stop

To delete the minikube, run:

$ minikube delete

To Start the minikube, run:

$ minikube start

Use tcpdump Command in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to use the tcpdump command for troubleshooting and analyzing the network on your Linux system. tcpdump is the world's premier network analysis tool—combining both power and simplicity into a single command-line interface.

Basically, tcpdump is a valuable tool for anyone looking to get into networking or information security.

The raw way it interfaces with traffic, combined with the precision it offers in inspecting packets make it the best possible tool for learning TCP/IP.

Protocol Analyzers like Wireshark are great, but if you want to truly master packet-fu, you must become one with tcpdump first.

Install PostgreSQL 13 on Rocky Linux - Best Method ?

This article covers PostgreSQL 13 installation on Rocky Linux 8.4. Basically, PostgreSQL is the world's most advanced open source database system. And with the release of PostgreSQL 13 there are significant improvements to the indexing and lookup system that benefit large databases, and faster response times for queries that use aggregates or partitions.


How to Enable and Start PostgreSQL Service ?

To enable and start the PostgreSQL database service so that it can start automatically with system boot:

$ sudo systemctl start postgresql-13
$ sudo systemctl enable postgresql-13

To confirm everything is working fine, check the status of PostgreSQL service:

$ sudo systemctl status postgresql-13

Install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Gitea is a self-facilitated open-source git worker written in Go. It is a fork of Gogs . Gitea incorporates a store record supervisor, venture issue following, clients administrations, notices, implicit wiki, and considerably more. 

To Install Git on Linux, run the commands: 

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

To Confirm Git Installation, execute the command: 

$ git --version

Install Puppet on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the installation of a puppet server on both master and client nodes and how to connect them. Ensure that you sign the puppet agent node certificate for both the master and client-side.

Puppet is a free and open-source automated administrative engine for Linux, Unix, and Windows operating systems. It is used for deploying, configuring, and managing servers and performs administrative tasks such as adding users, installing packages, and many more. It helps system admins to free up time and mental space by automating tasks on thousands of physical and virtual machines. It uses a client-server model. Where Puppet master controls configuration information for Puppet agents while Puppet agents talk to and pull down configuration profiles from the Puppet master.

Check Laptop Battery Status on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers different methods for checking the battery status on CentOS 8. The battery status and ACPI https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Configuration_and_Power_Interface information is stored in /proc and /sys directory. Using "upower" command or "acpi" command you can get this information.

upower is a command line tool which provides an interface to enumerate power sources on the system. Execute below command in the terminal.

The upower command will show detailed information about the battery:

$ upower -i /org/freedesktop/UPower/devices/battery_BAT1

Install and Configure Monit Monitoring Server on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Install Monit monitoring server on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Monit is an open-source utility used to supervise the processes and restart the services which are configured for it and have failed. Monit supervises the processes and restarts them on failure detection. Apart from the processes, Monit can also be used to monitor CPU, RAM, Disk, File Size and trigger alerts on out-of-bound values. It also shows how to trigger alert emails using custom templates. 

Now you can easily monitor your system using this lightweight tool.


To Install Monit on Ubuntu, run the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install monit

Clear Apt Cache on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the best method of listing and cleaning the apt cache on your Ubuntu system. Ubuntu users can clean Apt archive cache using sudo apt-get clean and sudo apt-get autoclean commands. The apt-get is a APT package handling utility or the command-line tool for handling packages. These commands clears out the local repository. The autoclean command only removes packages and files that are no longer in use. Ubuntu users can also do the same task from Synaptic package manager. Open Synaptic, go to Settings > Preferences > File tab. Select to delete packages that are no longer in use.

To clean Apt archive cache folder on Ubuntu, run:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get clean
$ sudo apt-get autoclean


  • clean – clean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. It removes everything but the lock file from /var/cache/apt/archives/ and /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/.
  • autoclean – Like clean, autoclean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. The difference is that it only removes package files that can no longer be downloaded, and are largely useless. This allows a cache to be maintained over a long period without it growing out of control. The configuration option APT::Clean-Installed will prevent installed packages from being erased if it is set to off.

Add Users to Sudo Group On Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to add and remove users in the sudo group to manage the sudo privileges of the users. sudo is a command-line program that allows trusted users to execute commands as root or another user.

Use Conditional Statements in Bash Scripts

This article covers an overview of conditional statements in bash scripts. Bash expression is the combination of operators, features, or values used to form a bash conditional statement. Conditional expression could be binary or unary expression which involves numeric, string or any commands whose return status is zero when success.

Bash if conditionals can have different forms. The most basic if statement takes the following form:

if TEST-COMMAND
then
  STATEMENTS
fi

DockerSlim to Minify, Optimize, and Secure Docker Container in Linux

This article covers how to install DockerSlim in the Linux system and how it can be used to optimize and secure Docker containers. DockerSlim has an interactive shell that you can use to slim and secure your containers.

You can open DockerSlim shell by typing docker-slim on you terminal.


The basic commands for dockerslim include:

  • Build – Analyzes, profiles and optimizes your container image then generates the supported security profiles.
  • xray – Used to perform a static analysis of a container image, you can use this command if you want to see what makes the container fat.
  • lint – Used to analyse container instructions in a DockerFile.
  • profile – Used to perform an analysis of the container image without generating an optimized image.

10 Best Ways to Secure Your SSH Server

This article covers methods of hardening SSH servers that help to avoid different security risks. With the advancements in technology, many business processes we carry out today heavily relies on the internet, online tools and connected devices. That is why taking the necessary precautions to ensure the network security has utmost importance. If an organization fails to secure their network, they are open to cyber attacks which can result in data breaches, losing digital assets, losing business and even going out of business.


How to secure SSH ?

If you want to make sure that your SSH server is impenetrable and secure, you should follow the steps below:

  • Set a custom SSH port. By default, SSH is set to be listening on port 22. Unfortunately, almost all cyber attackers know that. That is why changing it to something random like Port 821 offers an additional layer of security by obscurity.
  • Employ TCP wrappers. TCP Wrappers offer a host-based ACL protection that will allow you to sort out and filter who is able to access the SSH server.
  • Disable root login. Another default setting of the SSH server is that it allows root login on Unix and Linux operating systems. Since this feature can easily be exploited by the cyber attackers, we advise you to disable it.
  • Disable empty passwords. Again, in Unix and Linux operating systems, SSH server allows the users to create empty passwords which practically mean keeping the door open for intruders. Make sure that no user opts for an empty password by disabling the option.
  • Block SSH brute force attacks. In order to do so, you can opt for manually going through the system logs, detect the intruders and block them by using the firewall. Another (and much easier) method is using tools like Fail2ban, SSHGuard and such.

Install Emacs Editor on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers different methods to install the emacs editor on CentOS 8 system. Emacs is one of the oldest and most versatile text editors available for Linux and UNIX-based systems. It's been around for a long time (more than twenty years for GNU emacs) and is well known for its powerful and rich editing features. Emacs is also more than just a text editor; it can be customized and extended with different "modes", enabling it to be used like an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for programming languages like Java, C or Python.


To Install Emacs via EPEL repository, Run the following command:

$ sudo dnf update
$ sudo dnf install epel-release
$ sudo dnf install emacs

Mount a Drive on Linux - Best Method ?

This article covers the process of Mounting and unmounting a drive or an ISO image in Linux. After creating disk partitions and formatting them properly, you may want to mount or unmount your drives.

On Linux, mounting drives is done via mountpoints on the virtual filesystem, allowing system users to navigate the filesystem as well as create and delete files on them.


How to List Mounted File Systems and Linux Drives ?

To display all currently attached file systems we will type:

$ mount

By default, the output will include all of the file systems including the virtual ones such as cgroup, sysfs, and others. Each line contains information about the device name, the directory to which the device is mounted, the filesystem type and the mount options.


How to install NFS client on Ubuntu and Debian ?

NFS stands for Network File System. To mount an NFS share you'll need to have the NFS client package installed on your Linux system.

1. To install NFS client on Ubuntu and Debian, type:

$ sudo apt install nfs-common

2. To install NFS client on CentOS and Fedora:

$ sudo yum install nfs-utils

Ansible Roles and How to Use them in Playbooks

This article covers how to Create Roles and Use them in Ansible Playbooks. Ansible is a configuration management tool that is designed to automate controlling servers for administrators and operations teams. With Ansible you can use a single central server to control and configure many different remote systems using SSH and Python as only requirements. Ansible carries out tasks on servers that it manages based on task definitions. These tasks invoke built-in and community maintained Ansible modules using small snippets of YAML for each task.

However, playbooks can become complex when they are responsible for configuring many different systems with multiple tasks for each system, so Ansible also lets you organize tasks in a directory structure called a Role. In this configuration, playbooks invoke roles instead of tasks, so you can still group tasks together and then reuse roles in other playbooks. Roles also allow you to collect templates, static files, and variables along with your tasks in one structured format.

Create a Bootable USB Drive Using Ventoy - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Create Multiboot USB from Linux Using Ventoy. A bootable USB is commonly used as an operating system installer. To create bootable USB download appropriate .iso,.dmg or .img file and then copy/unpack to a USB.

Commonly, at a time one ISO image is used in a USB and have to reformat drive each time to boot another Operating system. This will end up with many bootable USB drives to keep.

The idea is to get the USB drive ready for multibooting. Then you can copy the ISO images of the operating systems that you want in the first partition. Ventoy will then search for them and list them in alphabetical order on the GRUB menu.

Run Shell Script as Systemd Service in Linux

This article covers how to run your own shell script as a systemd service. Basically, Systemd is a software application that provides an array of system components for Linux operating systems. It is the first service to initialize the boot sequence. This always runs with pid 1. This also helps use to manage system and application service on our Linux operating system.


How to Enable New Service in Linux?

1. To reload the systemctl daemon to read new file, execute:

$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload 

2. To enable the service to start on system boot, also start the service using the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl enable shellscript.service 
$ sudo systemctl start shellscript.service 

3. To verify the script is up and running as a systemd service:

$ sudo systemctl status shellscript.service

Install KDevelop in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers How to Install kdevelop in Ubuntu Linux System. KDevelop is a robust IDE that includes useful extensions, and also several high-quality features. KDevelop is a great option of IDE for Linux distributions due because of its stability and security.

To Install kdevelop software package in Ubuntu, run the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install kdevelop

Add and Remove User in CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to add a user as well as how to remove it in case you no longer need it. We also described how to add and remove a user to and from a group. If you are using Ubuntu distribution, visit how to add or remove users in Ubuntu

You may need to create separate account for every user want to connect this system. To add new users in system there are two commands available in your system, useradd and adduser. adduser command is the enhanced version of useradd command. adduser command uses useradd command in backend. 

Linux Touch Command Examples - How it works ?

This article covers a few basic examples of the touch command. For more information use 'man touch' to view the manual page. In fact, the touch command is a standard command used in UNIX/Linux operating system which is used to create, change and modify timestamps of a file.


Touch Command Options

  • -a to change the access time only.
  • -c if the file does not exist, do not create it.
  • -d to update the access and modification times.
  • -m to change the modification time only.
  • -r to use the access and modification times of file.
  • -t creates a file using a specified time.

Install Google Cloud SDK on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Install and Set Up Google Cloud SDK on Ubuntu 20.04. The Google Cloud SDK provides us with the ability to access the Google Cloud via the terminal. It is a development toolkit that comes with multiple commands that help in managing the resources within the Google Cloud environment. 

Monitor Network Socket Connection Using 9 'ss' Command

This article covers how to monitor socket connection using ss command. ss command is a tool that is used for displaying network socket related information on a Linux system. The tool displays more detailed information that the netstat command which is used for displaying active socket connections.

The basic ss command without any options simply lists all the connections regardless of the state they are in:

$ ss

Install and Run Jenkins with Systemd and Docker on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Run Jenkins Server in Docker Container with Systemd. Jenkins is an opensource automation server that is designed to help software developers build, test and deploy applications and thereby streamline the continuous integration and delivery process. 

To create a system group for Jenkins, run the command:

$ sudo groupadd --system jenkins

Then create Jenkins system user:

$ sudo useradd -s /sbin/nologin --system -g jenkins jenkins

And finally add Jenkins user to docker group as shown:

$ sudo usermod -aG docker jenkins

To confirm that Jenkins user is added to the docker group, run the id command as shown:

$ id jenkins

Prevent SSH From Timing Out - Best Method ?

This article covers different ways of keeping SSH sessions alive and preventing them from needlessly timing out. These are handy tips that you can use especially when there are no associated risks with someone taking over your SSH session when you are away. SSH sessions will timeout and the client will automatically be disconnected from the server after being idle or inactive for a while. 


To Avoid SSH timeout from the server:

1. Edit SSHd configuration file using your favorite editor,

$ sudo vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

2. Set these options as the followings:

TCPKeepAlive no 
ClientAliveInterval 30
ClientAliveCountMax 240

Here, the server will not send the TCP alive packet to check if the client's connection is working, yet will still send the encrypted alive message every 30 seconds. It will only disconnect after at least 2 hours of inactivity. 

Define and Use Handlers in Ansible Playbooks

This article covers Ansible features which you can use to write playbooks for server automation. Basically, Handlers are just like normal tasks in an Ansible playbook but they run only when if the Task contains a "notify" directive. It also indicates that it changed something. handlers will perform an action when listens for a notify event. If nothing notifies a handler, it will not run. Regardless of how many tasks notify a handler, it will run only once, after all of the tasks completed in a particular play. 

Linux Stat Command Examples

This article covers how to use the Linux stat command. Basically, The stat command gives important information about filesystems. stat command is a useful utility for viewing file or file system status. It retrieves information such as file type; access rights in octal and human-readable; SELinux security context string; time of file birth, last access, last data modification, last status change in both human-readable and in seconds since Epoch, and much more. Also, It has an option to specify a custom format instead of the default, for displaying information.

Check CPU Temperature Using lm-Sensors and hddtemp

This article covers how you can monitor the temperature of your CPU cores, hard drive and other components attached to the motherboard.

When your PC is overheating, consider disassembling your PC and blowing it with a blower to get rid of all the dust which might be blocking the ventilation vents.

Also, ensure your laptop is placed on a hard surface and not on a cushy surface such as on a bed where the vents can easily get blocked.

Lastly, enable power saving mode and close any unnecessary applications.

Chmod Command in Ubuntu 20.04 - How it Works ?

This article covers both the symbolic and numeric mode of the chmod command. Control who can access files, search directories, and run scripts using the Linux's chmod command. This command helps modifies Linux file permissions.

In Linux, who can do what to a file or directory is controlled through sets of permissions. There are three sets of permissions. One set for the owner of the file, another set for the members of the file's group, and a final set for everyone else.


To change directory permissions in Linux, use the following:

  • chmod +rwx filename to add permissions.
  • chmod -rwx directoryname to remove permissions.
  • chmod +x filename to allow executable permissions.
  • chmod -wx filename to take out write and executable permissions.



We can use the -l (long format) option to have ls list the file permissions for files and directories.

$ ls -l


chmod Numerical Shorthand:

  • 0: (000) No permission.
  • 1: (001) Execute permission.
  • 2: (010) Write permission.
  • 3: (011) Write and execute permissions.
  • 4: (100) Read permission.
  • 5: (101) Read and execute permissions.
  • 6: (110) Read and write permissions.
  • 7: (111) Read, write, and execute permissions.

Install and Use Vim Editor in Linux - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install vim, followed by some basics on using vim and then uninstalling it. Vim (Vi IMproved) is a text editor that is upwards compatible to Vi. It can be used to edit all kinds of plain text. It is especially useful for editing config files and programs written in shell, python, perl, c/c++ and more. 

Among the various text editors in the world of Linux, Vim (or Vi IMproved) stands out for its versatility and for the functions it offers. In fact, Vim is able to speed up code writing, providing some shortcuts to perform all the operations of modification, deletion or replacement of the text. 

Vim Text Editor also allows you to install different plugins through which transforming this simple text editor into a real IDE for programming in different languages.


How to Install vim using apt on Linux ?

1. Open terminal application. You can also press CTRL+ALT+T keyboard shortcut.

2. Update package database by typing the sudo apt update command.

3. Search for vim packages run: sudo apt search vim.

4. Install vim on Ubuntu Linux, type: sudo apt install vim.

5. Verify vim installation by typing the vim --version command.

Modify User Password in Linux - Best method ?

This article covers how to change own and another user account passwords. It's recommended that to change your password frequently and use a unique password for each account for security purpose. Basically, you will learn how to change a password on any Linux distribution, including Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOs.

To change a password on behalf of a user, first sign on or "su" to the "root" account. Then type, ``passwd user'' (where user is the username for the password you are changing). The system will prompt you to enter a password. Passwords do not echo to the screen when you enter them.

You can also change your own password, by typing ``passwd'' (without specifying a username). You will be prompted to enter your old password for verification, and then a new password.


How to Change a Password in Linux?

To change the password in Linux you need to open the terminal and type the following command:

$ sudo passwd

After executing the command, you will be asked to enter the new password twice. 

Remove Files and Directories Using Linux Command Line - The Right way ?

This article covers how to Remove Files and Directories Using Linux Command.

The procedure to remove all files from a directory:

  • Open the terminal application.
  • To delete everything in a directory run: rm /path/to/dir/* .
  • To remove all sub-directories and files: rm -r /path/to/dir/* .

Use Shutdown Command in Linux - On Ubuntu | Debian ?

This article covers how to use of shutdown command in Linux with different arguments. Learn more by visit the shutdown man page.

On Unix-like operating systems, the shutdown command shuts down or reboots the system.

The shutdown command brings the system down in a secure way. All logged-in users are notified that the system is going down, and login operations are blocked. It is possible to shut the system down immediately, or after a specified delay.

All processes are first notified that the system is going down by the signal SIGTERM. This gives programs like vi time to save the file being edited, mail and news processing programs a chance to exit cleanly, etc.


Good Linux commands:

  • halt — Stop the computer.
  • poweroff — Stop the computer.
  • reboot — Stop the computer.
  • wall — Send a message to all logged-in users.

Wget Command Examples on Linux Command Line

This article covers different wget command for different operations along with options. Wget is a command line utility in linux to download files from the internet. It provides many features such as downloading multiple files, resuming stopped downloads, limiting the bandwidth, downloading in the background and can be used for taking mirrors of the site. Wget supports HTTP, HTTPS and FTP protocol to connect server and download files.

You can learn more about Wget visit the GNU wget Manual page.


How to Install wget on Ubuntu | Debian ?

If your operating system is Ubuntu, or another Debian-based Linux distribution which uses APT for package management, you can install wget with apt-get:

$ sudo apt-get install wget

Top 15 SCP Command Examples in Linux

This article covers some useful SCP commands to copy files/folders between hosts in the network. Linux administrator should be familiar with CLI environment. Since GUI mode in Linux servers is not a common to be installed. SSH may the most popular protocol to enable Linux administrator to manage the servers via remote in secure way. Built-in with SSH command there is SCP command. SCP is used to copy file(s) between servers in secure way.



SCP Basic syntax:

scp [options] username1@source_host:/location1/file1 username2@destination_host:/location2/file2

Some common scp command options include:

  • –P – Specify server SSH port.
  • –p – Preserve the timestamp for modification and access (note the lower-case).
  • –q – Quiet mode, don’t display progress or messages (will still show errors).
  • –C – Compress the data during transmission.
  • –r – Recursive – include subdirectories and their contents.

Top 5 Open-Source Monitoring Tools

This article covers the top monitoring tools in the market. Monitoring tools help ensure the stability of not only the computer systems and networks, but also help ensure the stability of a business or an enterprise. Many monitoring tools ask users to share information and data which usually businesses or enterprises are not comfortable sharing.

The open-source monitoring tools providing open access are free from the blame of data theft because, with open-source monitoring tools, the companies are not forced to share their data if they don't want to.

Monitoring is essential to businesses to ensure a necessary system is up and running. Monitoring different aspects of your IT Infrastructure setup can cause a lot of tantrum if not done properly with the right tools.

Change Timezone on CentOS 7 Server - Do it Now ?

This article covers how to change timezone in CentOS 7. A time zone is basically a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for constitutional, business and cultural purposes.

To get detailed information your CentOS server's date, time, and timezone you use the timedatectl command:

$ timedatectl

To Delete the current /etc/localtime file or symlink:

$ sudo rm -rf /etc/localtime

Enable SSH on Ubuntu 18.04 System - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install and Enable SSH service on Ubuntu 18.04 system. You can now login remotely to your server using any SSH client from Linux or Windows system. To increase security of SSH connection by Changing default SSH port to custom one on you system. Get more details about SSH server from official SSH site.

When establishing a remote connection between a client and a server, a primary concern is ensuring security. For Linux users, the best practice of accessing and managing your server remotely is through the cryptographic protocol known as Secure Shell (SSH).


How to Enable SSH on Ubuntu ?

1. To install SSH, first update the package repository cache with:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Now install the OpenSSH software package by entering:

$ sudo apt-get install openssh-server

If prompted, type in your password and press y (yes) to permit the installation.

3. To verify the installation was successful and SSH is running use the command:

$ sudo service ssh status

The confirmation message that you are looking for is: Active: active (running).

Change Hostname on CentOS 7 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to change the hostname on CentOS 7 using different methods. By default, your server is started with the server's given name as the hostname. Some software such as cPanel requires a valid fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for the hostname to be used during their licensing verification system.


To Change a server's hostname:

1. Using a text editor, open the server's /etc/sysconfig/network file. The following example shows how to open this file in the GNU nano text editor:

# sudo nano /etc/sysconfig/network

2. Modify the HOSTNAME= value to match your FQDN hostname, as shown in the following example:

HOSTNAME=myserver.domain.com

3. Open the file at /etc/hosts. To update the information for internal networking, change the host that is associated with the main IP address for your server, as shown in the following example:

127.0.0.1      localhost localhost.localdomain
123.45.67.89   hostname.domain.com   hostname

4. Run the hostname command. This command enables you to change the hostname on the server that the command line remembers, but it does not actively update all of the programs that are running under the old hostname. The following code provides an example:

# hostnamectl set-hostname hostname.domain.com
# hostname
hostname.domain.com
#

5. Use the following command to restart networking on your server to ensure that changes persist on restart:

# /etc/init.d/network restart

Change the SSH Port on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux Server

This article covers how to change SSH port on your Linux system. SSH (Secure shell) is a cryptographic network protocol used to connect to a remote server securely and it transfer the data in encrypted form between the host and the client.

The default TCP port for SSH is 22, and by changing this default port to the other, it can prevent automated bots and malicious users from being brutally forced into the server.

Before changing the default SSH port number, can check the current port with the below command:

# netstat -ntlp | grep ssh


To change the SSH port:

1. Open the main SSH daemon configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config:

# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

2. Now search line begins with Port 22 and add hashtag (#) in front of that line. 

3. Then add a new Port line below with the custom port.

Note: Replace the sample port number with the custom port number that needs to be set.

4. Save and exit.


How to Restart the SSH daemon for the changes to take effect ?

Run the below commands to restart the SSH daemon and verify that the port changed:

# systemctl restart sshd
# netstat -ntlp | grep ssh

Top 5 Open-Source Load Balancers 2021

This article reviews the Best Open Source Load Balancers. Load Balancing software assists virtual appliances in monitoring and distributing excess traffic. It helps network administrators and data centers maintain constant loading speed. The load balancing software is used to convey network traffic to specific servers with accurate configurations. 


Load Balancing Algorithms Types:

  • Round-robin Algorithm – The simplest method involves moving the requests within the same order to available servers. 
  • Least-time Algorithm – It selects servers supported by the smallest amount of active requests and the fastest processing speed. The algorithm integrates with powerful algorithms to give the server higher memory, capacity, and power. 
  • Least-connections Algorithm – This algorithm sends requests to servers with the smallest amount of workload. The algorithm sends requests to the smallest amount of busy servers. 
  • Hash-based Algorithm – It assists a hash key to the client and server IP addresses. The algorithm ensures that user's requests are sent to the identical servers containing data from the previous sessions. This ends up in an efficient network resource delivery.

Secure Apache with Let's Encrypt on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to use certbot client of Let’s Encrypt to obtain SSL certificate for you domain.

To set these up DNS records for your server, you can follow these instructions for adding domains and then these instructions for creating DNS records:

  • An A record with your_domain pointing to your server’s public IP address.
  • An A record with www.your_domain pointing to your server’s public IP address.


To install Certbot as a snap on Debian

You must first have snapd installed on your server. 

snapd is a daemon required to install, use, and manage snaps. 

Installing the snapd package will also install the snap command on your server.

1. To install snapd, update your local package index if you've not done so recently:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the snapd package:

$ sudo apt install snapd

After running this command, you'll be prompted to confirm that you want to install snapd and its dependencies.

Do so by pressing Y and then ENTER.

3. Next, use the snap command to install the core snap. This will install some dependencies on your server that are needed for any snap you install, including the Certbot snap:

$ sudo snap install core

4. Then refresh the core snap. Doing so will ensure that you have the latest versions of snapd and its dependencies installed:

$ sudo snap refresh core

Following that, you can install the certbot snap with the following command.

5. Because Certbot must be allowed to edit certain configuration files in order to correctly set up certificates, this command includes the --classic option. This confinement level allows any snaps installed under it the same access to system resources as traditional packages:

$ sudo snap install --classic certbot

6. Create a symbolic link to this file in the /usr/bin/ directory to ensure that you can run the certbot command anywhere on your system:

$ sudo ln -s /snap/bin/certbot /usr/bin/certbot

How to Compress and Extract Files Using the Tar, Zip Command on Ubuntu 20.4 Linux OS ?

This article covers how to archive and compress files using tar and zip commands with a few examples to show you how it works.

The tar command on Linux is often used to create .tar.gz or .tgz archive files, also called "tarballs".


How to Remove Files from a Tar Archive ?

Use the --delete operation to remove files from an archive.

The following example shows how to remove the file file1 from archive.tar:

$ tar --delete -f archive.tar file1

Install WordPress with Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install WordPress on Ubuntu 20.04 with Nginx HTTP Server and Let's Encrypt wildcard SSL Certificates. WordPress is a free, open-source, and most popular content management system that allows you to create a blog on the Internet.


You can install nginx, MariaDB, PHP and all the required PHP extensions with the following command:

$ apt-get install nginx mariadb-server php php-curl php-mysql php-gd php-intl php-mbstring php-soap php-xml php-xmlrpc php-zip php-fpm -y

Once the LEMP server is installed, start the Nginx and MariaDB service with the following command:

$ systemctl start nginx
$ systemctl start mariadb


Nginx's inbuilt features includes:

  • Nginx is built to work on low memory usage.
  • It can support extremely high concurrency.
  • Is Ipv6 enabled.
  • Supports reverse proxy with efficient caching.
  • Provides an inbuilt load balancer.
  • Supports WebSockets.
  • Optimized handling of index files, static files and provides auto indexing.
  • Is accompanied with FastCGI for efficient caching.

Install Discord on Linux (Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint) - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Discord on any Linux Distribution such as Linux Mint 20, Ubuntu 20.04, and Debian 10. Also, we explained a quick method of uninstalling this Discord platform from your Linux system.

You can either uninstall it from the software center or use this command in the terminal:

$ sudo apt remove discord


If you have enabled Snap support on your Linux distribution, you can use the following command to install it:

$ sudo snap install discord

If you want to remove it, you can use the snap command to uninstall it:

$ sudo snap remove discord

Install PHP (7.3, 7.2) on Debian 9 Stretch - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PHP 7.3 on Debian 9 (Stretch) and Debian 8 (Jessie). With PHP 7.3 comes a number of bug fixes, new functionalities and features as well as a number of deprecations.


To Set Default PHP Version on Debian ?

You can set the default PHP version with the below command incase your system has multiple PHP versions. Change php7.3 with the version you want to set as the default PHP version:

$ sudo update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php7.3

Install Apache on Debian 9 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install an Apache web server on your Debian 9 server. The Apache HTTP server is the most widely-used web server in the world. It provides many powerful features including dynamically loadable modules, robust media support, and extensive integration with other popular software.


How to Install Apache ?

1. Let's begin by updating the local package index to reflect the latest upstream changes:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then, install the apache2 package:

$ sudo apt install apache2

 After confirming the installation, apt will install Apache and all required dependencies.


The Apache profiles begin with WWW:

1. WWW: This profile opens only port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic).

2. WWW Cache: This profile opens only port 8080 (sometimes used for caching and web proxies).

3. WWW Full: This profile opens both port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic) and port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).

4. WWW Secure: This profile opens only port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).


How to Manage Apache Process ?

To stop your web server, type:

$ sudo systemctl stop apache2

To start the web server when it is stopped, type:

$ sudo systemctl start apache2

To stop and then start the service again, type:

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

If you are simply making configuration changes, Apache can often reload without dropping connections. To do this, use this command:

$ sudo systemctl reload apache2

By default, Apache is configured to start automatically when the server boots. If this is not what you want, disable this behavior by typing:

$ sudo systemctl disable apache2

To re-enable the service to start up at boot, type:

$ sudo systemctl enable apache2

Apache should now start automatically when the server boots again.

Install LEMP Stack on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to install a LEMP stack on a Debian 10 server using MariaDB as the database management system. The LEMP software stack is a group of software that can be used to serve dynamic web pages and web applications. The name "LEMP" is an acronym that describes a Linux operating system, with an (E)Nginx web server. The backend data is stored in a MariaDB database and the dynamic processing is handled by PHP.

Although this software stack typically includes MySQL as the database management system, some Linux distributions — including Debian — use MariaDB as a drop-in replacement for MySQL.


To install Nginx Web Server.

1. Run the apt commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nginx

On Debian 10, Nginx is configured to start running upon installation.

Install LAMP Stack on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LAMP on Debian server along with PHPMyAdmin to manage your database. LAMP stands for Linux OS, with Apache web server, Data store in a MySql or MariaDB database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To install Apache on Debian:

1. Run the following command:

$ apt-get install apache2

2. To restart your web server by typing the following command:

$ service apache2 restart

Install LEMP Stack on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install a LEMP Stack on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. LEMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. LEMP stands for Linux OS, with the Nginx (pronounced like "Engine-X") web server, Data store in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To install Nginx Web Server:

1.  Run the commands below to install Nginx.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nginx

2. Allow traffic on port 80.

$ sudo ufw allow 'Nginx HTTP'

You can verify the change by running:

$ sudo ufw status

Install LAMP Stack on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step by step process to install a LAMP stack on an Ubuntu 18.04 server. LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to host dynamic websites. LAMP stands for Linux OS, with Apache web server, Data store in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To Install Apache and Update the Firewall.

1. Install Apache using Ubuntu’s package manager, apt:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install apache2

2. Allow incoming HTTP and HTTPS traffic for this profile:

$ sudo ufw allow in "Apache Full"

Configure Static IP Addresses on Ubuntu 18.04 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers method to set up a static IP address on Ubuntu 20.04. Basically, in most network configurations, the IP address is assigned dynamically by the router DHCP server. 

The recommended way to assign a static IP address to a device on your LAN is to configure a Static DHCP on your router. Static DHCP or DHCP reservation is a feature found on most routers which makes the DHCP server to automatically assign the same IP address to a specific network device, each time the device requests an address from the DHCP server. This works by assigning a static IP to the device's unique MAC address.


To Get the name of network interface and the default gateway in Linux:

You can either use ip command or the network manager CLI like this:

$ nmcli d

Install MySQL on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install MySQL version 8.0 on an Ubuntu 20.04 server. By completing it, you will have a working relational database that you can use to build your next website or application.

MySQL is an open-source database management system, commonly installed as part of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. It implements the relational model and uses Structured Query Language (better known as SQL) to manage its data.


To install MySQL using the APT package repository:

1. Update the package index on your server if you've not done so recently:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the mysql-server package:

$ sudo apt install mysql-server

This will install MySQL, but will not prompt you to set a password or make any other configuration changes. 

Because this leaves your installation of MySQL insecure, we will address this next.

Create a Sudo User on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to create a user with sudo privileges. You can now log in to your Ubuntu server with this user account and use sudo to run administrative commands.

Basically, The sudo command provides a mechanism for granting administrator privileges, ordinarily only available to the root user, to normal users. 

Find Out Which Processes are Listening on a Particular Port in Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers methods to find out the processes that are listening to particular ports on your Linux system. A port is nothing but an endpoint of communication used in computer networks.

You have physical or wireless connections at the hardware level. At software or operating system level a port act as a logical construct that acts as communication port of network service such as SSH, HTTPD and more.

TCP and UDP are the most common port. TCP is an acronym for Transmission Control Protocol. UDP is an acronym for User Datagram Protocol.


How to Find Out Which Process Is Listening Upon a Port in Linux ?

1. netstat command or ss command – a command-line tool that displays network connections, routing tables, and a number of network interface statistics.

2. fuser command – a command line tool to identify processes using files or sockets.

3. lsof command – a command line tool to list open files under Linux / UNIX to report a list of all open files and the processes that opened them.

4. /proc/$pid/ file system – Under Linux /proc includes a directory for each running process (including kernel processes) at /proc/PID, containing information about that process, notably including the processes name that opened port.

Clear RAM Cache, Buffer, and Swap Space on Linux System - How to do it ?

This article covers how to clear the cache and buffer memory of the physical memory along with clearing the swap space when needed.

Every Linux System has three options to clear cache without interrupting any processes or services.


If you want to clear Swap space, you may like to run the below command.

$ swapoff -a && swapon -a


To Clear PageCache, dentries and inodes:

$ sync; echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches


To Clear PageCache only:

$ sync; echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches


To Clear dentries and inodes:

$ sync; echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

Install Duplicity on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Duplicity on your Linux system. After doing that, you will be able to maintain the backups of your critical data and hence prevent data loss. Moreover, you can also easily remove this backup software tool from your Linux system.

If you are a system administrator and responsible for managing servers than backing up data is one of the most important tasks of you. 

So you must have enough knowledge of backup tools that makes your task easier.

Duplicity is a free, open-source and an advanced command-line backup utility built on top of librsync and GnuPG. It produces digitally signed, versioned and encrypted tar volumes for storage on a local or remote computer. 

Duplicity supports many protocols for connecting to a file server including, ssh/scp, rsync, ftp, DropBox, Amazon S3, Google Docs, Google Drive, local filesystem, OneDrive, WebDAV and many more.


To install and configure Duplicity to perform manually and automate backup on Ubuntu 20.04 server:

1. You can update all of them with the following command:

$ apt-get update -y

2. After updating all packages, you will also need to install some required dependencies on your server. You can install all of them by running the following command:

$ apt-get install ncftp python3-paramiko python-pycryptopp lftp python3-boto python3-dev librsync-dev -y

3. By default, Duplicity is available in the Ubuntu 20.04 default repository. You can install it by just running the following command:

$ apt-get install duplicity -y

4. Once installed, verify the installed version of Duplicity with the following command:

$ duplicity --version

Add Swap Space on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how we can add and maintain swap space in the ubuntu system. Swap space can take the form of either a dedicated swap partition or a swap file. Typically, when running Ubuntu on a virtual machine, a swap partition is not present, and the only option is to create a swap file.


To Adjust the Swappiness Value:

Swappiness is a Linux kernel property that defines how often the system will use the swap space. It can have a value between 0 and 100. A low value will make the kernel to try to avoid swapping whenever possible, while a higher value will make the kernel to use the swap space more aggressively.

On Ubuntu, the default swappiness value is set to 60. You can check the current value by typing the following command:

$ cat /proc/sys/vm/swappiness


To Remove a Swap File:

1. First, deactivate the swap space:

$ sudo swapoff -v /swapfile

2. Next, remove the swap file entry /swapfile swap swap defaults 0 0 from the /etc/fstab file.

3. Finally, remove the actual swapfile file using the rm command:

$ sudo rm /swapfile

Configure Network in Linux Using Netplan and NMTUI - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to set up your network interface using Netplan and NMTUI. Setting up the network interfaces is one of the most basic step that every system administrator and server engineers have to do to make it accessible over the network.

Netplan is based on YAML based configuration system that makes configuration process very simple. Netplan has replaced the old configuration file /etc/network/interfaces that we previously used for configuring network interfaces in Ubuntu.


To Restart the network service

1. Once all the configurations are successfully applied, restart the Network-Manager service by running the following command:

$ sudo systemctl restart network-manager

2. If you are using a Ubuntu Server, instead use the following command:

$sudo systemctl restart system-networkd


To Verify IP address

Now to verify if the new configurations are successfully applied, run the following command to verify the IP address:

$ ip a


The Netplan default configuration file is under the directory /etc/netplan

You can find that using the following command:

$ ls /etc/netplan/

To view the content of Netplan network configuration file, run the following command:

$ cat /etc/netplan/*.yaml

Configure ZFS on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to create ZFS storage pools, how to destroy the pool, and specify the mount point. ZFS is a combined file system and logical volume manager.

If you are dealing with large amounts of data, or providing a backing filesystem for virtualization, ZFS is a great choice.


Features of ZFS includes:

1. Protection against data corruption

2. High storage capacity (256 ZiB)

3. Snapshots and copy-on-write clones and continuous integrity checking to name but a few. 


To Install ZFS on Ubuntu:

1. The main components of ZFS are maintained as a standard Ubuntu package, so to install simply run:

$ sudo apt install zfsutils-linux

2. After that, we can check if ZFS was installed correctly by running:

$ whereis zfs

Create and Use Bash Aliases on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux System - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the procedure of creating and using bash aliases. Running long and complex commands is usually tedious and time-consuming. Aliases provide much-needed relief by providing shortcuts to those complex commands.

These shortcuts can easily be called on the terminal and yield the same result as the complex command. 

This tutorial shows how to create and add aliases permanently to your bash shell on Linux and Unix-like systems.


To Create Bash Aliases

Creating aliases in bash is very straight forward. 

The syntax is as follows:

alias alias_name="command_to_run"

An alias declaration starts with the alias keyword followed by the alias name, an equal sign and the command you want to run when you type the alias. 

Find and Kill Running Processes in Ubuntu 20.04 Linux System - How to do this ?

This article covers method to comfortably find and kill running process on a Linux system.

If you run an application, it runs some process in the background. If you want to close this application forcefully, you can kill the process associated to it.

To kill a process, you need to know the its process ID (PID). The next section tells you how to find the process ID of a program.


To Kill the process using the PID

1. Once you have the PID of the desired application, use the following command to kill the process:

$ sudo kill -9 process_id

2. If you have more than one process id, you can kill all of them together by providing all the PIDs.

$ sudo kill -9 process_id_1 process_id_2 process_id_3

Install Geary on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how easy it is to install Geary on a Linux Mint 20 system. However, if you do not want to use this email client anymore, then you can remove it from your Linux system all the more conveniently.

Geary is a GTK-based mail app that lets you read, find and send email through a modern interface replete with GNOME Shell desktop integrations (notifications, GNOME Online Accounts, etc). 

One major reason for using Geary over, say, Mozilla Thunderbird or Evolution is that it's built around  “conversations” rather than individual mails.


To Install Geary on Ubuntu

Add the Geary Team PPA to your software sources:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:geary-team/releases
$ sudo apt install geary

Securely Delete Files Using Shred Command in Debian 10 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to use the shred command in Debian 10 Buster system along with various command line options.

You have seen that how the shred command overwrites and deletes the files, making them hard to recover using any recovery tools.

Shred old data files for the same reason you shred old paper documents. 


Commands included in the secure-delete bundle:

1. srm is a secure rm, used to erase files by deleting them and overwriting their hard drive space.

2. sfill is a tool to overwrite all free space on your hard drive.

3. sswap is used to overwrite and cleanse your swap space.

4. sdmem is used to cleanse your RAM.


How to Shred a Single FIle ?

To shred a single file, we can use the following command.

The options we are using are:

i. u: Deallocate and remove the file after overwriting.

ii. v: Verbose option, so that shred tells us what it is doing.

iii. z: Performs a final overwrite with zeroes.

$ shred -uvz test.txt_01.txt

Here, shred overwrites the file four times by default.

The first three passes use random data, and the final pass uses zeroes, as we requested.

It then removes the file and overwrites some of the metadata in the inode.

Use the Who Command in Debian 10 - How to do it ?

This article covers the who command in Linux along with its some of the useful command line options.

Sometimes, while working on the command line, you might want to know more about logged in users.

There exists a command line utility who which you can use to access this kind of information.

Basically, the who command shows who all are logged in.

Here's its syntax:

$ who [OPTION]... [ FILE | ARG1 ARG2 ]


To access time of last system boot?

For this, use the -b command line option:

$ who -b

Top 5 Data Backup Software for Linux

This article covers Data Backup Software for Linux. Data Backup and Protection are key concerns of many users, companies, and organizations. For this purpose, many data backup and data protection systems have been introduced and still many are being developed every day, deciding to choose and select the best and most suitable platform meeting needs and requirements. Each tool offers enhanced and state-of-the-art capabilities to provide the utmost data protection and data backup. 

All the listed and discussed backup software, i.e., Acronis, Nakivo, IDrive, MSP360, and Backblaze assure utmost performance and are acclaimed by its users.

However, the task of selecting one tool among the top five best-listed backup software solely depends on user requirements and expectations from the backup tool along with the cost one is willing to spend on the backup software. 

Other than that, each tool listed provides commendable features and data protection services.


What to look for when choosing backup software for an enterprise?

Make sure the following features are supported backup software you deploy:

1. Open source software – You must use software for which the original source code is made freely available and may be and modified. This ensures that you can recover your data in case vendor/project stopped working on software or refused to provide patches.

2. Cross-platform support – Make sure backup software works well on the OS deployed on all desktop and server operating systems.

3. Data format – Open data format ensures that you can recover data in case vendor or project stopped working on software.

4. Autochangers – Autochangers are nothing but a variety of backup devices, including library, near-line storage, and autoloader. Autochangers allows you to automate the task of loading, mounting, and labeling backup media such as tape.

5. Backup media – Make sure you can backup data on tape, disk, DVD and in cloud storage such as AWS.

6. Encryption datastream – Make sure all client-to-server traffic will be encrypted to ensure transmission integrity over the LAN/WAN/Internet.

7. Database support – Make sure backup software can backup database server such as MySQL or Oracle.

8. Backup span multiple volumes – Backup software can split each backup (dumpfile) into a series of parts, allowing for different parts to existing on different volumes. This ensures that large backups (such as 100TB file) can be stored on larger than a single backup device such as disk or tape volume.

9. VSS (Volume Shadow Copy) – It is Microsoft's Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) and it is used to create snapshots of data that is to be backed up. Make sure backup software support VSS for MS-Windows client/server.

10. Deduplication – It is a data compression technique for eliminating duplicate copies of repeating data (for example, images).

11.  License and cost – Make sure you understand and use of open source license under which the original backup software is made available to you.

12. Commercial support – Open source software can provide community based (such as email list or fourm) or professional (such as subscriptions provided at additional cost) based support. You can use paid professional support for training and consulting purpose.

13. Reports and alerts – Finally, you must able to see backup reports, current job status, and get alert when something goes wrong while making backups.

Install Minecraft on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers different methods to install and launch Minecraft on Ubuntu OS. Also, you can remove Minecraft in case you need to do so.

Minecraft is a game about placing blocks and going on adventures. It's set in infinitely-generated worlds of wide open terrain – icy mountains, swampy bayous, vast pastures and much more – filled with secrets, wonders and peril!


To Install Minecraft on Ubuntu:

1. Open the Terminal application either through the system Application Launcher search bar or by using the Ctrl+Alt+T shortcut.

Then, enter the following command in order to download the file Minecraft.deb from the Mojang website:

$ wget -o ~/Minecraft.deb https://launcher.mojang.com/download/Minecraft.deb

2. The most feasible way to install software from the .deb package is through the gdebi tool. If you do not have gdebi installed on your system, you can install is through the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt install gdebi-core

3. Run the gdebi command as follows in order to install the Minecraft .deb package:

$ sudo gdebi ~/Minecraft.deb


How to Remove Minecraft from Ubuntu ?

You can completely remove Minecraft from your system along with all the configurations you might have made, through the following command:

$ sudo apt-get --purge remove minecraft launcher

You will be presented with a y/n option. Enter y and the Minecraft Launcher, and the downloaded game will be removed from your system.

Force User to Change Password at Next Login on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to force a user to change their password in any Linux Distribution.

If we create a user account with the default password, we can use this trick to force the user to change their account's default password when they first login to their account. 

This will hopefully improve the security of their account. 

We can achieve this in two ways.

1. Using passwd command

2. Using chage command

Display System and Hardware Details in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to check the system or hardware details of your Ubuntu 20.04 system.

If you want to check all the above details for Debian 10, click here. While to check system or hardware details for CentOS, click here


For the command line tool, inxi is available to check:

i. Audio/sound card(s), driver, sound server.

ii. System battery info

iii. CPU output

iv. Hard Disk info

v. Graphics card, driver, display server, resolution, renderer, OpenGL version.

vi. vii. General info, including processes, uptime, memory, IRC client or shell type, inxi version.

vii. Memory (RAM) data (Require root)

viii. Network card, driver.

ix. system info, partition info, sensors output, USB data, and more.


To install inxi in Ubuntu, simply run command:

$ sudo apt-get install inxi

Then run man inxi to get a list of command options, or run inxi -F to get a brief output containing system or hardware details.

Install Visual Studio Code on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily install Visual Studio code on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. Visual Studio Code is an open-source cross-platform code editor developed by Microsoft.

It has a built-in debugging support, embedded Git control, syntax highlighting, code completion, integrated terminal, code refactoring and snippets.


To Install Visual Studio Code on Ubuntu:

1. First, update the packages index and install the dependencies by typing:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install software-properties-common apt-transport-https wget

2. Next, import the Microsoft GPG key using the following wget command :

$ wget -q https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -

And enable the Visual Studio Code repository by typing:

$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb [arch=amd64] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/vscode stable main"

3. Once the apt repository is enabled , install the latest version of Visual Studio Code with:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install code

Install Composer on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Composer on your Linux system and use it for handling the packages and dependencies of the PHP programming language. Composer is a dependency manager for PHP (similar to npm for Node.js or pip for Python ).

With Composer, you can specify the PHP libraries your project depends on, and it will pull and manage all libraries and dependencies for you. 

Composer is used in all modern PHP frameworks and platforms such as Laravel, Symfony, Drupal, and Magento.


To install PHP Composer on Ubuntu:

1. Ensure that you have all the necessary requirements installed on your system:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install wget php-cli php-zip unzip

2. Composer offers an installer written in PHP that we’ll use to install Composer. Use wget to download the installer:

$ wget -O composer-setup.php https://getcomposer.org/installer

The command above will save the file as composer-setup.php in the current working directory .

3. Run the following command to install Composer in the /usr/local/bin directory:

$ sudo php composer-setup.php --install-dir=/usr/local/bin --filename=composer

4. To install composer locally enter:

$ sudo php composer-setup.php --install-dir=/path/to/project

5. When a new Composer version is available, you can update your installation using the following command:

$ sudo composer self-update 

Reset Gnome Desktop on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how To Reset Gnome Desktop Settings To Default. 


To Reset Gnome Desktop in Ubuntu 20.04, Fedora, & Other Linux:

1. First install Gnome Tweaks (if you don’t have it) from your system package manager. Then launch the tool, go to menu -> Reset to Defaults.

2. Ubuntu's default Settings offers a button on header-bar to reset all keyboard shortcuts.

3. And you can reset most Gnome database to default via dconf command. Simply open terminal and run:

$ dconf reset -f /org/gnome/

4. Some changes need a restart to apply.


To install Gnome Tweaks.

Run the command below:

$ sudo apt install gnome-tweaks

After running the command you'll need to restart the session (logout/login).

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) Release

This article covers an overview about Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver). Also we covered in details the main features of this Ubuntu release.

The Ubuntu operating system's latest Long Term Support (LTS) release, Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic Beaver), was released on April 26, 2018. 


To upgrade an Ubuntu system of version 16.04 or later to Ubuntu 18.04:

1. Back Up Your System.

2. Update Currently Installed Packages

Begin by updating the package list:

$ sudo apt-get update

3. Next, upgrade installed packages to their latest available versions:

$ sudo apt-get upgrade

4. Now, use the dist-upgrade command with apt-get, which will perform any additional upgrades that involve changing dependencies, adding or removing new packages as necessary.

$ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers method to Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04. If you are still using Ubuntu version 16.04, you may want to consider updating to the latest Long Term Support release, version 18.04.


What does LTS or Long Term Support Release Mean?

A Long Term Support release or LTS release, means that Ubuntu will support the version for five years. 

If you are running a production environment, you will likely want to use a Long-Term Support version of your preferred server operating system.


What is New in Ubuntu Version 18.04:

1. Depending on when you installed Ubuntu version 16.04, the Linux kernel used would have been anywhere from version 4.4 to 4.10. Version 18.04 uses Linux kernel 4.15 at launch.

2. Linux kernel 4.5 now includes new features like CPU controller for the cgroup v2 interface, AMD secure memory encryption support, the latest MD driver with software RAID enhancements, and improved power management for systems with SATA Link Power Management.

3. The new kernel also includes some Ubuntu-specific updates, Linux security module stacking support, and the signing of POWER host and NV kernels is now supported.

18.04 does not install Python 2 default, and it updated Python version 3 to version 3.6.

4. Apache updates to version 2.4.29 and supports HTTP/2.

5. Nginx updates to version 1.14.0.

6. PHP updates from version 7.1 to 7.2.

7. The ifupdown network manager is removed on new installs and is deprecated. netplan.io is the new network configuration manager.

8. OpenSSH now refuses to use RSA keys smaller than 1024 bits. This command can report the length of a key.

ssh-keygen -l -f /path/to/key.pub

32-bit PowerPC support has been dropped.

9. The Subuquity server installer brings live sessions and fast installs of Ubuntu Desktop to server users.

10. Ubuntu 18.04 ships with LXD system container manager version 3.0. Version 3.0 of LXD allows for clustering of LXD servers, adds support of NVIDIA run-time pass-through, and lxd-p2c is a new tool that turns existing systems into LXD containers.


To Upgrade Ubuntu from 16.04 to 18.04:

1.  Create a backup of your environment.

2. Run the command below to update and upgrade the packages.

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

3. To add the Update Manager to your server add command below to your terminal.

$ sudo apt install update-manager-core

4. Now that you have created a backup installed package updates and have the upgrade manager you are ready to upgrade Ubuntu.

$ sudo do-release-upgrade

5. To check what version of Ubuntu is currently installed use the command below.

$ lsb_release -a

Install PHP On Ubuntu 18.04 | 16.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps To Install Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) stack on Ubuntu Linux System. PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor, and it’s a script-based server-side programming language. PHP is often used to automate server tasks. It handles tasks like dynamic content, database requests, and processing and displaying data.

A "LAMP" stack is a group of open source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. 

This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. 

The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To Install PHP 7.2 with Apache on Ubuntu:

1. Ensure you are using the latest Ubuntu updates by entering the following command into a terminal window:

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. To install PHP 7.2, enter the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install php libapache2-mod-php

Confirm the installation by hitting Enter. The system will download and install PHP from the software repositories. This command also installs dependencies and modules for use with Apache.

3. Verify PHP was installed, with the command:

$ php -v

Install and Configure Apache On Ubuntu 18.04 | 16.04 - Step by Step Process.

This article covers how to install an Apache web server on your Ubuntu 20.04 server.

Apache or Apache HTTP server is a free and open source web server, developed and maintained by the Apache Software Foundation.

Apache allows website developers to serve their content over the web. It serves as a delivery man by delivering files requested by users when they enter a domain name in their browser's address bar.


To Install Apache 2 on Ubuntu Linux:

1. You can download the latest version of a software by first updating the local package index of Ubuntu repositories. Open the Terminal and enter the following command in order to do so:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, enter the following command as sudo in order to install Apache2 and its required dependencies:

$ sudo apt install apache2

You may be prompted with a y/n option to continue installation. Please enter Y, after which the installation procedure will begin.

3. When the installation is complete, you can check the version number and thus verify that Apache2 is indeed installed on your system by entering the following command:

$ apache2 -version


Apache Server Logs Location:

1. /var/log/apache2/access.log: By default, every request to your web server is recorded in this log file unless Apache is configured to do otherwise.

2. /var/log/apache2/error.log: By default, all errors are recorded in this file.

The LogLevel directive in the Apache configuration specifies how much detail the error logs will contain.

Use Let's Encrypt To Secure Apache2 On Ubuntu - How to do it ?

This article covers method to Secure Apache with Let's Encrypt on Ubuntu 20.04. Let's Encrypt is a certificate authority created by the Internet Security Research Group (ISRG).

It provides free SSL certificates via a fully automated process designed to eliminate manual certificate creation, validation, installation, and renewal.

Certificates issued by Let's Encrypt are valid for 90 days from the issue date and trusted by all major browsers today.


To install Certbot on Ubuntu:

Certbot is a command-line tool that automates the tasks for obtaining and renewing Let’s Encrypt SSL certificates. 

The certbot package is included in the default Ubuntu repositories. 

Update the packages list and install certbot using the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install certbot

Before enabling the configuration files, make sure both mod_ssl and mod_headers are enabled by issuing:

$ sudo a2enmod ssl
$ sudo a2enmod headers

Next, enable the SSL configuration files by running the following commands:

$ sudo a2enconf letsencrypt
$ sudo a2enconf ssl-params

Enable the HTTP/2 module, which will make your sites faster and more robust:

$ sudo a2enmod http2

Reload the Apache configuration for changes to take effect:

$ sudo systemctl reload apache2

Install WordPress On Ubuntu 18.04 | 16.04 Servers - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers methods to install WordPress on Ubuntu Linux System. WordPress is undoubtedly one of the most popular Content Management Systems (CMS) available in the market. You can easily install WordPress on Ubuntu 18.04 because it is configured to work with Apache or NGINIX, MySql, PHP in a LAMP or a LEMP stack. 

It also features an extensive plugin framework, and theme system that allows site owners to use the simple and powerful publishing tools.


To Configure Maximum File Size Upload Setting to Allow Larger Files on Ubuntu:

By default, PHP restricts web uploads to under two megabytes.

To allow larger file uploads through the web interface, configure the upload_max_filesize setting in php.ini:

Apache: /etc/php/7.2/apache2/php.ini.
NGINX: /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini.

; Maximum allowed size for uploaded files.

; http://php.net/upload-max-filesize

upload_max_filesize = 2M

Install Synaptic Package Manager on Linux - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the synaptic package manager on a Linux distribution of your choice and hence make the package management process all the more easier.

Synaptic is a lightweight GUI front end to apt package management system used in Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint and many other Debian/Ubuntu based distributions.


Main Features of Synaptic Package Manager:

1. install, remove, and upgrade packages.

2. upgrade your whole system.

3. search and filter the list of available packages.

4. perform smart system upgrades.

5. fix broken package dependencies.

6. edit the list of used repositories (sources.list).

Install Terminalizer on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Terminalizer which is a terminal recording tool on a Linux distribution of your choice, you will be able to conveniently record all your terminal-related activities. 

Terminalizer is a fancy and highly customizable CLI tool that records and renders terminal activity and can make an animated GIF image from it. 

It can work well on Ubuntu, CentOS, Arch Linux, SUSE, RedHat, Fedora, and so on.


To install Node.js on Ubuntu:

1. update your system.

$ apt update

2. Next, run the command below to install Node.js from the repositories.

$ apt install node.js

3. Upon successful installation of node.js, you can verify the version of Node.js using the command as shown.

$ nodejs --version

Install and Configure Memcached on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and configure the Memcached caching server on CentOS 8 system through the command-line tool.

Now, you can easily install and configure the Memcached server on your CentOS 8 system easily. 

Memcached is a free and open-source high-performance in-memory key-value data store.

Typically, it used as a caching system to speed up applications by caching various objects from the results of database calls.


To install memcached on CentOS, perform the following tasks as a user with root privileges:

1. Install memcached and its dependencies:

$ yum -y update
$ yum install -y libevent libevent-devel
$ yum install -y memcached
$ yum install -y php-pecl-memcache

2. Change the memcached configuration setting for CACHESIZE and OPTIONS:

i. Open /etc/sysconfig/memcached in a text editor.

ii. Locate the value for CACHESIZE and change it to at least 1GB. For example

CACHESIZE="1GB"

iii. Locate the value for OPTIONS and change it to localhost or 127.0.0.1

3. Save your changes to memcached and exit the text editor.

4. Restart memcached.

$ service memcached restart

5. Restart your web server.

For Apache:

$ service httpd restart

Install NetBeans on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the different methods for the installation of NetBeans on Ubuntu OS.

NetBeans is an open source integrated development environment that comes with good cross-platform support. 

You can configure this tool to support a wide array of development objectives. 

Practically, you can develop Web, Desktop and Mobile Applications without leaving this platform.

Besides this, the user can add a wide array of known languages such as PHP, C, C++, HTML, Ajax, JavaScript, JSP, Ruby on Rails  and so on.


To install Netbeans IDE on any Linux distribution using Snap.

Snap is a universal package manager and if you have enabled Snap on your distribution, you can install it using the following command:

$ sudo snap install netbeans --classic

Install Mono on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install mono on Ubuntu 20.04 system.

We have also explored how you can build a program using the mono framework. 

The mono installation takes time to complete on your Ubuntu system. So, be patient when you will install mono on your system.


To install Mono on Ubuntu:

1. Add its repository, run the commands below.

$ sudo apt update.
$ sudo apt install dirmngr gnupg apt-transport-https ca-certificates

2. Next, run the commands below to add its repository and key and repository file to Ubuntu.

$ sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv-keys 3FA7E0328081BFF6A14DA29AA6A19B38D3D831EF
sudo sh -c 'echo "deb https://download.mono-project.com/repo/ubuntu stable-bionic main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mono-official-stable.list'

3. Now that Mono repository and key are added, run the commands below to finally install it.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install mono-complete

Test your Internet Speed through Command-Line in CentOS 8 - How to do it ?

This article covers the different methods through which you can install the Speedtest utility on your CentOS 8 system. 

Also, we have also shown how to test the internet speed through the Speedtest-cli utility and how to generate URLs to share with others.


To Install Speedtest-cli on CentOS 8:

1. Open the terminal to make sure that Python is installed and working properly. Type the following command to check Python version:

$ python --version

If python is not installed on your system then first you will install python on your system. 

For this purpose, you need to run the below-mentioned command on the terminal to install python on CentOS 8.

$ sudo yum install python2

2. Download the speedtest_cli.py file using 'wget' command:

$ wget -O speedtest-cli https://raw.githubusercontent.com/sivel/speedtest-cli/master/speedtest.py

After successfully saved the downloaded file, you will type the following command on the terminal:

$ chmod +x speedtest-cli

Install PlayOnLinux on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install PlayOnLinux on Ubuntu OS using two different ways.

You can opt for any installation method (command line or GUI-based method) that is most convenient for you.

PlayOnLinux will allow you to install your Windows-based software on different virtual drives, which means that there is no interaction between the different applications you install. 

So if something doesn't work right, you know it won't affect the rest of your stuff and they can easily uninstall it by removing the virtual drive.


To install PlayOnLinux on Ubuntu:

PlayOnLinux can be found in the Ubuntu software repositories, so you can get it from Ubuntu Software Center or install it with the following command:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install playonlinux

It is also recommended to install some dependencies that may be necessary:

# sudo apt-get install winbind
# sudo apt-get install unrar-free p7zip-full

10 Useful Awk Command Examples in Linux

This article covers a few awk commands and scripts.

Awk is a scripting language used for manipulating data and generating reports.

The awk command programming language requires no compiling, and allows the user to use variables, numeric functions, string functions, and logical operators. 


AWK Syntax: 

$ awk options 'selection _criteria {action }' input-file > output-file



Functions of AWK:

1. AWK Operations: 

(a) Scans a file line by line 

(b) Splits each input line into fields 

(c) Compares input line/fields to pattern 

(d) Performs action(s) on matched lines 


2. Useful For: 

(a) Transform data files 

(b) Produce formatted reports 


3. Programming Constructs: 

(a) Format output lines 

(b) Arithmetic and string operations 

(c) Conditionals and loops 

Install Redshift on Linux Mint - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the procedure of installing Redshift- the color temperature adjusting tool on a Linux system.

Also, we have shared with you the procedure of uninstalling this tool from your system if you do not want to use it any longer.

Redshift is a tool that is used to adjust the color temperature of your screen according to your surroundings.

The color temperature adapts to the time of the day. 

A different color temperature is set for the night and daytime. It applies a red hue or redness effect to your screen or graphical display. 

This helps reduce eye strain and lessen the risk of delayed sleep in case you are working in front of the screen at night. 


How does RedShift work?

In the early morning, redshift allows your eyes to gradually adapt over a period of about an hour, as the temperature transitions smoothly from night time until the day. 

The color temperature during the day should match the light from outside, typically around 5500K-6500K. The default daytime temperature is 6500K.

At night the color temperature is set to match the lamps in the room. 

This temperature is around 3000K-4000K. The default night temperature is 4500K.


To install RedShift on Ubuntu:

1. The most straightforward of installing redshift on Ubuntu 20.04 is using the apt package manager. To install Redshift, execute the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install redshift redshift-gtk

Install Android File Transfer for Linux on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Android File Transfer for Linux on your Ubuntu distribution.

Now you can conveniently transfer files between your android phones and Linux system.
Android File Transfer is an MTP client tool that is used to transfer files from android devices to Linux OS and from Linux OS to Android devices.
It is similar to Android File Transfer that is available for Mac OS and has a very minimalistic and easy to use interface.

To Android file transfer for Linux:
1. Connect your Android device with your computer using a USB cable.

When prompted on Android device for allowing access to the device data, tap on Allow to allow access.
2. Launch Terminal by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T key shortcut.
Then you will need to update our system by adding the PPA to your list of software sources. For this, run the following command in Terminal:

$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/samoilov-lex/aftl-stable/ubuntu artful main"

3. Once completed, run the following command in Terminal to update the repository.

$ sudo apt-get update

4. After your local repository is updated, run the following command in Terminal to install Android file transfer:

$ sudo apt install android-file-transfer

Install Imagemagick on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Imagemagick on your system very conveniently and use it for editing your images.
However, you can also uninstall this tool from your system very easily at any time by following the tip that we have shared.
ImageMagick is a free and open-source application through which we can manage (i.e. create/edit/convert etc.) raster graphics. ImageMagick is typically used from command line.
Also we can use it from any programming language by using its interface like Magick.NET (.Net),IMagick (PHP), PerlMagick (Perl) etc.

To Install ImageMagick on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS:
1. First, make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install ImageMagick on Ubuntu system.

$ sudo apt install imagemagick

Check Disk Usage Using Duf Command-line Utility on Linux

This article covers how To View Disk Usage With Duf On Linux And Unix.

Duf is a command line utility to find disk usage in Linux and Unix-like systems.
It displays the disk usage details in a nice tabular-column and user-friendly layout.
You can even get the disk usage output in JSON format as well.

Features of duf Utility:
1. Easy to use
2. Colorful display
3. Adjust height and width as per your terminal resize movement
4. Sorting data as per our need
5. Filters and groups
6. JSON outputs and more

On DEB-based systems such as Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, download the .deb binary installation file from the releases page and install it using your system's package manager.

$ sudo apt install gdebi
$ sudo gdebi duf_0.3.1_linux_amd64.deb

On RPM-based systems such as RHEL, CentOS, Fedora, download the .rpm binary file and install it using command:

$ sudo rpm -Uvh 
duf_0.3.1_linux_amd64.rpm


To View Disk Usage With Duf On Linux And Unix:
All you have to do is just run the duf command without any options like below:

$ duf

Install Moodle on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to download, configure, and install Moodle powered by the LAMP stack on RHEL 8.

Moodle is the world’s most popular learning management system for building robust online learning sites.

How to open HTTP and HTTPS for Moodle Learning Platform in CentOS 8 ?
To open HTTP and HTTPS services in the firewall to allow traffic to the NGINX web server, run the commands below:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http 
# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https

# firewall-cmd --reload

Find UUID in Linux Mint 20 - How to do it ?

This article covers the different methods to find out the UUID in a Linux Mint 20 system.
UUID is the "universally unique identifier" that is assigned to devices on a Linux system for the purpose of identification.
For example if your hard disk has 3 partitions then each partition is a device and has a uuid.
Similarly cd/dvd, usb drives etc all are assigned a uuid.

Different methods To identify Disk Partition/FileSystem UUID in Linux:
1. blkid Command: locate/print block device attributes.
2. lsblk Command: lsblk lists information about all available or the specified block devices.
3. hwinfo Command:  hwinfo stands for hardware information tool and great utility that used to probe for the hardware present in the system.
4. udevadm Command: udev management tool.
5. tune2fs Command: adjust tunable filesystem parameters on ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystems.
6. dumpe2fs Command: dump ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem information.
7. Using by-uuid Path: The directory contains UUID and real block device files, UUIDs were symlink with real block device files.

Install Cinnamon Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to install Cinnamon desktop on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.
Want to try out the Cinnamon Desktop Environment?

Without installing Linux Mint, you can get the desktop packages in Ubuntu via a few commands.
Cinnamon is available in Ubuntu main repositories, though the package version is however a little old.
Ensure to enable universe repository and then use this command to install Cinnamon on Ubuntu 20.04:

$ sudo apt install cinnamon

Install Microsoft Edge Browser on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers methods of installing and uninstalling the Microsoft Edge browser on a Linux Mint 20 system.

Also, if you want to get rid of it, you can conveniently uninstall it.
Edge for Linux currently supports Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, and OpenSUSE distributions.

Developers may install Edge from the Microsoft Edge Insider site or Microsoft's Linux Software Repository.

To Install Edge on Debian, Ubuntu, and Mint:

$ curl https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc | gpg --dearmor > microsoft.gpg
$ sudo install -o root -g root -m 644 microsoft.gpg /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/
$ sudo sh -c 'echo "deb [arch=amd64] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/edge stable main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/microsoft-edge-dev.list'
$ sudo rm microsoft.gpg
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install microsoft-edge-dev


Once successfully installed on your Linux Mint system, launch the browser from your favorite app launcher, or run microsoft-edge-dev from a command prompt.

Setup Xrdp over Xorg in CentOS Linux System with Multi Sessions

This article covers how to run Xrdp over Xorg protocol, which far most secure and recommended over the XVNC protocols.
Also, we covered the sessions manager that how you can manage your remote connections by tweaking its configuration parameters which sometimes come in a challenging phase.

Install GNOME Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers methods to Install GNOME Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Most Ubuntu servers are run on CLI (Command-Line Interface) mode.

But in some cases, one may need to have a desktop to install some applications with GUI (Grapich User Interface) mode.

To Update Repositories and Packages on Ubuntu:
Start by updating the repositories and package lists:

# sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

Press Y and hit enter when asked if you want to continue.

To Install Gnome on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa:
1. First, make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade
$ sudo apt install tasksel

2. To install GNOME desktop vanilla version execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install gnome-session gdm3

3. To Install Full Gnome Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04:

$ sudo tasksel install ubuntu-desktop

Install Drupal on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to setup Drupal on Debian Linux System.

Drupal is a powerful CMS that allows you to design stunning websites and blogs with simple tools and drag and drop features in a matter of a few hours.
It offers flexibility in terms of customization of your site to meet your desired results.
You can easily get started with free templates before advancing to premium templates that have more features.

To Configure Apache 2.4:
1. Enable Apache's rewrite module. This module is necessary since Drupal 8 enables Clean URLs by default;

$ sudo a2enmod rewrite

2. Specify the rewrite conditions for your Drupal site’s document root in Apache's configuration file using the text editor of your choice.
If you installed and configured your Apache server using LAMP stack on Debian 10 guide, the configuration file for your site is located at /etc/apache2/sites-available/example.com.conf.
File: /etc/apache2/sites-available/example.com.conf:

<Directory /var/www/html/example.com/public_html>
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride All
        Require all granted
          RewriteEngine on
          RewriteBase /
          RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
          RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
          RewriteRule ^(.*)$ index.php?q=$1 [L,QSA]
</Directory>

3. Change the ownership of your site's document root from root to www-data. This allows you to install modules and themes, and to update Drupal, without being prompted for FTP credentials.

$ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html/example.com

4. Restart Apache so all changes are applied.

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

Install NextCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 with Apache - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install NextCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 with Apache (LAMP Stack). You can now upload your files and collaborate with your team members on NextCloud. This way you have full control of your data.
Nextcloud, a fork of ownCloud, is a file sharing server that permits you to store your personal content, like documents and pictures, in a centralized location, much like Dropbox.
The difference with Nextcloud is that all of its features are open-source.
It also returns the control and security of your sensitive data back to you, thus eliminating the use of a third-party cloud hosting service.

To install Nextcloud on Ubuntu:

1. To download the Nextcloud snap package and install it on the system, type:

$ sudo snap install nextcloud

2. The Nextcloud package will be downloaded and installed on your server. You can confirm that the installation process was successful by listing the changes associated with the snap:

$ snap changes nextcloud

Abstract Factory – Design Patterns in Python

This article covers Abstract Factory design pattern in Python.

Basically, The Abstract Factory design pattern can also be used to create cross-platform UIs without coupling the client code to concrete UI classes and keeping all created views consistent with different operating systems.

Abstract Factory is a creational design pattern, which solves the problem of creating entire product families without specifying their concrete classes.

Abstract Factory Method is a Creational Design pattern that allows you to produce the families of related objects without specifying their concrete classes.
Using the abstract factory method, we have the easiest ways to produce a similar type of many objects.
It provides a way to encapsulate a group of individual factories.

Advantages of using Abstract Factory method:
This pattern is particularly useful when the client doesn’t know exactly what type to create.
1. It is easy to introduce the new variants of the products without breaking the existing client code.
2. Products which we are getting from factory are surely compatible with each other.

Disadvantages of using Abstract Factory method:
1. Our simple code may become complicated due to the existence of lot of classes.
2. We end up with huge number of small fies i.e, cluttering of files.

Examples of Factory pattern in Python:
1. With the Factory pattern, you produce instances of implementations (Apple, Banana, Cherry, etc.) of a particular interface -- say, IFruit.
2. With the Abstract Factory pattern, you provide a way for anyone to provide their own factory. This allows your warehouse to be either an IFruitFactory or an IJuiceFactory, without requiring your warehouse to know anything about fruits or juices.

Use CAT Command to Combine Text Files in Ubuntu 20.04 - Do it now ?

This article covers the detailed examples used for combining the text files in Ubuntu 20.04 system using the CAT command.
Users can easily use these methods to merge text from multiple files and sort it into another file.

They can also append text from one file to another file using the Ubuntu terminal.

Install Slack on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the different methods of installation of Slack on the Ubuntu 20.04 system in detail.
Slack is a well-known and modern communication tool used to organize various communications in channels so that teams can work together and communicate when needed.

Slack Installation on Ubuntu using Snap package:
1. Install snapd package in your system. write the appended command, and then hit enter.

$ sudo apt install snapd

2. If the latest apt is not installed in your system then try using apt-get update && apt-get upgrade to get all of the available updates.
3. You can install the slack by using affixed command. You need to type this command on the terminal then press enter.

$ sudo snap install slack --classic

Install Zabbix Agent on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the Zabbix Agent on a Ubuntu 20.04 system very conveniently.
You can ensure the successful installation of the Zabbix Agent by checking its Active status on your system. However, you can also uninstall it anytime you want.
Zabbix agent is installed on the remote host (target) to monitor the hard drive, memory processor, etc. The agent collects data and sends back to Zabbix Server.
Zabbix agents can use passive or active checks to pass information.
In passive check, Zabbix server (poller) requests an agent for certain information, and the agent sends back a value.
In the active check, the agent process all data and pushes it to the Zabbix server.
However, agent periodically connects the server to collect metric which needs to be monitored.


To Configure Zabbix agent:
Make necessary changes on the Zabbix Agent configuration file "/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf".
After making changes, Save the changes and exit the file.
Then restart Zabbix agent service to the changes to be effected.

$ sudo systemctl restart zabbix-agent


To Configure the firewall on Zabbix agent:
1. If you have UFW firewall enables, execute the commands:

$ sudo ufw allow 10050/tcp

2. Then reload the firewall

$ sudo ufw reload

3. And verify that the port has been opened or allowed on the firewall.

$ sudo ufw status

Install Tig on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Tig on your Ubuntu 20.04 system and hence interacting with Git all the more efficiently.
However, you can get rid of this utility any time you want by following the uninstallation procedure that we have shared with you in this guide.
Tig is a text-mode interface for git. It mainly serves as a Git repository browser. It can also assist in staging changes for commit at the chunk level.

Features of Tig:
1. Browses the commits in the current branch
2. Displays the commits for one or more specific branches
3. Compares two branches
4. Helps to see the changes for a single file
5. Displays the list of stashes
6. Shows references for branches, tags and remotes

To install tig on Ubuntu:
1. First update the system, run:

# sudo apt update

2. To install tig on ubuntu, run:

# sudo apt install tig


To uninstall tig on Ubuntu:
To completely remove tig from your Ubuntu machine, type;

# sudo apt remove tig -y

Install Amazon Web Service CLI on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the AWS CLI very conveniently on your Linux Mint 20 system and use it for managing the Amazon Web Services very efficiently.
The AWS or Amazon Web Service command line interface is a command line tool for manage our Amazon web services.
AWS CLI provides direct access to the Amazon Web Services public API.
As it is a command line tool, it can also be used to create scripts to automate your Amazon web services.

To the AWS CLI on Ubuntu With APT:
1. First we update the package listing cache with the following command in the terminal (Ctrl + Alt + T):

# sudo apt-get update

2. Now we are going to install the AWS CLI using the command:

# sudo apt-get install awscli

3. We will can check if AWS CLI is working correctly with the following command:

# aws --version

Install Node.js on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the different methods to perform the installation of NodeJS on the CentOS 8 system.

Now that NodeJS is installed on your CentOS 8 system, you can use it to deploy a NodeJS application on the system.
Node.js is a cross-platform, runtime environment that was built on Chrome's JavaScript. This environment is designed to execute JavaScript code on the server-side.

To check Node version number, run the command:

# node --version

Set up passwordless SSH Authentication on Linux - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to setup an SSH key-based authentication as well how to connect to your Linux server without entering a password.
To set up a passwordless SSH login in Linux all you need to do is to generate a public authentication key and append it to the remote hosts ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file.

To Disable SSH Password Authentication
To add an extra layer of security to your server you can disable the password authentication for SSH.
Before disabling the SSH password authentication make sure you can log in to your server without a password and the user you are logging in with has sudo privileges.
The following steps describe how to configure sudo access:
1. Log into your remote server with SSH keys, either as a user with sudo privileges or root:

# ssh sudo_user@server_ip_address

2. Open the SSH configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config, search for the following directives and modify as it follows:

/etc/ssh/sshd_config
PasswordAuthentication no
ChallengeResponseAuthentication no
UsePAM no

3. Once you are done save the file and restart the SSH service.
On Ubuntu or Debian servers, run the following command:

# sudo systemctl restart ssh

On CentOS or Fedora servers, run the following command:

# sudo systemctl restart sshd

Install Code::Blocks on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to conveniently install the Code::Blocks IDE on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.

After installing this IDE on your system, you can easily use it for C, C++, and FORTRAN development.

You can even uninstall it anytime you want and that too very cleanly by following the uninstallation method of the Code::Blocks IDE.

To Install Code::Blocks IDE using APT:
Code::Blocks IDE is available on Ubuntu repositories and can be installed with the APT command.
1. First update your system.

$ sudo apt update

2. To install codeblock on Ubuntu , run the following command.

$ sudo apt install codeblocks

3. When prompted to continue, just type 'Y' and press ENTER to proceed.

To Remove Code::Blocks IDE from Linux system:

1. To remove codeblocks from ubuntu, run the following command.

$ sudo apt remove codeblocks

2. To complete remove codeblock and its associated configurations, run the following two commands.

$ sudo apt purge codeblocks
$ sudo apt autoremove

Verify if a Server Supports TLS or not on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers different methods to enable you find out if your specified web server is supporting TLS or not.
By so doing, you will be able to ensure whether your information is going to stay secure while using that web server or not.
TLS is an acronym for Transport Layer Security. TLS facilitates secure communication between computers on the Internet.
In this guide, we used both openssl and nmap.

To Verify TLS Support with Openssl:
Openssl is an open source tool for implementing secure communications on the Internet. The openssl tool is available on all major Linux distributions.
If the openssl tool is not already installed on your Linux machine, you may install it as follows.
On Ubuntu/Debian based distributions:

$ sudo apt install openssl

On CentOS/Red Hat based distributions:

$ sudo yum install openssl

Now, to verify TLSv1.3 support on your server or website, run the following command.

$ sudo openssl s_client -connect domain.com:443 -tls1_3

Install Apache Solr on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers method to install Apache Solr on a Ubuntu 20.04 system. Once this search platform is installed on your Ubuntu 20.04 system, it will facilitate you with its exceptional search features.

To Access Apache Solr on Ubuntu:
You can access the Apache Solr web interface using the URL http://your-server-ip:8983/solr.
You should see the Apache Solr web interface.

To install Apache Solr 8.6 on Ubuntu 20.04:
1. You can update your system with the following command:

$ apt-get update -y
$ apt-get upgrade -y

2. Java must be installed in your system. If not installed you can install it by running the following command:

$ apt-get install default-jdk -y

3. After installing Java, you can verify the Java installation using the following command:

$ java -version

4. To get the latest version of Apache Solr is 8.6.0, You can download it with the following command:

$ wget https://archive.apache.org/dist/lucene/solr/8.6.0/solr-8.6.0.tgz

Once downloaded, extract the downloaded file with the following command:

$ tar xzf solr-8.6.0.tgz

5. Next, install the Apache Solr by executing the Solr installation script:

$ bash solr-8.6.0/bin/install_solr_service.sh solr-8.6.0.tgz

6. Apache Solr is installed and listening on port 8983.

You can verify it with the following command:

$ netstat -tunelp | grep 8983

Install Neofetch on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the installation method of the Neofetch shell script on a Ubuntu 20.04 system. After installing this script on your system, you can easily execute it to display your system's information on the terminal.
However, you can uninstall this script any time you want if you do not feel like using it anymore on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.
Neofetch is a command line system information tool which supports almost all operating systems.

It displays the system information in the terminal along side the operating system's logo.

To Install Neofetch in Ubuntu / Linux:
Execute the commands:

# sudo apt-get update
# sudo apt-get install neofetch

Install phpMyAdmin with Apache on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can  seamlessly install phpMyAdmin on your Ubuntu Linux system.

Working with a database can sometimes be intimidating, but PhpMyAdmin can simplify tasks by providing a control panel to view or edit your MySQL or MariaDB database.

To Install phpMyAdmin on Ubuntu:
1. Update the apt package tool to ensure we are working with the latest and greatest.

$ apt update && upgrade

2. Install PhpMyAdmin and PHP extensions for managing non-ASCII string and necessary tools.

$ apt install phpmyadmin php-mbstring php-gettext

During this installation you’ll be asked for the web server selection, we will select Apache2 and select ENTER.
Here, you have the option for automatic setup or to create the database manually.
For us, we will do the automatic installation by pressing ENTER for yes.
3. At this setup, you'll be asked to set the PhpMyAdmin password.
Specifically for the PhpMyAdmin user, phpmyadmin,  you'll want to save this in a secure spot for later retrieval.
4. Enable PHP extension.

phpenmod mbstring

5. Restart the Apache service to recognize the changes made to the system.

# systemctl restart apache2

Install Flameshot in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the method of installing Flameshot on a Ubuntu 20.04 system.

Also, we also shared with you the method of removing this screenshot tool from your Ubuntu 20.04 system. Flameshot is a powerful yet simple to use screenshot software for Linux.

Main Features of Flameshot:

1. Customizable appearance.
2. Easy to use.
3. In-app screenshot edition.
4. DBus interface.
5. Upload to Imgur.

To Install Flameshot on Ubuntu:
Flameshot is installed on Ubuntu from apt repository by running the following command:

# sudo apt install flameshot

You can also build from source, but you need to install build tools prior to packaging flameshot.

# sudo apt install g++ build-essential qt5-default qt5-qmake qttools5-dev-tools
sudo apt install libqt5dbus5 libqt5network5 libqt5core5a libqt5widgets5 libqt5gui5 libqt5svg5-dev
sudo apt install git openssl ca-certificates
git clone https://github.com/lupoDharkael/flameshot.git
cd flameshot
mkdir build
cd build
qmake ../
sudo make
sudo make install

The preferred method is installation from the apt repository as it is easy to update package to the latest release.

To Install Flameshot on Arch Linux / Manjaro:
For Arch Linux and its derivatives like Manjaro, Antergos e.t.c. The package is available from the upstream repository.

# sudo pacman -S flameshot


To remove Flameshot from Ubuntu 20.04:
1. When you no longer want to use this screenshot tool on your Ubuntu 20.04 system, you can remove it by executing the command shown below:

$ sudo apt-get purge flameshot

2. Finally, you can also remove all those packages and dependencies that are not needed any longer by executing the following command:

$ sudo apt-get autoremove

Install Atom editor on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install atom editor on CentOS 8 using the command-line application.

Atom is a free and open-source text and source code editor for OS X, Linux, and Windows with support for plug-ins written in Node.js, and embedded Git Control, developed by GitHub

To install latest version of Atom using .rpm package on your CentOS 8 machine:
1. First, go to the Atom official website and download the Atom .rpm package:

# sudo curl -SLo atom.x86_64.rpm  https://atom.io/download/rpm

2. You can now install Atom using dnf command:

# sudo dnf localinstall atom.x86_64.rpm

3. Now that Atom is installed on your CentOS system you can launch it from the command line by typing atom or by clicking on the Atom icon (Applications -> Programming -> Atom).

Install Gradle on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the latest Gradle version on CentOS 8 system. 

Also you will learn how to set up the environment variable in the Gradle configuration file.

Gradle is an open-source build automation system.

It supports multiple programming languages such as Java, C++, and Python development. It is based on the concepts of Apache Ant and Apache Maven.


To verify if Gradle is installed properly use the gradle -v command which will display the Gradle version:

# gradle -v


Install RPM Packages on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the RPM package on the CentOS 8 system.

Now you can easily download, install, update and erase Rpm packages on your CentOS system.
While working in Linux, you may have seen downloadable files with the .rpm extension.
Rpm files are designed to be downloaded and installed independently, outside of a software repository.
RPM Package Manager (RPM) is a free and open-source package management system for installing, uninstalling and managing software packages in Linux.

How to Download RPM Installation File on Linux ?
1. To install wget in CentOS, enter the following in a terminal window:

$ sudo yum install wget

2. To install weget in Fedora, enter the following:

$ sudo dnf install wget

3. Now, you can use the wget command to download the .rpm file you want.

Enter the following:

$ wget http://some_website/sample_file.rpm


To check the .rpm file for dependencies using the following command:

# sudo rpm –qpR sample_file.rpm

The system should list all the dependencies:
i. –q – This option tells RPM to query the file
ii. –p – This option lets you specify the target package to query
iii. –R – This lists the requirements for the package


How to install a .rpm file to your Linux CentOS or Fedora system ?
You can use the yum package manager to install .rpm files.
Enter the following:

# sudo yum localinstall sample_file.rpm

The localinstall option instructions yum to look at your current working directory for the installation file.

Change Sudo Password Timeout on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - How to do it ?

This article covers how you can easily change the sudo password timeout by adding a single entry in the sudoers file. If you are using Vi instead of Nano, follow the instructions described here.
You use sudo for some command in the terminal, it asks for the password.

You enter the password, the command runs.
For the subsequent commands, even if they need superuser privileges, you don't need to enter the password again.
After a certain amount of time, when you try to use sudo, it asks for the password again.
It happens because there is a default timeout in Ubuntu and other Linux system for Sudo. In Ubuntu, this default sudo timeout is 15 minutes.
If you think 15 minute is too short or too long you can even change the sudo password timeout in Ubuntu.

To Change sudo password timeout in Ubuntu:
1. Open a terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and use the following command:

$ sudo visudo

It will open a file in nano text editor that contains some settings related to sudo.
In here look for the following line:

Defaults        env_reset

Replace above line with this one:

Defaults        env_reset, timestamp_timeout=XX

Where XX is the new timeout value in minutes.
Of course you have to replace the XX with the desired timeout value.
2. Once you are done changing the default sudo password timeout, use Ctrl+X to exit the editor.
It will give you option to save or cancel the changes.

Use Y to save the changes.

Install Putty on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install Putty on your Ubuntu OS. Now you can use your Putty SSH client on Linux to connect to remote systems. For more help regarding Putty, visit its user manual.


PuTTY is a popular terminal emulator for Windows, but it is not only limited to Windows operating system. 

Being free and open source, it is popular among Linux users too. PuTTY supports a wide range of protocols such as serial, SSH, Telnet, rlogin, SCP, SFTP etc. 

Sysadmins generally use PuTTY as an SSH and telnet client whereas the Maker community widely uses PuTTY for interfacing with the serial ports on their hardware. 

PuTTY ships with a command line tool named "psftp", the PuTTY SFTP client, which is used to securely transfer files between computers over an SSH connection. 


To install PuTTY on Ubuntu:

1. In order to install Putty, you will need to ensure that the Universe repository is enabled on your Ubuntu system. If it is not already enabled, you can enable it by using the following command in Terminal:

$ sudo add-apt-repository universe

When prompted for the password, enter the sudo password.

2. After enabling the Universe repository, now you can install Putty on your system. Issue the following command in Terminal in order to do so:

$ sudo apt install putty

When prompted for the password, enter the sudo password.

Install Jenkins on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install Jenkins on Ubuntu OS. For further information about Jenkins, visit its official documentation.

Jenkins is an open-source automation server that can be used to easily set up continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipelines.

Continuous integration (CI) is a DevOps practice in which team members regularly commit their code changes to the version control repository, after which automated builds and tests are run. 

Continuous delivery (CD) is a series of practices where code changes are automatically built, tested, and deployed to production.


To install Jenkins on Ubuntu 20.04 as a standalone service:

1. Run the following commands as root or user with sudo privileges or root to install OpenJDK 11:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install openjdk-11-jdk

2. Once the installation is complete, verify it by checking the Java version:

# java -version

3. Import the GPG keys of the Jenkins repository using the following wget command:

# wget -q -O - https://pkg.jenkins.io/debian/jenkins.io.key | sudo apt-key add -

4. Next, add the Jenkins repository to the system with:

# sudo sh -c 'echo deb http://pkg.jenkins.io/debian-stable binary/ > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/jenkins.list'

5. Once the Jenkins repository is enabled, update the apt package list and install the latest version of Jenkins by typing:

# sudo apt update
# sudo apt install jenkins

6. Jenkins service will automatically start after the installation process is complete. You can verify it by printing the service status:

# systemctl status jenkins

Install AnyDesk On Ubuntu 20.04 / 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers methods to Install AnyDesk on Ubuntu 20.04/18.04 Linux.

AnyDesk is a remote server management tool which provides powerful Linux-based connectivity for smooth and seamless remote access to any computer. 

AnyDesk can be used comfortably for both individual, teams and in professional organizations offering remote support to customers.


To Install AnyDesk on Ubuntu:

1. Start by ensuring your system is updated.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt -y upgrade

2. Import AnyDesk GPG key for signing APT packages.

$ wget -qO - https://keys.anydesk.com/repos/DEB-GPG-KEY | sudo apt-key add -

3. Then add AnyDesk repository content to your Ubuntu system.

$ echo "deb http://deb.anydesk.com/ all main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/anydesk-stable.list

4. Finally update apt cache and install the latest release of AnyDesk on Ubuntu.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install anydesk

5. After installation, use the Desktop Applications launcher to start AnyDesk on Ubuntu.

$ anydesk

Install Visual Studio Code on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the VS code package on CentOS 8 using the command line application. Visual Studio Code is a free and open-source, cross-platform IDE or code editor that enables developers to develop applications and write code using a myriad of programming languages such as C, C++, Python, Go and Java to mention a few.


To Install Visual Studio Code on Debian, Ubuntu and Linux Mint:

1. Update your system by running the command.

$ sudo apt update

2. Once updated, proceed and install dependencies required by executing.

$ sudo apt install software-properties-common apt-transport-https

3. Next, using the wget command, download the repository and import Microsoft’s GPG key as shown:

$ wget -qO- https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc | gpg --dearmor > packages.microsoft.gpg
$ sudo install -o root -g root -m 644 packages.microsoft.gpg /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/
$ sudo sh -c 'echo "deb [arch=amd64 signed-by=/etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/packages.microsoft.gpg] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/vscode stable main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/vscode.list'

4. Once you’ve enabled the repository, update the system and install Visual Studio Code by running the command:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install code

Install Viber on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install Viber on your Ubuntu system. Also, you will learn how to remove Viber from Ubuntu in case you no longer need it.

Viber is an instant messaging and video calling app that allows you to send instant messages, photos, audio, video files, make free calls, and share your location with other Viber users. Viber was first released for smartphones, then later also developed for desktop users including Windows, Linux, and macOS. 


To Install Viber via Deb Package:

1. Issue the following command in Terminal to download Viber .deb installer file.

$ wget https://download.cdn.viber.com/cdn/desktop/Linux/viber.deb

2. Issue the following command in Terminal in order to install the viber.deb package.

$ sudo apt install ./viber.deb


To Uninstall Viber from Ubuntu:

Run the below command to uninstall Viber from your Ubuntu desktop.

# sudo apt remove viber

Install Podman on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Podman on your system. Podman is the drop-in replacement for Docker on the Red Hat/CentOS/Fedora environments. 

This new container technology improves on Docker by decentralizing the components necessary for container management. 

Instead of having a single daemon for everything, Podman uses individualized components that are only used when necessary. 

Another advantage of Podman is that it can work with pods, in similar fashion to Kubernetes. 


To install Podman with the command: 

$ sudo apt-get install podman -y

When the installation completes, verify the installation with the command: 

$ podman --version

Install ReactJS on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the method of using ReactJS on a Ubuntu 20.04 system by installing NodeJS and required dependencies on it. 

Finally, we demonstrated to you the usage of ReactJS by creating a sample application.


To install npm on Ubuntu Linux, login into your server as a sudo user and invoke the command below:

$ sudo apt install npm

Once the installation is complete, you can verify the version of npm installed using the command:

$ npm --version


To install the tool, run the following npm command:

$ sudo npm -g install create-react-app


Once installed, you can confirm the version of installed by running:

$ create-react-app --version


How to Install ReactJS on Ubuntu 20.04? 

React or Reacts is a front-end JavaScript library that is used to develop UI components. It is managed by Facebook and open-source developers.

It makes it effortless to create and maintain interactive UI specifically for single-page applications. 

Many developers are using it because of its flexibility, integrity, and its feature to bring Html directly into JS. 

Many well-known corporations such as Facebook, Uber, and Instagram used the ReactJS framework to create interfaces.


To install npm, open up the terminal and type the following command:

$ sudo apt install npm


To verify if the installation is completed successfully, check the npm version through the command:

$ npm --version

Copy and Paste Text in the Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux Terminal - Step by Step ?

This article covers how you can copy and paste text in the Linux Terminal. This saves the time that spends in typing the long commands and text.

When you enter a long command into the Terminal window that you found on the web or in a document, you can save yourself some time by easily copying and pasting the command at the prompt.


To Copy and Paste Text into the Linux Terminal:

1. To begin, highlight the text of the command you want on the webpage or in the document you found. 

2. Press Ctrl + C to copy the text.

3. Press Ctrl + Alt + T to open a Terminal window, if one is not already open. Right-click at the prompt and select "Paste" from the popup menu.

4. The text you copied is pasted at the prompt. 

5. Press Enter to execute the command.

6. You can also copy text from the Terminal window to paste into other programs. 

7. Simply highlight the text, right-click on it, and select "Copy" from the popup menu. 

You can paste this text into a text editor, word processor, and so on.

Use of Head Command in Linux - With different examples ?

This article covers how to use head command with all required options. 

By using the tail command with a head command, you can also display the last lines of a file on the terminal.

The head command, as the name implies, print the top N number of data of the given input. 

By default, it prints the first 10 lines of the specified files. 

If more than one file name is provided then data from each file is preceded by its file name. 


Head command Syntax:

head [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Change Snap Packages Update Frequency - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to use Snap and how it updates. Snap packages are set to refresh (update) 4 times per day by default. 

It should also be noted that automatic updating of snap packages cannot be completely disabled directly from the snapd settings, as there's no option for this (what's up with that?), so if you want to disable this altogether, you'll have to resort to workarounds like blocking the snap update URL, or setting your Internet connection to metered and them using the refresh.metered option to hold the snap refresh process when a metered connection is detected (sudo snap set system refresh.metered=hold).


If you want to check if a certain snap is available from the snap store, use the syntax:

$ snap find [ package name ]


To view the current snap refresh (update) schedule for your system, use:

# snap refresh --time


To change the snap refresh schedule, use:

# sudo snap set system refresh.timer=<frequency>

You'll need to replace <frequency> with the snap refresh frequency you want to set for the timer, as defined in the Snapcraft documentation.

Access Google Drive on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can access Google drive on Ubuntu. Now you can easily access your Google Drive files directly from the File Manager.

The process involves adding your online Google account to your Gnome Online Accounts list. This configuration then lets you mount your Google Drive account to your Nautilus File Manager. 

After mounting, you can access your online files, edit them, and add new files directly from your Ubuntu to your Google Drive.


To Install and Open Gnome Online Accounts:

1. Open the Ubuntu command line, the Terminal, either through the system Dash or the Ctrl+Alt+T shortcut. 

2. Once the Terminal application opens, enter the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt install gnome-online-accounts

Please remember that only an authorized user can add, remove and configure software on Ubuntu.

3.  Once the utility is installed on your system, you can open it through one of the following methods:

By entering the following command in your Terminal:
$ gnome-control-center online-accounts

Install CouchDB on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers CouchDB installation on CentOS Linux System. 

Apache CouchDB is an open-source database management system, developed by Apache Software Foundation. It is a NoSQL document-store database developed in ErLang.

CouchDB uses multiple formats and protocols to store, transfer, and process its data, it uses JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) to store data, JavaScript as its query language using MapReduce, and HTTP for an API.

Unlike a relational database, a CouchDB database does not store data and relationships in tables. Instead, each database is a collection of independent documents. Each document maintains its own data and self-contained schema.

CouchDB software includes a native web interface i.e. Fauxton for administration of CouchDB database server.


To Install CouchDB Yum Repository on CentOS 8:

1. Create a repo file by using vim editor.

# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/bintray-apache-couchdb-rpm.repo

2. And add following directives in this file.

[bintray--apache-couchdb-rpm]
name=bintray--apache-couchdb-rpm
baseurl=http://apache.bintray.com/couchdb-rpm/el$releasever/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
repo_gpgcheck=0
enabled=1

3. Build cache for newly installed yum repositories.

# dnf makecache

4. Now we can install CouchDB software by using dnf command.

# dnf install -y couchdb

Install .Net Framework 5 on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install .Net Framework 5 on Ubuntu. The .NET Core is a free and open-source software framework designed with keeping Linux and macOS in mind. It is a cross-platform successor to .NET Framework available for Linux, macOS and Windows systems. 

.NET Core framework already provides scaffolding tools for bootstrapping projects.


To install .NET SDK on Ubuntu:

The .NET SDK allows you to develop apps with .NET. If you install the .NET SDK, you don't need to install the corresponding runtime. To install the .NET SDK, run the following commands:

# sudo apt-get update; \
  sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https && \
  sudo apt-get update && \
  sudo apt-get install -y dotnet-sdk-5.0


To Install ASP.NET Core runtime on Ubuntu:

In your terminal, run the following commands:

$ sudo apt-get update; \
  sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https && \
  sudo apt-get update && \
  sudo apt-get install -y aspnetcore-runtime-5.0


Before you install .NET, run the following commands to add the Microsoft package signing key to your list of trusted keys and add the package repository.

Open a terminal and run the following commands:

$ wget https://packages.microsoft.com/config/ubuntu/20.04/packages-microsoft-prod.deb -O packages-microsoft-prod.deb
sudo dpkg -i packages-microsoft-prod.deb