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Related to centos


Disable the Network Interface on Boot in CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of disabling the network interface, the use of the network interface, and the working of the network interface. In fact, in some situations, you might need any one of them to be disabled temporarily so that the other one can work properly. 


How do I delete an ifconfig interface ?

To delete an alias interface use:

$ ifconfig eth0:0 down 

Note: for every scope (i.e. same net with address/netmask combination) all aliases are deleted, if you delete the first (primary). 

'ifconfig eth0:0 up' flag causes the interface to be activated.


How do I restart NetworkManager in AlmaLinux ?

1. You can run the following command to restart the server networking service:

# nmcli networking off 
# nmcli networking on 

or 

# systemctl restart NetworkManager

2. Once this is done, use the following command to check the server network status:

# nmcli -o 

or

# systemctl status NetworkManager

Install the Traceroute on Ubuntu 22.04 (Jammy Jellyfish) - Step by step guide ?

This article covers a detailed description of the traceroute command, which can be used to determine the delays in network path responses and look for routing loops (if any exist) in the network. In fact, network diagnostics tools such as traceroute, and ping are available in most Linux distribution. 


How to install and run a traceroute in Linux ?

For most Linux distributions, you'll need to first install the traceroute package.

To install:

  • Open your terminal.
  • Run the following to install in Ubuntu: $ sudo apt-get install traceroute
  • Once installed, you can run the command as follows: $ traceroute example.com
  • Some Linux variants require you to also specify the protocol after -I. For example: $ traceroute -I ICMP example.com

Install FreeRADIUS on Linux Mint 20.3 - Step by step guide ?

This article cover the process of installing and removing the FreeRADIUS server on Linux Mint 20.3 system. In fact, FreeRADIUS is a free and open-source implementation of the RADIUS protocol. It's the most popular and widely deployed open-source RADIUS server, is also used by many Fortune-500 companies, telecommunications companies, and Tier 1 ISPs. daloRADIUS on the other hand is an advanced web application for managing FreeRADIUS servers.

Restart Ubuntu 21.10 Impish Indri From the Terminal

This article covers some approaches to restart the Ubuntu system (Linux OS) like restarting Ubuntu using shutdown command, reboot command, init command, and systemd way. In fact, Every operating system needs to reboot or restart after some time due to various reasons. Some of the reasons are that certain software needs a reboot after installation to become fully functional, due to some configurational change, or maybe because of a software glitch. 

Check GCC Version in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to easily check the version of GCC (build-essential) running on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, GCC, better known as The GNU Compiler Collection, is a set of compilers, development tools, and front ends such as C, C++, Objective-C, Fortran, Ada, Go, and D. 


How To Uninstall gcc from Ubuntu 21.04 ?

To uninstall only the gcc package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove gcc

We can use the following command to remove gcc configurations, data and all of its dependencies, we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y autoremove --purge gcc

Install Python on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can install Python 3.9 on your Linux Mint system. In fact, Python programming language can help in solving your programmatic problems.


Main features of Python includes:

  • It can be used on a server to create web applications.
  • It can be used alongside software to create workflows.
  • It can connect to database systems. It can also read and modify files.
  • It can be used to handle big data and perform complex mathematics.
  • It can be used for rapid prototyping or production-ready software development.

Install NGINX on openSUSE - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can easily install Nginx on your openSUSE system. In fact, Nginx or engine x is a high-performance HTTP- and proxy server with low memory consumption. It is used by large scale websites like Netflix, Pinterest, CloudFlare , Github etc. Nginx has an easy to learn configuration syntax and can act also as a load balancer with health checks and reverse proxy with caching features.


You can Install Nginx with the "zypper in" command:

$ zypper in nginx

Start nginx and enable it to be started at boot time:

$ systemctl start nginx
$ systemctl enable nginx

Install UNRAR on Fedora 35 / 34 / 33 / 32 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and use UNRAR freeware on Fedora. In fact, UNRAR is a great option for extracting RAR files and provides a myriad of options depending on how you want your files organized upon extraction. 

Install Steam on openSUSE - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install steam on openSUSE using different methods. In fact, Steam (https://www.steampowered.com) is a software content delivery system developed by Valve software (https://www.valvesoftware.com). 


How To Uninstall steam from Ubuntu 20.04 ?

To uninstall only the steam package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove steam

We can use the following command to remove steam configurations, data and all of its dependencies, we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y autoremove --purge steam

Install Scala Compiler on Linux Mint 20.02 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Scala compiler on your Linux Mint 20.02 machine. In fact, After installing this compiler, you will be all set to write codes using the Scala programming language. It includes modern language features such as closures, pattern-matching, parametric types, and virtual type members.

Different methods of Checking MySQL Version in Linux

This article covers the ways to check the MySQL version in Linux. In fact, MySQL (and its drop-in replacement MariaDB) is the most popular open-source relational database management system. There are some important differences between MySQL versions, so knowing which version is running on your server might be important in some situations.


How to Check MySQL Version with V Command ?

The easiest way to find the MySQL version is with the command:

$ mysql -V

The command mysql –V is not OS specific. This command works on Windows, OS X, and Linux distributions including Ubuntu.

Install VLC Media Player on Manjaro 21.2.2 Linux System

This article covers how to install VLC media player on Manjaro Linux. In fact, you can run the application whenever you want and stream videos on it. VLC supports subtitles, closed captions and is translated into numerous languages.

Most Effective GUI Tools to Free Up Space on Ubuntu and Linux Mint

This article covers the best GUI Tools to Free Up Space on Ubuntu and Linux Mint . In fact, you can use these tools to regularly keep your Ubuntu / Linux Mint system free of junk files.


How to Remove old kernels from the Ubuntu / Linux Mint system  ?

1. As we should know, the Linux Kernel is the heart of the system, but it is also known that it is updated every so often, so they are released new versions which are installed in the system displacing the old versions which remain stored without being eliminated.

For this we must type the following command:

$ sudo dpkg 'linux-image *' --list

2. Next, they must identify their oldest kernels and execute the following command to remove the previous versions.

Just replace xxxxx with the version of Linux you want to delete:

$ sudo apt-get remove linux-image-xxxxx

3. As an alternative, an easier way to clean up these old kernels is to use 'autoremove':

$ sudo apt-get autoremove  --purge

iostat Command in Linux - Explained with examples

This article covers how to use the iostat command in Linux. In fact, iostat command is used to monitor CPU utilization and I/O (input /output) statistics of all the disks and file systems. nfsiostat command is used to monitor i/o statistics of network file system(NFS).


iostat command generally generates two reports:

  • CPU utilization report.
  • All disks i/o statistics report.


To generate the reports, iostat command reads some of the system files . These files are:

  • /proc/diskstats for disk stats.
  • /proc/stat for system stats.
  • /sys for block device stats.
  • /proc/devices for persistent device names.
  • /proc/self/mountstats for all  the network filesystems.
  • /proc/uptime for information regarding system uptime.

Backup Your Data on Ubuntu 20.04 using Fwbackups - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install fwbackups and backup data in the application on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, fwbackups is an open-source feature-rich user backup application that allows you to backup your important documents anytime, anywhere using a simple powerful interface with the support for scheduled backups and backing up to remote systems.


How to Install fwbackups on Debian and Ubuntu / Mint Linux ?

1. Install these following dependencies on your system:

$ sudo apt-get install gettext autotools-dev intltool python-crypto python-paramiko python-gtk2 python-glade2 python-notify cron

2. Then download fwbackups to your home directory using wget command and install it from source using the following commands:

$ wget http://downloads.diffingo.com/fwbackups/fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ tar xfj fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ cd fwbackups-1.43.7/
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr
$ make && sudo make install

3. Install fwbackups on CentOS and RHEL:

$ sudo yum install gettext autotools-dev intltool python-crypto python-paramiko python-gtk2 python-glade2 python-notify cron

4. Next, download fwbackups and install it from source using the following commands:

$ wget http://downloads.diffingo.com/fwbackups/fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ tar xfj fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ cd fwbackups-1.43.7/
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr
$ make && sudo make install

5. Install fwbackups on Fedora Linux:

$ sudo dnf install fwbackups


From the fwbackups Overview page, you can simply click on any one of the toolbar buttons to begin:

  • ⁠Backup Sets – To create, edit or delete backup sets as well as manually create a backup set.
  • ⁠One-Time Backup – Create "one-time" backups.
  • ⁠Log Viewer – Shows the information about fwbackups's activities.
  • Restore – Allows you to restore any backup from previously made backup.

How to install Bacula Server on Ubuntu Linux system ?

In order to install Bacula Server, log in to your Ubuntu instance and issue the command:

$ sudo apt-get install bacula -y

You will be prompted for the following:

  • Mail server configuration (unless you need email alerts, you can configure this as local only).
  • System mail name (this is the email domain for the server, if applicable).
  • Configure database for bacula-directory-pgsql (you want to do this and set it as localhost).
  • Configure a password for the Bacula PostgreSQL database.


Once you've completed the above, you'll get your prompt back and can continue on with the configuration.

Install Git on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and configure Git on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, Git is popular version control system designed to handle very large projects with speed and efficiency; it is used for many high profile open source projects, most notably the Linux kernel.


How To Uninstall git on Ubuntu 21.04 ?

To uninstall only the git package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove git

We can use the following command to remove git configurations, data and all of its dependencies, we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y autoremove --purge git

Install Gitlab on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install GitLab on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, GitLab is a free git repository management tool that allows you to create and manage git repositories. It provides tools for everything an open-source developer would need. Also it integrates perfectly with other development tools like CodeShip, which makes deployments easy and fast.

Enable PowerTools Repository on Rocky Linux 8 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to enable PowerTools repository on Rocky Linux and any other Red Hat Linux systems. In fact, The PowerTools repository is a container that contains many packages, libraries, and developer tools for either creating from source or installing applications. Most repositories rely on the PowerTools to be enabled, including the most popular Extra packages for the Enterprise Linux repository.


How to Install EPEL Repositories on Rocky Linux 8 ?

You need to enable EPEL since while installing a package being provided by the PowerTools repos, there might be some dependencies required and provided by the EPEL:

$ dnf install epel-release

Install Psensor Temperature Monitoring Application on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Psensor Temperature Monitoring Application on the Ubuntu machine through the command line and graphically.


psensor can monitor:

  • the temperature of the motherboard and CPU sensors (using lm-sensors).
  • the temperature of the NVidia GPUs (using XNVCtrl).
  • the temperature of the Hard Disk Drives (using hddtemp or atasmart lib).
  • the rotation speed of the fans (using lm-sensors).
  • the sensors of a remote computer (using psensor-server).


How to Install psensor Using apt on Ubuntu Linux system ?

Update apt database with apt using the following command:

$ sudo apt update

After updating apt database, We can install psensor using apt by running the following command:

$ sudo apt -y install psensor

Install Open Source osTicket on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step guide ?

This article covers how to install the osTicket open source ticket system on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, OsTicket allows you to manage, organize and archive your support request. It seamlessly routes inquiries created via email, web-forms, and phone calls into a simple, easy-to-use, multi-user, web-based customer support platform.


How to install osTicket with Nginx on Ubuntu ?

1. Update the system

First, log in to your server with sudo privileges and update the system with the latest stable version using the following command:

$ sudo apt update &&  sudo apt upgrade -y


2. Install LEMP Server

OsTicket requires Web server, PHP and Database Server to be installed on your server.

i. Install Nginx Web Server

You can install Nginx web server by the following command:

$ sudo apt install nginx -y

Now let's check Nginx service and To start the service manually, run the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl status nginx
$ sudo systemctl start nginx

Now enable nginx service to start at boot time by running the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable nginx

ii. Install PHP and PHP-FPM

Next, you need to install PHP, PHP-FPM and some additional PHP modules which are required for OsTicket to run properly:

$ sudo apt install php php-mysql php-cgi php-fpm php-cli php-curl php-gd php-imap php-mbstring php-xml-util php-intl php-apcu php-common php-gettext php-bcmath

Above command will install php-7.2

Now edit php.ini file by running following command in terminal.

$ sudo vim /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini

Uncomment cgi.fix_pathinfo variable and change its value to 0

cgi.fix_pathinfo=0

Now save and close the file.

Next, restart php7.2-fpm service and enable it at startup using the following command:

$ sudo systemctl restart php7.2-fpm
$ sudo systemctl enable php7.2-fpm

iii. Install and Configure MySQL Database server for OsTicket

From your terminal window, issue the following command to install the MySQL database server:

$ sudo apt install mysql-server

Now start MySQL service and enable it to start at boot time then check MySQL service status with the following command:-

$ sudo systemctl start mysql
$ sudo systemctl enable mysql
$ sudo systemctl status mysql

Next, secure MySQL installation with the following command:

$ sudo mysql_secure_installation

Answer all the questions as below:

Set root password? [Y/n] Y
New password:
Re-enter new password:
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] Y
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y

Next, log in to MySQL console as shown below:

$ sudo mysql -u root -p

Enter your Root password here.

Now you need to create the database for osTicket

run following command:

$ mysql> create database osticket_db;
$ mysql> grant all privileges on osticket_db.* to osticket_user identified by 'OsTicketPassw0rd@19';
$ mysql> flush privileges;


3. Download and Configure osTicket

Create a new directory for osTicket and then go to that directory:

$ sudo mkdir -p /var/www/osticket/
$ cd /var/www/osticket/

Next download latest osTicket setup using wget and Extract it using the following command:-

$ sudo apt-get install wget unzip
$ sudo wget https://github.com/osTicket/osTicket/releases/download/v1.14.1/osTicket-v1.14.1.zip
$ sudo unzip osTicket-v1.14.1.zip

You will get scripts and upload directory after extracting.

Next create an osTicket configuration file from ost-sampleconfig.php file using the following command:

$ sudo su -
$ cd upload/
$ cp ost-sampleconfig.php ost-config.php

Next, you need to change ownership of the osTicket web directory to the 'www-data' user and group.

$ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/osticket/


4. Create OsTicket Virtual Host

Now create new virtual host configuration for OsTicket by running following command:

$ sudo vim /etc/nginx/sites-available/osticket.conf

Paste the configuration as below:

server {
listen 80;
server_name 13.52.217.10;   ## change server_name as per your domain name.
root /var/www/osticket/upload;
access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
index index.php index.html index.htm;

# Enable gzip
gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1000;
gzip_types text/plain application/x-javascript text/xml text/css application/xml;
set $path_info "";
location ~ /include {
deny all;
return 403;
}
if ($request_uri ~ "^/api(/[^\?]+)") {
set $path_info $1;
}
location ~ ^/api/(?:tickets|tasks).*$ {
try_files $uri $uri/ /api/http.php?$query_string;
}
if ($request_uri ~ "^/scp/.*\.php(/[^\?]+)") {
set $path_info $1;
}
location ~ ^/scp/ajax.php/.*$ {
try_files $uri $uri/ /scp/ajax.php?$query_string;
}
location / {
try_files $uri $uri/ index.php;
}
location ~ \.php$ {
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
include fastcgi_params;
include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;
fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.2-fpm.sock;
}
}

Here, You need to change server_name 13.52.217.10 as per your domain name.

Save the Nginx configuration file and exit.

Now activate the virtual host and test the configuration:

$ ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/osticket.conf /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
$ nginx -t

Now restart nginx service:

$ sudo systemctl restart nginx


5. Install and configure osTicket

Now let's enter your domain name to get osTicket UI in any web browser.

Next Click on 'Continue' and you will be redirected to the osTicket configuration section.

Fill all required information and click “Install Now” button.

In the database settings, enter details as dbname, username, and password you have created during mysql setup.

Finally, Click on Install Now button

Next, change the permission of ost-config.php to remove write access by running the following command:

$ cd /var/www/osticket/upload/
$ chmod 0644 include/ost-config.php

For osTicket admin type your IP/domain name in the web browser.

For admin login/agent panel/Admin panel configuration type as following:

  • osTicket admin login - http://yourdomainname/scp/
  • osTicket agent panel - http://yourdomainname/scp/index.php
  • osTicket Admin panel configuration - http://yourdomainname/scp/settings.php

Install Rundeck on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Rundeck on Ubuntu 20.04 for task automations in the system. In fact, Rundeck is a free open-source software for automation services. With Rundeck, you can create simple to complex tasks on either the local machine or on a remote server.

Install Grafana on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and configure the Grafana monitoring tool on CentOS 8 system via the command line. In fact, Grafana is a popular open-source visualization and analytics monitoring software which renders graphs, charts, and alerts when connected to supported data sources. Now, you can use the grafana monitoring dashboard on CentOS 8 system.

Configure a Custom SSH Banner - Step by step guide ?

This article covers How to Set a Custom SSH Warning Banner and MOTD in Linux. In fact, SSH banner warnings are necessary when companies or organizations want to display a stern warning to discourage unauthorized parties from accessing a server.

Install Octave on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Octave programming language on a Linux Mint 20 machine. In fact, Octave is a (mostly MATLAB® compatible) high-level language, primarily intended for numerical computations. It provides a convenient command-line interface for solving linear and nonlinear problems numerically.


How to Install octave on Linux Mint via Snapd ?

1. Enable snapd

On Linux Mint 20, /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref needs to be removed before Snap can be installed. This can be accomplished from the command line:

$ sudo rm /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref
$ sudo apt update

To install snap from the Software Manager application, search for snapd and click Install.

Alternatively, snapd can be installed from the command line:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd


2. Install octave

To install octave, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install octave

Install VMWare Workstation on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete procedure of Installing VMware Workstation on Linux Mint 20.1 Ulyssa. In fact, VMware is a mature and stable virtualization solution that allows you to run multiple, isolated operating systems on a single machine. This enables one to have Virtual machines of different operating systems running off the host resources. 

The VMware Tools offer several useful functionalities such as faster graphics performance, shared folders, shared clipboards, drag and drop operations, and more.

Install PHP OPcache on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete procedure for installing the PHP OPcache on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, OPcache is an Apache module for the PHP interpreter which is used to increase performance by storing precompiled scripts in shared memory space. It basically removes the need for PHP to load and parse scripts on each request.


How to Install and Configure PHP OPcache with Nginx ?

1. First, install the Nginx, PHP and other PHP extensions with the following command:

$ apt-get install nginx php php-fpm php-cli php-opcache php-mysql php-zip php-gd php-mbstring php-curl php-xml -y

2. Once all the packages are installed, verify the PHP version with the following command:

$ php -version

3. Next, you will need to enable the PHP OPcache by editing php.ini file.

$ nano /etc/php/7.4/fpm/php.ini

Uncomment the following lines:

opcache.enable=1
opcache.memory_consumption=128
opcache.max_accelerated_files=10000
opcache.revalidate_freq=200

Next, Save and close the file then restart Apache service to apply the changes:

$ systemctl restart nginx php7.4-fpm

4. You can now verify the PHP OPcache installation with the following command:

$ php -i | grep opcache

Install FTP Server on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete procedure to install and configure the latest version of the FTP Server on the Linux Mint system. In fact, VSFTP (very secure FTP) is a secure FTP protocol which encrypts information transfer between systems.

To Install VSFTPD on Linux Mint 20, Simply Run the following commands to install VSFTP server on Linux Mint 20:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt install -y vsftpd

Install FreeIPA on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the FreeIPA on CentOS 8 system. In fact, FreeIPA is a free and open source identity management tool for managing centralized authentication along with account management, policy (host-based access control) and audit.


How to Open Required FreeIPA ports on Firewall ?

FreeIPA uses a number of ports to communicate with its services which must be opened on firewall to allow external connections. You can simply open all the required ports using the service names by running the command below:

$ firewall-cmd --add-service={freeipa-ldap,freeipa-ldaps,dns,ntp} --permanent
$ firewall-cmd --reload

Install LibreNMS on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS using Nginx - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing LibreNMS on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, LibreNms works and supports protocols such as SNMP, LLDP, OSPF, ARP, CDP, BGP and FDP to auto-discover the network.  You can also use LibreNms to monitor many network hardware (such as Cisco, Juniper, Foundry, FreeBSD, Brocade) and even operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and FreeBSD.

Install / Enable RPM Fusion on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install RPM fusion on AlmaLinux 8 / Rocky Linux 8. In fact, RPM Fusion is a repository specifically for Fedora Linux which is an amalgamation of the software repositories Livna, Freshrpms, and Dribble to bundle resources. 


How to Disable or Enable any repository like RPM Fusion from Rocky Linux 8 system ?

1. Install Yum Utils:

$ sudo dnf install yum-utils

2. Command syntax to enable or disable repo:

$ sudo yum-config-manager --disable repository-ID

3. To get the ID list the repositories using:

$ dnf repolist

Let's say we want to disable Fusion then the command will be:

$ sudo yum-config-manager --disable rpmfusion-free-updates

To enable the same in the future, use:

$ sudo yum-config-manager --enable rpmfusion-free-updates

4. To List, all the enabled and disabled repositories simply type:

$ dnn repolist all

Install nload to Monitor Real Time Network Traffic on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the different ways to easily install nload on your Ubuntu system. In fact, nload is a command-line utility that can be used to monitor network traffic and bandwidth usage in real time. It visualizes the in-comming and out-going traffic using two graphs and also provides additional information like min/max network usage and total transferred data. 

Install and Use Neofetch on Linux ( RHEL /CentOS / Arch ) - Step by step Guide ?

This article covers different ways of installing Neofetch on major Linux distributions. In fact, Neofetch is a handy tool when you want to display information about the system you are working on. It's mostly useful in tutorials and guides when you want to show your readers the OS and hardware type you are using.

To see what other options you can specify with Neofetch, run the neofetch --help command.

Install WildFly on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to successfully install and configure WildFly on Ubuntu 20.04. Infact, WildFly offers you an administration dashboard to manage single or multiple domains efficiently.

Disable the Firewall on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the different ways of disabling the Firewall on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, You can easily disable the Firewall for Linux via the following tools:

  • ufw – Used by Ubuntu and Debian based system to manage the firewall.
  • firewalld – Used by RHEL, CentOS and clones. It is a dynamic solution to manage the firewall.

Migrate from CentOS 7.x versions to RHEL 8.x using Elevate Project

This article covers the complete process of migrating from CentOS 7.x to AlmaLinux using the Elevate upgrade packages. In fact, You can upgrade to other RHEL 8.x distros using different leapp migration data packages.

Install ProFTPD on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can instantly install ProFTPD on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, ProFTPD will easily facilitate transferring your files from one end to another while fully supporting the file transfer protocol.

Install Terminator on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation method of Terminator on Linux Mint 20. In fact, a Linux terminal environment enables a user to carry out various system functionalities like file management, system update, and applications management through a variety of executable commands.


Main features of Terminator Terminal includes:

  • Multiple plugins support.
  • Simultaneous typing especially when dealing with arbitrarily grouped terminals.
  • Access to numerous keyboard shortcuts.
  • Multiple profiles and layouts support which, through GUI preferences editor, can be saved.
  • Terminals re-ordering through drag-and-drop.
  • Multiple tabs support.
  • Support for grid-like structure terminal arrangement.

Install 7-zip on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install 7-zip on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, 7-Zip is an archive format that is widely used and gives a high compression rate.


How to Use 7Zip in Ubuntu Linux system ?

If you are on Ubuntu run the following commands:

$ sudo add-apt-repository universe
$ sudo apt update

After you have updated all your repositories run the following command to install 7Zip:

$ sudo apt install p7zip-full p7zip-rar

Install Tesseract on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Tesseract OCR on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Tesseract is an optical text recognition (OCR) engine developed by Google used for recognizing a text in image. 


How to Install Tesseract OCR on Ubuntu ?

1. Add the Tesseract OCR repository:

$ sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:alex-p/tesseract-ocr-devel

2. Install Tesseract OCR 5:

$ sudo apt install -y tesseract-ocr

3. When installation is finished, we can check Tesseract OCR version:

$ tesseract --version


How to Uninstall Tesseract OCR from Ubuntu Linux system ?

If you decided to completely remove Tesseract OCR and related dependencies, run the following command:

$ sudo apt purge --autoremove -y tesseract-ocr

2. Remove GPG key and repository:

$ sudo rm -rf /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/alex-p_ubuntu_tesseract-ocr-devel.gpg
$ sudo rm -rf /etc/apt/sources.list.d/alex-p-ubuntu-tesseract-ocr-devel-focal.list

How to Install WordPress with LEMP (Nginx, MariaDB, and PHP) on Rocky Linux 8 ?

This article covers how to install the LEMP stack on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, The terminology LEMP is an acronym for Linux, Nginx (pronounced as Engine X, hence the E) which is a web browser, MariaDB or MySQL – database, and PHP for processing dynamic content). LEMP stack is popularly used for hosting high-traffic and highly scalable web applications and websites.

Install WordPress on Rocky Linux 8 using the LAMP stack - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install WordPress on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, WordPress  is open-source, written in PHP and use a MariaDB/MySQL as a database backend. WordPress is the most popular content management system used to host static and dynamic websites on the Internet. You are now ready to create your blog or website.

Install Bpytop Resource Monitoring Tool on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Bpytop on the CentOS system. In fact, Bpytop provides a command-line interface to monitor system resources including disk, network, process, and CPU in real-time. Bpytop can be installed on several operating systems including Linux, macOS, and FreeBSD. Now you can start using it to monitor your system's resource usage.


How to Install bpytop on your Linux system ?

1. The best way to install the bpytop is by typing the following command to install or upgrade to the latest version:

$ pip3 install bpytop --upgrade

2. On Arch Linux install bytop, Run the pacman commands:

$ sudo pacman -Syu
$ sudo pacman -S bpytop

3. On Debian 11, We use the apt command:

$ sudo sh -c 'apt update && apt -y upgrade && apt -y install bpytop'

4. For RHEL 8 enable EPEL (see how to enable and use EPEL on CentOS 8) and then type the dnf command:

$ sudo sh -c 'dnf update && dnf install bpytop'

5. On FreeBSD install bpytop, Run the pkg command to install bpytop:

$ sudo pkg install bpytop

6. On Ubuntu snap installation, Execute the following snap command:

$ sudo snap install bpytop

Install GoAccess on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the GoAccess real-time web log analyzer on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, GoAccess is a free and open-source weblog analyzer tool used for the analysis of logs in real-time. You can analyze logs through a web browser or terminal. 

GoAccess provides very useful statistics to system administrators including, top visitors, bandwidth, referring sites and URLs, operating systems, IP location, reverse DNS, geolocation, HTTP status code, and much more.

Install Percona Database Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Percona Database Server on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Percona Server is fully compatible and a replacement for Oracle MySQL. Percona Server is used by thousands of enterprises to provide superior performance, scalability, and instrumentation for their workloads.

Install Rar / Unrar on Centos 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Rar/Unrar on CentOS 8 system. In fact, RAR files are archived by Winrar compression software and can be split into large files.

Install Screen on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Screen tool on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Linux Mint screen provides users an option to open several separate terminal instances within a single terminal window manager. Screen also includes an enhanced command line, giving you extra features and functionality over a standard command line.


How to Install and Use Linux Screen ?

Screen is usually installed by default on all major Linux distributions. If your system doesn't have it preinstalled, don’t worry, the installation process is easy.

1. In the case of Debian, Ubuntu or Linux Mint and its derivatives, you can execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install screen

2. If you are using CentOS, you can install it using the following:

$ sudo yum install screen

Or if the user can't run sudo commands, we need to run it as a root user:

$ yum install screen


How to install htop on your Linux system ?

We can install it on Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint and its derivatives with the following command:

$ sudo apt install htop

You can run htop by simply typing the following command in your terminal:

$ htop

Install and Configure Nessus Vulnerability Scanner on CentOS 8

This article covers how to install and configure Nessus vulnerability scanner on the CentOS system. Now you can start running scans on your systems to find any vulnerability that can be exploited by attackers. 


How to start Nessus on CentOS 8 ?

Now run the following commands to start the Nessus service, enable that server at startup and check Nessus service status by running the following command:

$ sudo systemctl start nessusd.service
$ sudo systemctl enable nessusd.service
$ sudo systemctl status nessusd.service

At this time Nessus service running on default port 8834 successfully, Before you start post-installation, you need to open up that port in your firewall. To do so run the following command:

$ firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=8834/tcp --permanent
$ firewall-cmd --reload

Now go to your browser and enter your server name or IP along with the default port of Nessus:

https://server_name_or_ip:8834/

Install FreeIPA on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing FreeIPA open source identity management system on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa. In fact, FreeIPA is free and open source Identity, Policy, and Audit (IPA) suite sponsored by RedHat. It's an IPA solution combination of Linux (Fedora), 389 Directory Server, MIT Kerberos, NTP, DNS Bind, Dogtag, Apache web server, and Python.

Install ClamAV on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing ClamAV antivirus on CentOS 8 system. In fact, ClamAV is an open source (GPL) antivirus engine designed for detecting Trojans, viruses, malware and other malicious threats on Linux.

Install Apache Ant on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Apache Ant on your CentOS 8 system. In fact, Apache Ant is a Java library and command-line tool that help building software. Ant supplies a number of built-in tasks that allows to compile, assemble, and run Java applications. Its build files are written in XML so it is open standard, portable and easy to understand.

Install Apache Ant on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Apache Ant on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Apache Ant is a software tool for automating software build processes especially on Java environments. It is a Java library and command-line tool whose mission is to drive processes described in build files as targets and extension points dependent upon each other. The main known usage of Ant is the build of Java applications.

Install HAProxy on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing HAProxy on your CentOS 8 systems. In fact, HAProxy is an open-source software widely used as a high availability load balancer and proxying TCP and HTTP connections.

Install Steam on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Steam on your CentOS 8 system. In fact, Steam is a very popular and widely used online gaming library among the gaming community. It provides thousands of games to play and lets you communicate with online players. It is available on many platforms and can be used in Linux as well.


How to Install Steam Using the Flatpak ?

1. Make sure that the epel repository is enabled on your CentOS 8:

$ sudo dnf install epel-release

2. And also, verify that system's repository is up to date by typing the command given below:

$ sudo dnf update

3. Make sure that Flatpak is installed on your CentOS 8 machine. It comes pre-installed on CentOS 8 and you can verify its installation by typing the below command:

$ flatpak --version

4. If Flatpak is not installed on your CentOS 8 system due to any reason, install it using the command below:

$ sudo dnf install flatpak

5. After installing Flatpak, type the command given below to add the flathub repository to your CentOS 8 system as well:

$ flatpak remote-add --if-not-exists flathub https://flathub.org/repo/flathub.flatpakrepo

6. You can install Steam on your CentOS 8 system by typing the command given below:

$ flatpak install flathub com.valvesoftware.Steam -y

The "-y" flag will automatically say yes whenever a prompt will occur to confirm the installation.

Install Icinga on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - step by step process ?

This article covers the process of installing Icinga 2 on your Ubuntu LTS system. Infact, Icinga is a computer system and network monitoring application that checks the availability of your network and computer resources, notifies system outages, generates performance data of your resources, and provides the high-availability and distributed monitoring setup with the built-in cluster feature. 

Install Dokuwiki on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers the process of installing Dokuwiki on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, DokuWiki is an open source wiki program written in PHP that doesn't require a database. It stores data in text files.

Install Chromium on CentOS 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the Chromium web browser in CentOS 8 system. In fact, The Chromium project covers two utilities such as Chromium and Chromium OS, which are the open source projects of the Google Chrome browser and Google Chrome OS. Chromium has been developed as an open-source browser project whose critical mission is to offer a more secure, faster and more stable way to navigate the web where threats are constant at every minute.

Install Vivaldi Browser on CentOS 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Vivaldi Web Browser on CentOS 8 systems. In fact, Vivaldi web browser is created for speed, privacy and secure browsing experience by blocking ads and trackers.

Install Puppet on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the Puppet on 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Puppet is a free and open-source automated administrative engine for Linux, Unix, and Windows operating systems. It is used for deploying, configuring, and managing servers and performs administrative tasks such as adding users, installing packages, and many more.

Furthermore, It helps system admins to free up time and mental space by automating tasks on thousands of physical and virtual machines. It uses a client-server model. Where Puppet master controls configuration information for Puppet agents while Puppet agents talk to and pull down configuration profiles from the Puppet master.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Puppet website.

Set Up DHCP Server on CentOS 8 - How to do it ?

This article covers the process of installing DHCP Server on CentOS 7 system. In fact, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a communication protocol that computers use to automatically assign IP addresses to devices connected to a local network or over the internet. 

Install Cacti Monitoring on Debian 10 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Cacti Monitoring on Debian 10 Buster system. In fact, Cacti is a free and open-source, web-based network monitoring, and graphics tool which provides a fast poller with advanced graphic template creation and multiple data collection methods. 

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you check the official Cacti Monitoring website.

Install Microsoft SQL Server on CentOS 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Microsoft SQL Server (MS SQL) on your CentOS 8 system. In fact, SQL Server is Microsoft's proprietary relational database management software. It supports various operating systems and installation methods, including Linux distributions like Ubuntu, Red Hat, and CentOS.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Microsoft SQL Server website.

Install Vtiger CRM on CentOS 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and configure Vtiger CRM on a CentOS 8 system. In fact, vTiger CRM is a web-based, modular and complete Open Source full-fledged customer relationship management system for sales force automation, customer support & service, marketing automation, procurement & fulfillment effectively. It is basically a native thin-client, browser-based application built on the LAMP/WAMP (Linux/Windows, Apache, MySQL and PHP) stack.

Install PHP Composer on CentOS 8 - Step by step Process ?

This article covers the installation procedure of PHP composer on your CentOS 8 system. In fact, Composer is a dependency manager for PHP, it like npm for Node.js or pip to Python. So, it allows you to declare the libraries your project depends on and it will manage (installing/updating) them for you. It is used in all modern PHP frameworks and platforms such as Laravel, Symfony, Drupal, and Magento 2.

Install Snap on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step Process ?

This article covers how to install snap on Linux Mint 20. In fact, Snaps are 'universal' packages that work across many different Linux systems, enabling secure distribution of the latest apps and utilities for cloud, servers, desktops and the internet of things.

Install Python 3.10 on Rocky 8 - A step by step process ?

This article covers the process of installing Python 3.10 on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, Python is one of the most popular high-level languages, focusing on high-level and object-oriented applications from simple scrips to complex machine learning algorithms.


Install and Configure CSF(Config Server Firewall) on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers the process of installing Config Server Firewall on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Config Server Firewall (CSF) is a popular security tool for Linux comes with multiple features such as stateful packet inspection firewall (SPI), intrusion detection, a login failure daemon, DDOS protection, and control panel integration.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you check the official CSF website .

Install PHP 7.4 on CentOS 8

This article covers how to install PHP on CentOS 8. You will also see how to change the default PHP version to the latest available version. After installing the PHP on your system, you can configure it with an Apache webserver or Nginx. 

PHP (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. PHP code is interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the resulting web page: PHP commands can be embedded directly into an HTML source document rather than calling an external file to process data.

Install Netdata on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how to install Netdata on a Linux Mint 20 machine and then use this service for measuring the performance of your system. In fact, Netdata is a free and open-source real-time monitoring and troubleshooting tool for cloud servers, containers, applications, and on-premise IT infrastructure. You can view the results in a highly interactive web-dashboard.

Install MyPaint on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers how to install, launch, and remove MyPaint on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, MyPaint an open-source, fast painting program that centers around full-screen use, with the idea that the user should focus on the art rather than the interface.


How to install or uninstall mypaint on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa)?

1. To install mypaint package, run the below commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install mypaint


2. To Uninstall mypaint package, execute the commands:

$ sudo apt remove mypaint
$ sudo apt autoclean && sudo apt autoremove

Install Tor browser on Rocky Linux / AlmaLinux 8

This article covers how to install the latest Tor Browser on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, Tor, also known as The Onion Router, is open-source, free software that enables anonymous communication when using online services such as web surfing. The Tor network directs the Internet traffic through an accessible worldwide volunteer overlay network with over six thousand relays and continues to grow. Many users want to find more ways to keep their information and activities anonymous or at least as private as possible, which has led to Tor Browser growing quite popular in recent years as it conceals a user's location and usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis.


Install Grafana on Rocky Linux 8

This article covers how you can add data sources from a myriad of environments and start monitoring your applications with Grafana on your Rocky Linux 8 system. In fact, Grafana is the open source analytics and monitoring solution that enables you to query, visualize and alert on various systems metrics that can be pulled from various time series databases such as Graphite, InfluxDB & Prometheus etc.

Create a Backup ISO File using Mkisofs in Linux Mint 20

This article covers how you can create a backup ISO file in Linux Mint 20 using Mkisofs. After installing this tool on your system, you can create backups of any desired files very conveniently.

The basic syntax of Mkisofs command is: $ mkisofs -o [filename.iso] [ directory_path]

Generate CSR (Certificate Signing Request) in Linux ?

This article covers the process of creating a CSR file in any Linyx system which is very necessary before applying for an SSL certificate from a Certificate Authority(CA). In fact, Certificate Signing Request(CSR) is a block encrypted text which is given to Certificate Authority when applying for SSL Certificate. Generation of Certificate Signing Request(CSR) for Secure Sockets Layer(SSL) is common in Linux on various distributions. 

CSR is generated on the server, it stores information relating to the organization, domain name, country, a city which is to be included in the certificate.  The CSR Certificate can be used on any website whenever it is necessary to encrypt communications. To generate an SSL certificate, CSR certificate has to be generated. To obtain a self-signed SSL Certificate, it is necessary to create CSR, after generating submit it to a certificate authority to acquire an SSL Certificate. 

Install Docker on Debian 11 bullseye system

This article covers how to install Docker engine on the Debian 11 bullseye system. In fact, Docker is a toolset to build applications and CI/CD pipelines to build, ship and run your applications in containers.

Install Grsync on Debian 10 Linux system

This article covers how to install and remove Grsync from Debian 10 Linux system. In fact, Grsync is a Graphical rsync backup tool for Linux systems. It basically provides a graphical user interface to backup or sync important files & directories to remote machines or in local machines using rsync.


How to Install Grsync on Debian ?

Open the Terminal, run the below apt-get command:

$ sudo apt-get install grsync

Install Jenkins on CentOS 8

This article covers how to install Jenkins on CentOS system. In fact, Jenkins is an open-source software written in Java and Scala which allows users the ability to automate almost any task and, it saves significant time that can be better utilized addressing other issues. When automating tasks with Jenkins, users can optimize their workflow by quickly automating the jobs that servers cannot do themselves.

Also, you will learn how to manage Jenkins services, allow them in firewall, and access Jenkins using the web browser.

Install Ntopng on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article covers how to install ntopng on Ubuntu OS and access its web interface. In fact, Ntopng is an essential application for monitoring and troubleshooting network problems.


More about Ntopng

Ntopng basically is a network traffic probe that will monitor network usage. It is based on libpcap, a Library written as part of a larger program called TCPDump. Ntopng is based on Redis key value server rather than traditional database, leverages nDPI for protocol discovery, supports host geolocation, and can display real-time flow analysis for connected hosts.


Main Features of Ntopng:

  • Packet capture → Packet capture / transmission using basic hardware with PF_RING. Zero-copy package distribution across threads, applications, and virtual machines. Includes Libpcap support for seamless integration with legacy applications.
  • Traffic recording → Lossless network traffic recording of 10 Gbit and above with n2disk. Industry standard PCAP file format. It allows to quickly retrieve packages using BPF. Accurate traffic reproduction with disk2n.
  • Network probe → nProbe- NetFlow v5 / v9 / IPFIX extensible probe with plug-in support for L7 content inspection.
  • Report on the use of the IP protocol → Even going so far as to classify it by type of protocol.
  • Traffic analysis → High speed web based traffic analysis and flow collection using ntopng. Persistent traffic statistics in RRD format. Layer 7 analysis leveraging nDPI, an open source DPI framework. Even going so far as to classify the traffic according to the source / destination.
  • Geolocate and Overlay Hosts → This will be done on a geographic map.
  • Alert engine → We can capture anomalous and suspicious hosts.
  • Produce network traffic statistics → Using HTML5 / AJAX technology.
  • We will have full support for current network protocols → Including IPv4 and IPv6.

Install Brave Browser on Debian 11 bullseye

This article covers How to Install Brave Browser on Debian 11. In fact, Brave is an open-source privacy-focused Internet web browser, which distinguishes itself from other browsers by automatically blocking online advertisements and website trackers in its default settings. 

Install Anaconda on CentOS 8

This article covers how you install Anaconda on your CentOS system. In fact, Anaconda manages many pre installed packages and that packages are helpful for data science, Machine Learning and Artificial intelligence applications. Once installed on your system, you can now start building your machine learning projects.

Install Elinks on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to install, run, and remove Elinks browser on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Elinks runs in the terminal. Not only it saves bandwidth but also consumes a few system resources. On a server where resources are always constrained, elinks can be the best choice to access the web.


Step by step installation of elinks:

1: Update system:

$ sudo apt-get update

2: Install: elinks

Ater updating the OS run following command to install the package:

$ sudo apt-get install elinks


How to Completely remove elinks with all configuration files from Ubuntu?

Following command should be used with care as it deletes all the configuration files and data:

$ sudo apt-get purge elinks

or you can use following command also:

$ sudo apt-get purge --auto-remove elinks

Above command will remove all the configuration files and data associated with elinks package. You can can't recover the delete data, so, use this command with care.

Install MiddleMan on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers the installation of ruby, middleman, and related gems on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux system. In fact, Middleman is a Ruby-powered static site generator which follows an easy-first approach to building static sites. It has powerful features for maintaining static blogs, like easy tag generation, quick commands for listing categorized articles and pagination.

You can install Middleman with Ruby using this command:

$ gem install middleman

Install NetHogs on Linux Mint 20 - Follow these steps ?

This article covers how to install the NetHogs network bandwidth monitoring utility very easily on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, you will be able to get the network bandwidth usage in real-time very efficiently without any sort of hassle.

Install phpMyAdmin on AlmaLinux / CentOS 8 - Follow the steps outlined here ?

This article covers the installation and configuration procedure of phpMyAdmin on CentOS 8 / AlmaLinux 8. It is one of the most popular database administration tools used by hosting companies and system administrators for performing database activities such as creating, deleting, querying tables, columns, relations, indexes, users, permissions, etc. Now, you can create and manage all the databases conveniently without the need of running SQL queries.

Install Stacer on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the best procedure of Installing Stacer on Linux Mint 20. In fact, Stacer is an amazing tool for Linux system monitoring and optimizing. It is a multi utility tool with features that allows you to easily manager your Linux system. Once installed successfully, Stacer can easily be used for system monitoring and improving its performance and efficiency.


How to Install Stacer on Linux ?

If you want the latest version of Stacer then open a new Terminal Window and execute the following command line by line:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:oguzhaninan/stacer
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install stacer

This will add Stacer PPA in your repository and install the latest version of Stacer on your system.

However, if you want to install the most stable release (tested) of stacer, which can be installed from the official repository of your operating system then open terminal and execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install stacer

Install Ghost CMS on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Ghost CMS on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Ghost is a lightweight, open-source Content Management System (CMS) and blogging platform built with Node.js. It is easy to install and update with Ghost-CLI.


How to Troubleshoot Ghost CMS ?

1. Troubleshoot the system for any potential issues when installing or updating Ghost:

$ ghost doctor

2. Get help about Ghost:

$ ghost --help

Install Gparted on CentOS 8 - A Step by Step guide ?

This article covers the best way to Install Gparted 'Gnome partition' editor on CentOS 8 system. In fact, Gparted (also known as GNOME partition editor) is a free partitioning tool that uses GNU parted in the backend. Gparted is used to create, delete, or resize a partition without data loss.


How to Create a new partition on CentOS 8 system ?

  • To create a new partition you need to have some free space on your disk.
  • Do this by right-clicking on it now click on New option this will open a new window fill the required information, and then click on Add.
  • Finally, click on the right tick (✔) given on the top to apply all the operations.

Install GPing on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers the best method to get GPing installed on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, gping gives ping a nice graph in your Linux terminal.


How to Install gping on Linux Mint ?

On Linux Mint 20, /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref needs to be removed before Snap can be installed. This can be accomplished from the command line:

$ sudo rm /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref
$ sudo apt update

To install snap from the Software Manager application, search for snapd and click Install.

Alternatively, snapd can be installed from the command line:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd

To install gping, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install gping

Configure Nginx Server Block and Secure Nginx with Let's Encrypt SSL on Rocky Linux 8 / CentOS 8

This article covers how you can configure an Nginx server block and secure your web server using Let's Encrypt SSL. In fact, Let’s Encrypt SSL certificate is a digital certificate provided by Let’s Encrypt CA ( Certificate Authority) to secure a web server.


How to Install Certbot on your RHEL-based distros / Linux system ?

1. First, install the EPEL repository which provides additional and high-quality packages for RHEL-based distros:

$ sudo dnf install -y epel-release

2. Once installed, install certbot and certbot module for Nginx:

$ sudo dnf install certbot python3-certbot-nginx

This installs certbot, certbot module for Nginx host of other packages and dependencies.

Install Vsftpd with SSL / TLS on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Procedure ?

This article covers a complete guide on how to install Vsftpd with SSL/TLS on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, sftpd (i.e. very secure FTP daemon) is an FTP server software for Linux and other Unix-like systems. An FTP server software facilitates the transfer of files from a client computer to the server and vice versa.

Set Up Passwordless SSH Login Using ssh-keygen - How to do it ?

This article covers how to enable ssh passwordless login using ssh-keygen and ssh-copy-id. In fact, SSH (Secure SHELL) can be used to transfer files from one computer to another computer over the network using a secure copy (SCP) Protocol.

ssh-keygen creates the public and private keys. ssh-copy-id copies the local-host's public key to the remote-host's authorized_keys file. ssh-copy-id also assigns proper permission to the remote-host's home, ~/.ssh, and ~/.ssh/authorized_keys.

Encrypt Apache Webserver with Let's Encrypt SSL Certificate on Rocky Linux 8 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to secure your Apache webserver with Let's Encrypt SSL certificate. In fact, Let's Encrypt SSL certificates are yet another option for securing your web site with an SSL. Once installed, the system provides automatic renewal of certificates and will encrypt traffic to your web site.

Install OwnCloud on Rocky Linux 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to successfully install OwnCloud on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, OwnCloud is an open source project that can be installed on your server to securely store and access files. Also allows you to share and collaborate contents that lets teams work on data easily from anywhere, on any device. With the support of a lot of plugins, Nextcloud becomes such a Collaboration software. You can install plugins for project management, video conferencing, collaborative editing, note-taking, email client, etc.


To Open port  80 in firewall, use the following command:

$ firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=80/tcp --permanent
$ firewall-cmd --reload


How to Install Apache or httpd web server on the Rocky Linux server ?

1. Simply Execute the dnf command below to install the httpd web server:

$ sudo dnf install httpd

Type "y" and press "Enter" to confirm and install httpd packages.

2. Now, enable and start the httpd service using the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable httpd
$ sudo systemctl start httpd

The "systemctl enable" command will enable the service to start at every boot.

3. Finally, run the command below to verify the httpd service:

$ sudo systemctl status httpd

Install "exa" on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install "exa" on your system and use it as a replacement for the "ls" command in Linux Mint 20. In fact, exa is a modern replacement for the venerable file-listing command-line program ls that ships with Unix and Linux operating systems, giving it more features and better defaults. It uses colours to distinguish file types and metadata. It knows about symlinks, extended attributes, and Git. And it’s small, fast, and just one single binary. Using this modern tool will simply allow you to visualize your files and directories in Linux in a much better way.

Install bpytop on Linux Mint 20 - Complete guide ?

This article covers how to install bpytop tool on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, BpyTop is a Linux command-line utility for resource monitoring. It shows usage and stats for processors, memory, disks, network, and processes. With this tool installed on your system, you can use it very efficiently for resource usage monitoring.

To check the version of Python running on your Linux distribution, type:

$ python3 --version

After installing Bpytop, you can start monitoring your Linux system resources by running the command below:

$ bpytop

Install GlassFish on CentOS 8 - A step by Step guide ?

This article covers how to install the GlassFish application server on CentOS 8. In fact, GlassFish allows developers to create enterprise applications that are portable and scalable, and that integrate with legacy technologies. Also, you will see the best way to define systemd services for running Glassfish server and firewall configurations. 

To Start and enable glassfish services, simply run the below command:

$ systemctl start glassfish.service
$ systemctl enable glassfish.service
To access Glassfish Server on CentOS / RHEL 8, simply browse the below URL to access Glassfish Admin Console, ignore the certificate warning or install it:
https://SERVER-IP-OR-DOMAIN-NAME:4848/

Install Juju on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step procedure ?

This article covers how you can install Juju on any Linux distribution. In fact, the Juju client is a single binary executable that is published and supported on multiple operating systems and CPU architectures. 

To Install Juju on Linux from snap, run the below command:

$ sudo snap install juju --classic


To Install Juju on macOS, run the below command:

$ brew install juju

Install Ruby on CentOS 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers steps to Install Ruby and run ruby applications on your centos 8 machine. In fact, Ruby is a dynamic, object-oriented programming language focused on simplicity and productivity. RVM (Ruby Version Manager) is a tool for installing and managing multiple Ruby versions on single operating systems. 


To Verify Active Ruby Version installed on your Linux system, run the below command:

$ ruby --version

Install Apache Maven on Rocky Linux / CentOS 8 - Follow the steps here ?

This article covers how to install Apache Maven on Rocky Linux. You can now visit the Apache Maven Documentation page to learn how you can get started with managing Java projects with Apache Maven. In fact, Apache Maven Maven is a build automation tool used primarily for Java-based projects, but can also be used to build and manage projects written in C#, Ruby, Scala, and other languages.

Install ImageMagick on CentOS 8 - Step by Step process ?

This article covers how to install ImageMagick on the CentOS machine via different methods. Infact, ImageMagick provides a graphical interface for working with images, it also provides commands to resize an image, blur, crop, draw on, flip, join, re-sample, and much more.

Install and Configure Redis on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Procedure ?

This article covers the complete Installation guide of Redis on the CentOS 8 system. Redis is an open-source in-memory data structure store. In fact, You can use it as a Memcached alternative to store simple key-value pairs, as a NoSQL database, or even a message broker with the Pub-Sub pattern.

Also, Redis supports data structures such as strings, hashes, lists, sets, sorted sets with range queries, bitmaps, HyperLogLogs and geospatial indexes with radius queries. Redis has built-in replication, Lua scripting, LRU eviction, transactions and different levels of on-disk persistence, and provides high availability via Redis Sentinel and automatic partitioning with Redis Cluster.

More about Loaded Kernel Modules and How to List their Information on a Linux Mint 20 System

This article covers how loaded kernel modules works in Linux. The kernel of a Linux system is the core that everything else in the operating system relies on. The functionality of the kernel can be extended by adding modules to it. As such, a user can fine tune their kernel settings by enabling or disabling modules. Now, you can list the information of these loaded kernel modules on your system's terminal.

Install MariaDB on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step-by-step installation procedure of the MariaDB server on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, MariaDB was developed as a "drop-in" replacement for MySQL. As such, both software packages are functionally equivalent and interchangeable.

To enable MariaDB service to start on boot time and start the service using the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl enable mariadb
$ sudo systemctl start mariadb

To verify the running status of MariaDB, run the below command:

$ sudo systemctl status mariadb

Install Cacti on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step by step procedure for installing the Cacti monitoring tool on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Cacti is a free and open-source RRD tool-based network monitoring tool that monitors network devices such as servers, routers, and switches. Cacti uses the SNMP protocol to gather data from remote systems. Data gathered is then stored in a MySQL database. 

One of the most essential tasks that any IT operation team has to keep in mind is continuous monitoring of their IT infrastructure. The concept of monitoring ensures that systems such as servers are functioning and working as desired.

Install LAMP Stack on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the LAMP stack on the CentOS system. If are using another Linux distribution, visit how to install LAMP stack on Debian, Ubuntu, Red Hat, and Rocky Linux. Basically, A LAMP stack is a collection of open-source software that you can use as a platform to create websites and web applications. The term LAMP is an acronym standing for Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL database system, and the PHP programming language.


In LAMP:

  • Linux serves as the server's operating system that handles all the commands on the machine.
  • Apache is a web server software that manages HTTP requests to deliver your website's content.
  • MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) whose function is to maintain user's data on a server.
  • PHP is a scripting language for server-side communication.

Install Webmin on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to Install and configure Webmin on Rocky Linux 8 using the automated installation script. Webmin web interface is used to set up user and disk management, Apache, DNS, PHP, MySQL, check CPU usage, system info, network config, and more.


How to Install Webmin using RPM package ?

It is also possible to install Webmin using the rpm package available on the download page of Webmin. This is the quickest way to get Webmin up and running on your Linux machine.

1. Install dependencies

Since Webmin is written in Perl, you need to install Perl and its dependencies:

$ sudo dnf install perl perl-Net-SSLeay perl-Data-Dumper perl-Encode-Detect

2. Download and Install Webmin RPM package

This will install the latest version of Webmin using the rpm package:

$ sudo dnf install https://www.webmin.com/download/rpm/webmin-current.rpm


How to uninstall Webmin ?

You can simply uninstall Webmin using the script /etc/webmin/uninstall.sh.

Install PHP 8.0 on Rocky Linux 8 - Best Procedure ?

This article covers steps to install PHP 8.0 in Rocky Linux. PHP is used to develop static or dynamic websites or web applications. Many popular CMS such as WordPress, Magento, and Joomla is written in PHP. Frameworks such as Laravel, Symfony, and CodeIgniter is also using PHP.

To list the available PHP version on your Linux terminal, run the command:

$ sudo dnf module list php

To verify PHP version, simply run the command:

$ php -v 

To install PHP packages and dependencies, run the command:

$ sudo apt install php php-cli php-fpm php-json php-common php-mysql php-zip php-gd php-mbstring php-curl php-xml php-pear php-bcmath


How to Install PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu ?

Installing PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu 19.04/18.04 is a bit different than 20.04. 1. To get started, update apt and add the required repositories:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt -y install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
$ sudo apt-get update

2. And begin the install.

$ sudo apt install php7.4

3. After the install is complete, you can check the version that is installed and in use.

$ php -v

Check Internet speed from command line in Linux Mint

This article covers different ways to measure and monitor your internet bandwidth in Linux Mint System. Speedtest CLI is a command-line tool that is tailored for system administrators and developers, and command-line enthusiasts. It provides the capability of checking the internet speeds straight from your Linux terminal.


Speedtest CLI allows you to do the following:

  • Check the bandwidth performance including metrics such as download, upload, and packet loss.
  • Check the connection from your PC or even a remote server and IoT devices such as Raspberry Pi.
  • Configure scripts to collect speed test results over a period of time.
  • Save results in CSV or JSON.


How to Check version of Speedtest-cli in Linux Mint ?

To check the version of the Speedtest-cli tool, run the command:

$ speedtest-cli --version

Install TensorFlow on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the installation procedure of TensorFlow on CentOS 8 system. TensorFlow is a machine learning platform by Google. It is basically an open source and has a huge number of tools, libraries and other resources developed by both its developer community as well as Google and other corporations.

TensorFlow is available for all the popularly used operating systems, viz. Windows, Mac OS, GNU/Linux. It can be downloaded and installed from either Python Package Index using the pip tool and can be run in a virtual python environment. Another way to use it is to install it as a Docker container.

Rkhunter for Scanning Backdoors, Rootkits, and Local Exploits in Your Ubuntu Linux System - How to use it ?

This article covers an easy procedure to install rkhunter, configure, scan the system and view log to identify actual backdoor, rootkits, and local exploits. In fact, Rkhunter (Rootkit Hunter) is an open-source Unix/Linux based scanner tool for Linux systems released under GPL that scans backdoors, rootkits, and local exploits on your systems. It scans hidden files, wrong permissions set on binaries, suspicious strings in the kernel, and so on. 

To scan the entire Linux  file system, run the Rkhunter command as a root user:

$ rkhunter --check

Install and Use Logwatch on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Guide ?

This article covers how to install and use Logwatch on Ubuntu Linux System. Logwatch is a system log analyzer and send that report to email. It generates a summarized log report which contains sshd - authentication failures, sudo - sessions opened, vsftp failures, postfix, failed logins, disk space and more. To find more information, visit the Logwatch man page.

Logwatch can be installed simply from the Ubuntu repository. First update the system.

$ sudo apt-get update

To install Logwatch, execute the command:

$ apt-get install logwatch

Install Kong API Gateway on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the KONG API Gateway on Ubuntu 20.04. These Gateways provides services like Authentication, rate-limiting, analysis, logging etc., to your API endpoints.

To Start kong API, run the following commands:

$ kong migrations up #runs the database migrations
$ sudo kong start
$ curl -i http://localhost:8001

To Stop and see status of kong API, run the following commands:

$ sudo kong stop #stop kong
$ sudo kong health #kong status

Install and Configure Log with Graylog in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers to install and configuren Graylog in ubuntu. With this, you can work with the log using the Graylog server. Graylog is an open-source tool that offers an integrated platform for collecting, indexing, and analyzing log data. The system essentially consists of the Graylog web interface, the Graylog servers, the Elasticsearch nodes, and a Mongo database.


How to Access Graylog Web interface ?

Open a browser on your local system or remote that can access the Ubuntu 20.04 server Ip-address. And type the http://your-server-ipaddress:9000

Replace your-server-ip-address with the actual IP address of your Server where Graylog has been installed.

Install NtopNG on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers easy steps to install the NtopNG utility on your Linux Mint 20 system. Once it is installed on your system, you can start using it for network traffic monitoring after configuring it according to the specifications of your machine.

To check whether NtopNG is installed or not, run the command:

$ systemctl status ntopng

To start NtopNG service, execute the command:

$ systemctl start ntopng

Start, Stop or Restart Services in CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to start, stop and restart the httpd service on CentOS 8 system with the help of the systemctl command. Using this utility, you can easily control any systemd and server-wide service on your system. 

Linux provides fine-grained control over system services through systemd, using the systemctl command. Services can be turned on, turned off, restarted, reloaded, or even enabled or disabled at boot. If you are running Debian 7, CentOS 7, or Ubuntu 15.04 (or later), your system likely uses systemd.

Install Siege on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to quickly install the Siege tool on your Linux system and use it to test any specific web server. Siege is an open-source multi-threaded regression test and benchmark utility with a primary focus on load testing and benchmarking. It can stress test a single URL with a user-defined number of simulated users or read many URLs into memory and stress them simultaneously. The program reports the total number of hits recorded, bytes transferred, response time, concurrency, and return status.


To Install Siege Benchmarking Tool on Ubuntu / Debian,

1. Check and update your Ubuntu 20.04 operating system:

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y

2. Install Siege execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install siege -y

3. Confirm the siege version to make sure it's installed and to compare it to the current version from Siege's official website:

$ siege --version

Install and Use Logwatch on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the Logwatch utility on your Linux server. With Logwatch, you will be able to keep an eye on your server logs and hence, you can quickly figure out any possible issues.

You can easily customize Logwatch to your preference by modifying the parameters in the /etc/logwatch/conf path. It also provides something extra in the way of pre-written PERL scripts for making log parsing easier.

All the default settings are defined in the /usr/share/logwatch/default.conf/logwatch.conf file. The recommended practice is to leave this file intact and instead create your own configuration file at the /etc/logwatch/conf/ path by copying the original config file and then define your custom settings.


Logwatch comes with a tiered approach and there are 3 main locations where configuration details are defined:

  • /usr/share/logwatch/default.conf/*
  • /etc/logwatch/conf/dist.conf/*
  • /etc/logwatch/conf/*


To install Logwatch on your server.

On Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt-get install logwatch

On Debian:

$ apt-get install logwatch

Install Dropbox on Centos 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install Dropbox on the CentOS system and sync your local files and folders with Dropbox cloud storage. Dropbox is a useful file-sharing and syncing service that lets you sync files between different machines over the Internet for free. It's very useful for backing up your important documents, pictures, MP3 files, video files, and other data.

Install Grafana on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Grafana on Ubuntu OS using two methods: using the APT repository and the .deb package. Grafana is multi-platform open-source analytics and interactive visualization web application that integrates with complex data from sources like Prometheus, InfluxDB, Graphite, and ElasticSearch. It provides charts, graphs, and alerts for the web when connected to supported data sources. It is expandable through a plug-in system.


Features of Grafana:

  • Data Visualization: Allows for fast and flexible visualization with many options and settings.
  • Dynamic Dashboards: Provides the ability to create dynamic and reusable panels with templated variables.
  • Metrics Exploration: Explore your data with ad-hoc queries and dynamic drill-down by splitting the view and comparing different time ranges and sources.
  • Data Logs: Provides tremendous opportunities to use data metrics in a log with labels and filters saved, which can be studied, viewed, and broadcasted.
  • Extensive Alert Capabilities: Visually define alert rules for your most important metrics. Grafana will continuously evaluate and send notifications to systems such as Slack, PagerDuty, VictorOps, and OpsGenie.
  • Mixed Data Sources: Mix different data sources on the same graph and for each query.

Migrate to AlmaLinux 8.4 from CentOS Linux - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the process of migrating to AlmaLinux from CentOS 8. AlmaLinux OS is a new RHEL fork from the team at CloudLinux. It is meant to be a free Linux Operating System, developed in close co-operation with the community, and for the community. As of this article update, the release of AlmaLinux available is not stable fit for production use. AlmaLinux OS is now stable and can be used in Production environments.


To Migrate from CentOS 8 To AlmaLinux 8.4.

1. Download the almalinux-deploy.sh script:

$ curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/AlmaLinux/almalinux-deploy/master/almalinux-deploy.sh

2. Give the script execution bits:

$ chmod +x almalinux-deploy.sh

3. Then run the script with the commands below:

$ sudo bash ./almalinux-deploy.sh

Add a User to Sudoers on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to add users into the sudoers group. Also you will learn how to edit rules in the sudoers configuration file through the command. You can customize the sudoers file based on the user requirements. Sudo stands for superuser do. Sudo is a command used in Unix-like systems to allow a regular user to execute a program as another user. In most cases, it is the root user.

The sudo command allows authorized users to perform commands as another user, which is by default the root user. 

This option gives you administrator-level permissions to run programs on your machine. It is an alternative to using the su command.

Install Cockpit on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can easily install Cockpit on your CentOS system and manage other Linux servers. With Cockpit, you can have a quick glance at the performance of all your added servers. Also, you can monitor system resources, start and stop services, shut down the system, install updates, view network activity (send/received). create or remove user accounts, access Terminal, and much more on the remote servers. Cockpit helps to save a lot of time by letting the administrators manage the remote servers that are spread across the network using a lightweight and intuitive interface. 


Benefits of Cockpit in our GNU/Linux servers:

  • It consists of systemd service manager for ease.
  • It has a Journal log viewer to perform troubleshoots and log analysis.
  • Storage setup including LVM was never easier before.
  • Basic Network configuration can be applied with Cockpit
  • We can easily add and remove local users and manage multiple servers.


To Install  and enable Cockpit packages from repository, run the command:

$ sudo yum install cockpit

Type "y" and it will start downloading and installing the required packages.

To enable the Cockpit with the following command:

# sudo systemctl start cockpit

or

$ sudo systemctl enable --now cockpit.socket


To confirm the status of Cockpit, run the command:

# sudo systemctl status cockpit

Migrate from CentOS 8 To Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily migrate to Rocky Linux 8.4 from CentOS 8. Rocky Linux is a community enterprise operating system designed to be 100% compatible with RedHat Enterprise Linux. Rocky Linux dev team has created a migration script called migrate2rocky to easily convert an existing CentOS 8 system to Rocky Linux 8.


To Upgrade the current CentOS 8 Linux system to latest available version, run the command:

$ sudo dnf --refresh upgrade

After update is completed, Reboot your system:

$ sudo reboot

Install LAMP Stack on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LAMP stack on Rocky Linux 8.4. You can now proceed to test or host your website and applications. A LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


How to Install  and configure Apache Web Server ?

1. First, we will start by installing the Apache web server. To complete the installation, use the following command:

$ yum install httpd httpd-tools

2. Once the installation is complete, enable Apache (to start automatically upon system boot), start the web server and verify the status using the commands below:

$ systemctl enable httpd
$ systemctl start httpd
$ systemctl status httpd

3. To make your pages available to public, you will have to edit your firewall rules to allow HTTP and HTTPS requests on your web server by using the following commands:

$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http 
$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https 
$ firewall-cmd --reload
4. Verify that the web server is running and accessible by accessing your server’s IP address:
$ echo "Hello there, Apache webserver is now running" > /var/www/html/index.html

5. And restart tht Web Server to reflect the changes made:

$ systemctl restart httpd

From your browser,

http://IP_address


How to Install PHP on CentOS ?

1. To install PHP on your RHEL 8 use the command below:

$ yum install -y php-mysqlnd php-dom php-simplexml php-xml php-xmlreader php-curl php-exif php-ftp php-gd php-iconv  php-json php-mbstring php-posix php-sockets php-tokenizer

2. Now restart your web server so that Apache knows that it will be serving PHP requests as well:

$ systemctl restart httpd

Install GIMP on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how you can easily install the GIMP image editor on your CentOS system. GIMP is the acronym for GNU Image Manipulation Program. It is free and open source raster graphics editor used for image retouching and editing, free form drawing, converting between image formats and many more tasks. It is released under GPL3 license and is available for Linux, Microsoft Windows and MacOS.


How to Install and use Gimp graphical editor on Linux?

You can install gimp package by using the dnf command:

# dnf install gimp

You can Start Gimp graphical editor from your menu or by executing the following command:

$ gimp

Install OpenLiteSpeed Webserver on Ubuntu 20.04 - Easy method ?

This article covers how to install and configure OpenLiteSpeed webserver. OpenLiteSpeed is an easy-to-use, open-source web server. It offers unbeatable features and performance to your sites along with top-notch security. Also, it understands all the apache rewrite rules and has intelligent cache acceleration features that let you implement the fastest caching on your server. Apart from all these, you get to install a customized PHP processor that is optimized for the OpenLiteSpeed server.


OpenLiteSpeed server's Frontend (default page) is located at:

http://<your-server-public-IP>:8088

It's backend (admin console) is located at:

https://<your-server-public-IP>:7080

Install Apache Maven on CentOS 8 - Easy Method ?

This article covers the installation methods( Yum package manager or via direct download method), you can easily install Apache Maven on CentOS. Apache Maven is basically a software project management and comprehension tool. 


How to check Apache Maven on Linux?

Use the following command to check the version of installed Maven on your system:

$ mvn -version

Disable SELinux on CentOS 7 - How to do it ?

This article covers method to permanently disable SELinux on CentOS 7. SELinux, also known as Security-Enhanced Linux, is a security feature embedded in the Linux kernel. SELinux leverages Mandatory Access controls (MAC) to confine users to certain rules and policies and prevents them from performing unauthorized tasks on the Linux system as specified by the IT administrator

To Check SELinux status, simply run the command:

# sestatus

Install PostgreSQL 13 on Rocky Linux - Best Method ?

This article covers PostgreSQL 13 installation on Rocky Linux 8.4. Basically, PostgreSQL is the world's most advanced open source database system. And with the release of PostgreSQL 13 there are significant improvements to the indexing and lookup system that benefit large databases, and faster response times for queries that use aggregates or partitions.


How to Enable and Start PostgreSQL Service ?

To enable and start the PostgreSQL database service so that it can start automatically with system boot:

$ sudo systemctl start postgresql-13
$ sudo systemctl enable postgresql-13

To confirm everything is working fine, check the status of PostgreSQL service:

$ sudo systemctl status postgresql-13

Install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Gitea is a self-facilitated open-source git worker written in Go. It is a fork of Gogs . Gitea incorporates a store record supervisor, venture issue following, clients administrations, notices, implicit wiki, and considerably more. 

To Install Git on Linux, run the commands: 

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

To Confirm Git Installation, execute the command: 

$ git --version

Install Puppet on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the installation of a puppet server on both master and client nodes and how to connect them. Ensure that you sign the puppet agent node certificate for both the master and client-side.

Puppet is a free and open-source automated administrative engine for Linux, Unix, and Windows operating systems. It is used for deploying, configuring, and managing servers and performs administrative tasks such as adding users, installing packages, and many more. It helps system admins to free up time and mental space by automating tasks on thousands of physical and virtual machines. It uses a client-server model. Where Puppet master controls configuration information for Puppet agents while Puppet agents talk to and pull down configuration profiles from the Puppet master.

Install Flatpak on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers the installation steps of Flatpak on the CentOS 8 system. With Flatpak, users can easily install new packages or applications from the flathub repository in an isolated space.

Flatpak is a package management system that aims to enable  users and developers to install and manage software packages on Linux systems regardless of the Linux distribution, runtime, dependencies and the type of package management. A flatpak application runs in a sandboxed environment. This is an isolated environment that is bundled with all the dependencies, libraries and everything that is needed for the app to run smoothly. 


How to Enable Flatpak in Red Hat / CentOS / Fedora ?

For RedHat / CentOS 8 and Fedora 22 and later versions, invoke the command below to enable flatpak:

$ sudo dnf install flatpak

For earlier versions of Red Hat and CentOS use the YUM package manager:

$ sudo yum install flatpak

Install and Configure Monit Monitoring Server on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Install Monit monitoring server on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Monit is an open-source utility used to supervise the processes and restart the services which are configured for it and have failed. Monit supervises the processes and restarts them on failure detection. Apart from the processes, Monit can also be used to monitor CPU, RAM, Disk, File Size and trigger alerts on out-of-bound values. It also shows how to trigger alert emails using custom templates. 

Now you can easily monitor your system using this lightweight tool.


To Install Monit on Ubuntu, run the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install monit

Install and Configure JFrog Artifactory on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Install JFrog Artifactory on Ubuntu. JFrog Artifactory is the world’s most advanced repository manager designed to integrate with the majority of continuous integration and delivery tools. With JFrog Artifactory, delivering an end to end automated solution with artifacts tracking from development to production becomes a reality.

Jfrog provides you with an interactive, responsive user interface. It has more features than other artifactory management tools. For more information please visit the official site of JFrog. https://jfrog.com/open-source

Enable SSH on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to enable SSH on a CentOS machine and connect to it using a client machine. If you want to make your remote access secure, Read our post on the Best Ways to Secure Your SSH Server.

SSH provides the ability to transfer files between remote systems. When a user logs into a remote system using SSH, they receive a command prompt allowing them to enter commands on the remote system as if they were sitting at the remote system and had opened a terminal session.


How to Install OpenSSH Server Software Package ?

Enter the following command from your terminal to start the installation process:

$ sudo yum –y install openssh-server openssh-clients

This command installs both the OpenSSH client applications, as well as the OpenSSH server daemon, sshd.

Install Emacs Editor on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers different methods to install the emacs editor on CentOS 8 system. Emacs is one of the oldest and most versatile text editors available for Linux and UNIX-based systems. It's been around for a long time (more than twenty years for GNU emacs) and is well known for its powerful and rich editing features. Emacs is also more than just a text editor; it can be customized and extended with different "modes", enabling it to be used like an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for programming languages like Java, C or Python.


To Install Emacs via EPEL repository, Run the following command:

$ sudo dnf update
$ sudo dnf install epel-release
$ sudo dnf install emacs

Install Elasticsearch on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers the installation and basic configuration of Elasticsearch on the CentOS system. For how to use Elasticsearch, visit the Quick start guide available on its website. Elasticsearch is an open source search and analytics engine that allows you to store, search, and analyze big volumes of data in real time. Elasticsearch powers millions of Applications that rely on intensive search operations such as e-commerce platforms and big data applications. 

Elasticsearch supports RESTful operations. This means that you can use HTTP methods (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, etc.) in combination with an HTTP URI (/collection/entry) to manipulate your data. The intuitive RESTful approach is both developer and user friendly, which is one of the reasons for Elasticsearch's popularity.

Install KDevelop in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers How to Install kdevelop in Ubuntu Linux System. KDevelop is a robust IDE that includes useful extensions, and also several high-quality features. KDevelop is a great option of IDE for Linux distributions due because of its stability and security.

To Install kdevelop software package in Ubuntu, run the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install kdevelop

Add and Remove User in CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to add a user as well as how to remove it in case you no longer need it. We also described how to add and remove a user to and from a group. If you are using Ubuntu distribution, visit how to add or remove users in Ubuntu

You may need to create separate account for every user want to connect this system. To add new users in system there are two commands available in your system, useradd and adduser. adduser command is the enhanced version of useradd command. adduser command uses useradd command in backend. 

Install and Run Jenkins with Systemd and Docker on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Run Jenkins Server in Docker Container with Systemd. Jenkins is an opensource automation server that is designed to help software developers build, test and deploy applications and thereby streamline the continuous integration and delivery process. 

To create a system group for Jenkins, run the command:

$ sudo groupadd --system jenkins

Then create Jenkins system user:

$ sudo useradd -s /sbin/nologin --system -g jenkins jenkins

And finally add Jenkins user to docker group as shown:

$ sudo usermod -aG docker jenkins

To confirm that Jenkins user is added to the docker group, run the id command as shown:

$ id jenkins

Change SSH Port on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux System - Best Method ?

This article covers how to change the ssh port on Ubuntu Linux server. You can easily change the SSH Port for Your Linux server. For better security, consider using SSH passwordless authentication with SSH public/private key pair.

The ssh port defined in sshd_config file. This file located in /etc/ssh/sshd_config location.

To open the new port run the following commands on Fedora/CentOS/RHEL/Oracle Linux using FirewallD:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-port=2222/tcp
$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload


How to Restart the sshd service ?

Type the following command on a CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux:

$ sudo service sshd restart

OR if you are using CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux with systemd:

$ sudo systemctl restart sshd

OR if you are using Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux:

$ sudo service ssh restart

OR if you are using Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux with systemd:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh

Or if you are using FreeBSD Unix, enter:

$ sudo service sshd restart

Install Thunderbird on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the three different methodologies of installing Thunderbird in Ubuntu. Thunderbird is available for various distributions like macOS, Linux, Microsoft Windows etc. thereby making it a cross platform application.

To Install Thunderbird through apt:

1. First update Ubuntu repository,

$ sudo apt update

2. Now, to install Thunderbird issue the following in terminal,

$ sudo apt install thunderbird

3. Lastly, Thunderbird can accessed either through System's main Menu or from terminal (Run "thunderbird" in terminal to run the application).

Install Harbor Image Registry on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install harbor on Ubuntu. The process is the same for all the other distribution of Linux. Harbor is a component of vSphere with Kubernetes. Harbor provides an enterprise-class registry service. 

Harbor is deployed in a dedicated system namespace on the Supervisor Cluster and is composed of several vSphere Pods. 

Image registries provide a centralized repository for an organization to store container images. 

Public image registries can be used to store container images. However, for security reasons, it is better to use an on-premises image registry. 

You use an on-premises image registry for the following purposes: 

Store container images securely. 

Control access to container images. 

vSphere with Kubernetes is integrated with Harbor and is also compatible with other container image registries. 


Harbor key features includes:

  • Security and vulnerability analysis.
  • Content signing and validation.
  • Extensible API and web UI.
  • Image replication.
  • Role-based access control.
  • Multitenant.


After Harbor installation has succeeded, access Harbor web console on https://registry_domain.

Then Login with:

  • Username: admin
  • Password: Set-in-harbor.yml

Install Emacs Editor in Debian 10 - Best Method ?

This article covers the different methods to install Emacs on Debian OS. Emacs is a widely used open-source text editor for Linux. It exists for many years now and can be used for basic word processing, code editing, and scripting, etc.


How to Install Emacs editor on Debian ?

1. To start the installation process, login with root and update the package repository with the following command.

$ apt-get update

2. Next, run the following command on the terminal and wait for the operation to complete. This can take several minutes. When you are asked for confirmation, press Y from your keyboard.

$ apt-get install emacs

Install Notepadqq on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install notepadqq on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. Notepad is a similar copy of the most popular editor notepad++. Basically, Notepadqq is a text editor that is designed by developers for the developers. It supports more than 100 languages and useful to note down daily tasks.


How to Install Notepadqq on Debian / Ubuntu?

1. Add Repository

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:notepadqq-team/notepadqq  

2. Update Repository

$ sudo apt-get update  

3. Install Notepadqq

$ sudo apt-get install notepadqq  

4. After installation, we can access it either via terminal by typing notepadqq or by searching from the application manager. Run Notepadqq:

$ notepadqq 

Install Elasticsearch on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install elasticsearch in the stable version of Ubuntu 20.04. Now you can use the hosted elasticsearch server for doing searches.

If your application generates a huge amount of data and the search procedures are slow, then using elasticsearch will be best.

Install Putty on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to Install putty on CentOS 8. With putty, you can easily connect your Linux system to a remote system. Putty is a free and open source ssh & telnet client. Putty is available for Windows, Linux, Unix and macOS. Using putty, we can access the remote servers and switches over ssh protocol. It can also be used to take serial console of remote systems.


How to perform Putty Installation on CentOS / RHEL / Fedora ?

Putty package is available in the default CentOS and RHEL repositories. So, to install putty run:

$ sudo yum install putty -y

Or

$ sudo dnfs install putty -y

Install Nmap on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers methods to install Nmap on your CentOS machine. Nmap is a handy utility for network scanning and security auditing. Nmap contains variety of options for scanning remote hosts. Have a look at the 15 Mostly Used Nmap Commands for Scanning Remote Hosts.



How to Install Nmap on Debian / Ubuntu ?

1. Install Nmap on Ubuntu by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install nmap

2. The system prompts you to confirm the installation by typing y.

3. After the installation is finished, verify the installed version of Nmap by entering:

$ nmap –version

Install Go on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Go on CentOS 8. Go language was designed to resolve the common criticisms of other languages while maintaining their positive characteristics and most widely used for writing servers these days.


Run the below command to see the version of the Go language:

$ go version

Install GitLab in Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install GitLab on your local devices or server. Also, you will learn how to integrate the GitLab CE into our local Ubuntu system. GitLab CE, or Community Edition, is an open-source application primarily used to host Git repositories, with additional development-related features like issue tracking. It is designed to be hosted using your own infrastructure, and provides flexibility in deploying as an internal repository store for your development team, a public way to interface with users, or a means for contributors to host their own projects.

Install NetBeans on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers the installation of Apache NetBeans on the CentOS system. Here, you will learn the entire procedure for the installation of NetBeans that includes downloading, installation, and launching of NetBeans. At the end, you also learned to uninstall Apache NetBeans if you ever have to do that.

Apache NetBeans is a very powerful Integrated Development Environment (IDE) tool that enables you as a Developer create Desktop, Web and Mobile Applications from its modular framework. It supports Java, PHP, HTML, JavaScript, C, C++, Ajax, JSP, Ruby on Rails and other programming languages using extensions.

Install Wireshark on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install the Wireshark network analyzer tool on CentOS 8 system. Once Wireshark installed on your system, you can capture incoming and outgoing data packets over the network. Wireshark is free & Open source network packet analyzer that is used for network analysis, troubleshooting, etc. Wireshark is a cross-platform software that is available for various Linux/UNIX distributions, Mac-OS, Solaris, BSD & Windows, etc. It uses GTK to implement user interface & captures packets using PCAP. For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Wireshark website.


To Install package called Whireshark using the dnf command. For a GUI Wireshark application execute:

# dnf install wireshark

To install Wireshark command line tool only execute:

# dnf install wireshark-cli



Features of Wireshark includes:

  • Live packet capture & offline analysis.
  • A number of display filters.
  • Support for hundreds of protocol.
  • Rich VOIP analysis.
  • Read/write feature various file formats.
  • Live data can be read from ethernet port, Bluetooth, USB, Token rings tec.

Check CPU Temperature Using lm-Sensors and hddtemp

This article covers how you can monitor the temperature of your CPU cores, hard drive and other components attached to the motherboard.

When your PC is overheating, consider disassembling your PC and blowing it with a blower to get rid of all the dust which might be blocking the ventilation vents.

Also, ensure your laptop is placed on a hard surface and not on a cushy surface such as on a bed where the vents can easily get blocked.

Lastly, enable power saving mode and close any unnecessary applications.

Install and Use Vim Editor in Linux - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install vim, followed by some basics on using vim and then uninstalling it. Vim (Vi IMproved) is a text editor that is upwards compatible to Vi. It can be used to edit all kinds of plain text. It is especially useful for editing config files and programs written in shell, python, perl, c/c++ and more. 

Among the various text editors in the world of Linux, Vim (or Vi IMproved) stands out for its versatility and for the functions it offers. In fact, Vim is able to speed up code writing, providing some shortcuts to perform all the operations of modification, deletion or replacement of the text. 

Vim Text Editor also allows you to install different plugins through which transforming this simple text editor into a real IDE for programming in different languages.


How to Install vim using apt on Linux ?

1. Open terminal application. You can also press CTRL+ALT+T keyboard shortcut.

2. Update package database by typing the sudo apt update command.

3. Search for vim packages run: sudo apt search vim.

4. Install vim on Ubuntu Linux, type: sudo apt install vim.

5. Verify vim installation by typing the vim --version command.

Install Nginx on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install the Nginx server on a CentOS machine and add a firewall rule to allow traffic coming towards the Nginx server. Also, we've discussed how to remove Nginx from CentOS.

The Nginx is a free, open source, lightweight and high-performance web server designed for high-traffic use cases. It is also acting as a popular Web server behind the Apache Web server and Microsoft's IIS. Nginx is more resource-friendly than Apache. It can be served in front of other web servers as a reverse proxy.


How to Install Nginx Web Server ?

1. Install the nginx package with:

$ sudo dnf install nginx

2. After the installation is finished, run the following commands to enable and start the server:

$ sudo systemctl enable nginx
$ sudo systemctl start nginx

This will make Nginx start at system boot.

Install Java on CentOS 7 System - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install and manage multiple Java versions on CentOS 7 system. At the end you also learned how to set default Java version. Java is used for developing anything from lightweight mobile to desktop applications.


How to Install Java 8 on CentOS ?

1. Update the system before installing any new programs:

$ yum -y update

2. Install Java 8:

$ yum install java-1.8.0-openjdk

3. Verify Java is Installed

$ java -version

Check CentOS Version - Using Different methods ?

This article covers how to get CentOS version using different methods. There are several ways on how to check what version of CentOS is running on your system. The simplest way to check for the CentOS version number is to execute the cat /etc/centos-release command. Identifying the accurate CentOS version may be required to help you or your support team to troubleshoot your CentOS system.


Different commands to check CentOS version:

  • $ rpm -q centos-release - CentOS version valid for CentOS 6 and higher. Causes to reveal major, minor and asynchronous CentOS version.
  • $ lsb_release -d - Requires redhat-lsb package to be installed before execution.
  • $ rpm -E %{rhel} - RPM macro to reveal a major CentOS version.
  • $ rpm --eval %{centos_ver} - RPM macro to display a major version of CentOS.
  • $ cat /etc/centos-release - Linux cat command to output content of the /etc/centos-release .to query CentOS version. Works with CentOS 6 and higher.

Install and Use Curl command on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the Curl command-line tool on CentOS 8 system. Through the curl command, users can download and upload files over the network. curl is a powerful command-line tool for transferring data from or to a remote server. With curl you can download or upload data using various network protocols, such as HTTP, HTTPS, SCP , SFTP , and FTP .


How to Install curl on CentOS ?

Curl package is available in the standard CentOS 8 repositories. 

To install it run the following command:

$ sudo dnf install curl

Once the installation is complete, verify it by typing curl in your terminal:

$ curl

Install Arduino IDE on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Arduino IDE on CentOS machine either via the direct download method or the snap method. Also, you will learn how to uninstall Arduino. Arduino IDE stands for the "Arduino Integrated Development Environment". Arduino is used to create electronic devices that communicate with their environment using actuators and sensors. Arduino IDE contains an editor that is used for writing and uploading programs to the Arduino board. Before starting to create projects through Arduino, the user needs to set up an IDE for the programmable board.


How to Launch Arduino IDE on CentOS Linux System ?

Now, you will launch the Arduino IDE from the desktop. Click on 'Activities' and select show application form where you will launch Ardunio IDE to double click on the application icon.

You can also launch using the search bar, click on the 'Activities' where you can see a search bar. You will type 'Arduino' in the search bar.

Install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on Ubuntu 18.04 system. When developing a website or web application, many users need the functionality of a database system like MySQL. However, interacting with the system solely from the MySQL command-line client requires familiarity with Structured Query Language — more commonly referred to as SQL — which can present a major hurdle for some users. phpMyAdmin was created to allow users to interact with MySQL through an intuitive web interface, running alongside a PHP development environment. 


How to Secure phpMyAdmin with Let's Encrypt SSL ?

Before starting, you will need to install the Certbot client to download and install Let's Encrypt SSL.

1. First, add the Certbot repository with the following command:

$ add-apt-repository ppa:ahasenack/certbot-tlssni01-1875471

2. Next, update the repository and install the Certbot client using the following command:

$ apt-get update -y
$ apt-get install certbot python3-certbot-nginx -y

3. Once the Certbot has been installed, run the following command to download and install the Let's Encrypt SSL for your domain:

$ certbot --nginx -d phpmyadmin.domain.com

Install LAMP Stack on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LAMP stack on CentOS 7. LAMP is a stack of applications that work together on a web server to host a website. With that being said, each individual program serves a different purpose.

In LAMP: 

  • Linux serves as the server's operating system that handles all the commands on the machine.
  • Apache is a web server software that manages HTTP requests to deliver your website's content.
  • MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) whose function is to maintain user's data on a server.
  • PHP is a scripting language for server-side communication.


To install Apache easily using CentOS's package manager, yum:

1. Run the command.

$ sudo yum install httpd

2. Once it installs, you can start Apache on your server.

$ sudo systemctl start httpd.service

3. You can do a spot check right away to verify that everything went as planned by visiting your server's public IP address in your web browser.

http://your_server_IP_address/


Important PHP Modules:

  • php-bcmath.x86_64 : A module for PHP applications for using the bcmath library.
  • php-cli.x86_64 : Command-line interface for PHP.
  • php-common.x86_64 : Common files for PHP.
  • php-dba.x86_64 : A database abstraction layer module for PHP applications.
  • php-devel.x86_64 : Files needed for building PHP extensions.
  • php-embedded.x86_64 : PHP library for embedding in applications.
  • php-enchant.x86_64 : Enchant spelling extension for PHP applications.
  • php-fpm.x86_64 : PHP FastCGI Process Manager.
  • php-gd.x86_64 : A module for PHP applications for using the gd graphics library.

Install Skype on CentOS 7 System - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Skype on your CentOS 7 desktop system. Running Skype on CentOS/Fedora allows you to make Skype calls, group video calls, instant messaging, phone number calls, and screen sharing.


How to Install Skype on CentOS | Fedora ?

The easiest and quickest way to install Skype on Fedora 34/33/32/31/30 is by using the RPM package. 


1. Download the package using wget command:

$ wget https://repo.skype.com/latest/skypeforlinux-64.rpm

2. Install Skype by running the commands:

### On CentOS and Red Hat systems ###
$ sudo yum localinstall skypeforlinux-64.rpm
### On Fedora 22+ systems ###
$ sudo dnf localinstall skypeforlinux-64.rpm

3. Use the following command to launch Skype from the command line and accept terms and conditions for the first time.

$ skypeforlinux

Set Up SSH Keys on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to create a new SSH key pair and set up an SSH key-based authentication. You can set up same key to multiple remote hosts on CentOS system. Also, you will learn how to disable SSH password authentication.

SSH, or secure shell, is an encrypted protocol used to administer and communicate with servers. When working with a CentOS server, chances are, you will spend most of your time in a terminal session connected to your server through SSH.

SSH keys are typically configured in an authorized_keys file in . ssh subdirectory in the user's home directory. Typically a system administrator would first create a key using ssh-keygen and then install it as an authorized key on a server using the ssh-copy-id tool.

The public key should be stored in the ~/. ssh/authorized_keys file on the server.


To Create the RSA Key Pair:

1. Execute the command below to create a key pair on the client machine (usually your computer):

$ ssh-keygen

2. Press ENTER to save the key pair into the .ssh/ subdirectory in your home directory, or specify an alternate path.


Best Practices to improve SSH Key Security:

  • Discover all SSH Keys and Bring Under Active Management.
  • Ensure SSH Keys Are Associated With a Single Individual.
  • Enforce Minimal Levels of User Rights Through PoLP.
  • Stay Attentive to SSH Key Rotation.
  • Eliminate Hardcoded SSH Keys.
  • Audit All Privileged Session Activity.

Stop and Disable Firewalld on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to stop and disable FirewallD on your CentOS 7 system. Firewalld is a complete firewall solution that has been made available by default on all CentOS 7 servers. It is highly recommended that you have another firewall protecting your network or server before, or immediately after, disabling firewalld.


How to manage Firewalld ?

1. To disable firewalld, run the following command as root:

$ systemctl disable firewalld

2. To Stop Firewalld, execute the following command as root:

$ systemctl stop firewalld

3. To check the status of firewalld, run the following command as root:

$ systemctl status firewalld

Install Apache Cassandra on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Apache Cassandra on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Apache Cassandra is an open-source non-relational database that delivers high performance, linear scalability, and continuous availability. All these features make Cassandra an ideal platform for mission-critical data.

To learn more about Apache Cassandra, visit its official documentation site.


How to install Java on Ubuntu ?

1. To check whether Java is installed, run the command:

$ java -version

2. To install OpenJDK, execute the following apt command:

$ sudo apt install openjdk-8-jdk

3. Once again, confirm that Java is installed by running the command:

$ java -version


How to Install Apache Cassandra in Ubuntu ?

1. First, install the apt-transport-https package to allow access of repositories via the https protocol:

$ sudo apt install apt-transport-https

2. Next, Import the GPG key using following wget command as shown:

$ wget -q -O - https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS | sudo apt-key add -

3. Then add Apache Cassandra's repository to the system’s sources list file as shown:

$ sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/debian 311x main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/cassandra.list'

4. Before installing Apache Cassandra, you need to update the package list first:

$ sudo apt update

5. Then install the NoSQL database using the command:

$ sudo apt install cassandra

6. Usually, Apache Cassandra starts automatically. To confirm its status, run the following command:

$ sudo systemctl status cassandra

7. Additionally, you can verify the stats of your node by running the command:

$ sudo nodetool status

Change Timezone on CentOS 7 Server - Do it Now ?

This article covers how to change timezone in CentOS 7. A time zone is basically a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for constitutional, business and cultural purposes.

To get detailed information your CentOS server's date, time, and timezone you use the timedatectl command:

$ timedatectl

To Delete the current /etc/localtime file or symlink:

$ sudo rm -rf /etc/localtime

Change Hostname on CentOS 7 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to change the hostname on CentOS 7 using different methods. By default, your server is started with the server's given name as the hostname. Some software such as cPanel requires a valid fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for the hostname to be used during their licensing verification system.


To Change a server's hostname:

1. Using a text editor, open the server's /etc/sysconfig/network file. The following example shows how to open this file in the GNU nano text editor:

# sudo nano /etc/sysconfig/network

2. Modify the HOSTNAME= value to match your FQDN hostname, as shown in the following example:

HOSTNAME=myserver.domain.com

3. Open the file at /etc/hosts. To update the information for internal networking, change the host that is associated with the main IP address for your server, as shown in the following example:

127.0.0.1      localhost localhost.localdomain
123.45.67.89   hostname.domain.com   hostname

4. Run the hostname command. This command enables you to change the hostname on the server that the command line remembers, but it does not actively update all of the programs that are running under the old hostname. The following code provides an example:

# hostnamectl set-hostname hostname.domain.com
# hostname
hostname.domain.com
#

5. Use the following command to restart networking on your server to ensure that changes persist on restart:

# /etc/init.d/network restart

Change the SSH Port on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux Server

This article covers how to change SSH port on your Linux system. SSH (Secure shell) is a cryptographic network protocol used to connect to a remote server securely and it transfer the data in encrypted form between the host and the client.

The default TCP port for SSH is 22, and by changing this default port to the other, it can prevent automated bots and malicious users from being brutally forced into the server.

Before changing the default SSH port number, can check the current port with the below command:

# netstat -ntlp | grep ssh


To change the SSH port:

1. Open the main SSH daemon configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config:

# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

2. Now search line begins with Port 22 and add hashtag (#) in front of that line. 

3. Then add a new Port line below with the custom port.

Note: Replace the sample port number with the custom port number that needs to be set.

4. Save and exit.


How to Restart the SSH daemon for the changes to take effect ?

Run the below commands to restart the SSH daemon and verify that the port changed:

# systemctl restart sshd
# netstat -ntlp | grep ssh

Install Git on Debian 9 System - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Git on your Debian server and how to Setting up Git. With versioning tools such as Git, you can track changes, revert to previous stages, and branch to create alternate versions of files and directories.


How to Install Git with Default Packages on Debian?

1. First, use the apt package management tools to update your local package index. 

After updating the system, you can download and install Git:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

2. You can confirm that you have installed Git correctly by running the following command:

git --version

Install Iptables on CentOS 7 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to disable FirewallD and install and iptables on CentOS 7 server. The iptables service stores configuration in /etc/sysconfig/iptables and /etc/sysconfig/ip6tables , while firewalld stores it in various XML files in /usr/lib/firewalld/ and /etc/firewalld/ . 

Note that the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file does not exist as firewalld is installed by default on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

FirewallD is a complete firewall solution that can be controlled with a command-line utility called firewall-cmd. If you are more comfortable with the Iptables command line syntax, then you can disable FirewallD and go back to the classic iptables setup.


To Install and Use Iptables Linux Firewall:

1. Connect to your server via SSH.

2. Execute the following command one by one: 

$ sudo apt-get update 
$ sudo apt-get install iptables

3. Check the status of your current iptables configuration by running:

$ sudo iptables -L -v


Location of iptables rules on CentOS ?

CentOS 7 uses FirewallD by default. If you would like to manage iptables/ip6tables rules directly without using FirewallD, you may use the old good iptables-services service which will load the iptables/ip6tables rules saved in /etc/sysconfig/iptables and /etc/sysconfig/ip6tables when it is started during boot time.

Configure Firewall with FirewallD on CentOS 7

This article covers how to configure and manage the FirewallD service on your CentOS system. A Linux firewall used to protect your workstation or server from unwanted traffic. You can set up rules to either block traffic or allow through. You can add or delete or update firewall rules without restarting the firewall daemon or service. The firewall-cmd act as a frontend for the nftables. In CentOS 8 nftables replaces iptables as the default Linux network packet filtering framework. 


To Start and enable firewalld, run the commands:

$ sudo systemctl start firewalld
$ sudo systemctl enable firewalld

To Stop and disable firewalld, run the commands:

$ sudo systemctl stop firewalld
$ sudo systemctl disable firewalld

To Check the firewalld status, run the command:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --state

To Command to reload a firewalld configuration when you make change to rules, run the command:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload

To Get the status of the firewalld service, run the command:

$ sudo systemctl status firewalld

Install MariaDB on CentOS 7 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and Secure MariaDB on a CentOS 7 server. MariaDB is a fork of MySQL managed by the original MySQL developers. It's designed as a replacement for MySQL, uses some commands that reference mysql, and is the default package on CentOS 7.


To Install MariaDB 5.5 on CentOS 7:

1. Install the MariaDB package using the yum package manager: 

$ sudo yum install mariadb-server

2. Once the installation is complete, start the MariaDB service and enable it to start on boot using the following commands: 

$ sudo systemctl start mariadb 
$ sudo systemctl enable mariadb


To install MariaDB on CentOS 8:

1. Open the terminal application. Another option is to log in using the ssh command:

 ssh user@centos-8-server-ip

2. Install the MariaDB on CentOS 8 by running the command:

$ sudo yum install mariadb-server

3. Secure the MariaDB server in CentOS 8 by running the command:

$ sudo mysql_secure_installation

4. Finally test MariaDB installation by running the command:

$ mysql -u root -p


MariaDB vs MySQL:

Even though MariaDB is a fork of MySQL, these two database management systems are still quite different: 

MariaDB is fully GPL licensed while MySQL takes a dual-license approach.

MariaDB supports a lot of different storage engines. 

In many scenarios, MariaDB offers improved performance.

Install PHP 7.3 on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PHP 7.3 on Ubuntu 18.04 server. Also, you will learn how to configure PHP with Apache and Nginx web servers. 


How to Install PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu ?

Use the following set of commands to enable PPA for PHP 7.4 in your Ubuntu system and install it. You can use this version for production use also.

$ sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install -y php7.4

Now use the following command to check installed php version on your system.

$ php -v 


How to Install PHP 7 Modules ?

You can install the required PHP modules on your system as below command:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql php7.2-curl php7.2-json php7.2-cgi php7.2-xsl

Secure Nginx with Let's Encrypt on Ubuntu 18.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install certbot client, obtain Let's Encrypt SSL certificate and configured to Nginx to use the certificates. Also, you will learn how to set up a cronjob for automatic certificate renewal.

Let's Encrypt is a Certificate Authority (CA) that provides an easy way to obtain and install free TLS/SSL certificates, thereby enabling encrypted HTTPS on web servers. 


To Install Certbot on Ubuntu:

1. First, add the repository.

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot

You'll need to press ENTER to accept.

2. Install Certbot's Nginx package with apt:

$ sudo apt install python-certbot-nginx

Install LEMP Stack on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LEMP stack on CentOS 7. LEMP stands for the Linux operating system, with the ENginx web server (which replaces the Apache component of a LAMP stack). The site data is stored in a MySQL-based database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.

A LEMP software stack is basically a group of open source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps.


To install Nginx on CentOS:

1. Add the CentOS 7 EPEL repository, run the following command:

$ sudo yum install epel-release

2. Now that the EPEL repository is installed on your server, install Nginx using the following yum command:

$ sudo yum install nginx

3. Once the installation is finished, start the Nginx service with:

$ sudo systemctl start nginx

Install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on CentOS 7 system. phpMyAdmin helps to handle the database administration of MySQL, MariaDB and Drizzle servers over the web. It basically provides the intuitive web interface and supports most of the MySQL features to create and drop databases, create/drop/alter tables, delete/edit/add columns, execute any SQL statement and to manage indexes on columns.


To install phpMyAdmin, run the following commands:

# yum install epel-release
# yum install phpmyadmin


To restart nginx, mariadb and php-fpm services, run the following commands:

# systemctl restart mariadb.service
# systemctl restart nginx.service
# systemctl restart php-fpm.service

Install phpMyAdmin with Apache on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install phpMyAdmin with Apache on CentOS 7 system. phpMyAdmin is a database utility used for managing MySQL databases through a graphical web-based interface. It can be configured to manage a local database (on the same system), or a remote database (over a network).


To Install EPEL Repository:

1. Get access to the EPEL repository – the Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux, by running the command.

$ sudo yum install -y epel-release

2. Once that operation finishes, it's a good idea to refresh and update the EPEL repository.

$ sudo yum –y update


To Install Apache Web Server:

1. Install Apache on CentOS use the command.

$ yum install httpd -y

2. Verify the status of Apache by running with the command.

$ systemctl status httpd


To install PHPMyAdmin on CentOS, enter the command:

$ sudo yum -y install phpmyadmin

Configure Nginx Server Blocks on Debian 9 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to create an Nginx server blocks to host multiple website on a single Debian machine. Nginx is a very popular high-performance web server that combines the power of reverse proxying, load balancing, caching and so much more. Depending on how it is configured, it can act as a reverse proxy as well as a load balancer for HTTP/HTTPS servers.


To install Nginx on Debian:

1. Update the Debian 10 Package Repository.

$  sudo apt update -y

2. Install Nginx on Debian 10.

$ sudo apt install nginx -y

3. To check the status of Nginx, execute:

$ systemctl status nginx

Install Nginx on Debian 9 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Nginx on your Debian 9 server. Now you can deploy your applications and use Nginx as a web or proxy server. Nginx is more resource-friendly than Apache in most cases and can be used as a web server or reverse proxy.


To install Nginx on Debian:

1. Update our local package index so that we have access to the most recent package listings:

$ sudo apt update

2. We can now install nginx:

$ sudo apt install nginx

When prompted to confirm the installation, hit Enter to proceed. After that, apt will install Nginx and any required dependencies to your server.


Profiles available for Nginx:

  • Nginx Full: This profile opens both port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic) and port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).
  • Nginx HTTP: This profile opens only port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic).
  • Nginx HTTPS: This profile opens only port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).

Secure Nginx with Let's Encrypt on CentOS 7 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to use the certbot Let’s Encrypt client to obtain a free SSL certificate and use it with Nginx on CentOS 7. 

Let's Encrypt is a new Certificate Authority (CA) that provides an easy way to obtain and install free TLS/SSL certificates, thereby enabling encrypted HTTPS on web servers. It simplifies the process by providing a software client, Certbot, that attempts to automate most (if not all) of the required steps. 

Currently, the entire process of obtaining and installing a certificate is fully automated on both Apache and Nginx web servers.


To Install the Certbot Let's Encrypt Client:

1. Enable access to the EPEL repository on your server by typing:

$ sudo yum install epel-release

2. Once the repository has been enabled, you can obtain the certbot-nginx package by typing:

$ sudo yum install certbot-nginx


How to Install Nginx on CentOS ?

1. To install Nginx, run the command:

$ sudo yum install nginx

2. Then, start Nginx using systemctl:

$ sudo systemctl start nginx


How to configure firewall on CentOS ?

If you have a firewall enabled, make sure port 80 and 443 are open to incoming traffic.

1. If you have a firewalld firewall running, you can open these ports by typing:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --add-service=http
$ sudo firewall-cmd --add-service=https
$ sudo firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent

2. If have an iptables firewall running, the commands you need to run are highly dependent on your current rule set. For a basic rule set, you can add HTTP and HTTPS access by typing:

$ sudo iptables -I INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
$ sudo iptables -I INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT

Configure Nginx Server Blocks on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to create an Nginx server block configuration to host multiple website on a single CentOS server.

Server Blocks, often referred to as Nginx virtual host are a feature of the Nginx web server that allows you to host multiple websites on one server.

To Test NGINX configuration file, run the command:

$ sudo nginx --t

If the syntax is OK, the output tells you the test was successful.


To restart your Nginx web server and confirm that it's running as expected:

$ sudo systemctl restart nginx
$ sudo systemctl status Nginx


To Enable HTTPS on Domain Hosted on Nginx:

You may consider encrypting your domain using Lets Encrypt SSL to add a layer of protection and secure traffic to and from the webserver:

$ sudo dnf install certbot python3-certbot-nginx
$ sudo certbot --nginx

Install Nginx on CentOS 7 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install and configure Nginx on your CentOS 7 server. Now you can deploy your applications and use Nginx as a web or proxy server. 

Nginx is a high performance web server software. It is a much more flexible and lightweight program than Apache HTTP Server.


To Install Nginx Web Server on CentOS 8:

1. Install the nginx package with:

$ sudo dnf install nginx

When prompted, enter y to confirm that you want to install nginx. After that, dnf will install Nginx and any required dependencies to your server.

2. After the installation is finished, run the following commands to enable and start the server:

$ sudo systemctl enable nginx
$ sudo systemctl start nginx

This will make Nginx start at system boot.


To configure Firewall Rules on CentOS for Nginx:

1. Run the following command to permanently enable HTTP connections on port 80:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http

2. To verify that the http firewall service was added correctly, you can run:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --list-all

3. To apply the changes, you'll need to reload the firewall service:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload

Install MariaDB on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install MariaDB on Ubuntu 18.04 server. Also, you will learn how to secure and connect to MariaDB server. MariaDB is an open-source relational database management system, commonly used as an alternative for MySQL as the database portion of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. Basically, It is intended to be a drop-in replacement for MySQL.


How to Install MariaDB ?

1. To install it, update the package index on your server with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2, Then install the package:

$ sudo apt install mariadb-server

Secure Apache with Let's Encrypt on CentOS 7 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to secure Apache with Let's Encrypt SSL on CentOS 7 using Certbot client. Also, you will learn how to set up a cronjob for automatic certificate renewal. Basically, A security certificate is critical for securing traffic sent from web browsers to web servers. Let's Encrypt certificate is a free, open and automated certificate authority that you can use to encrypt your site. The certificate expires after every 90 days and auto-renews at absolutely no cost.


To Install Certbot in CentOS 8.

Certbot is a client that automates the installation of the security certificate. It fetches the certificate from Let's encrypt authority and deploys it on your web server without much of a hassle.

1. Before downloading certbot, first, install packages that are necessary for the configuration of an encrypted connection:

$ sudo dnf install mod_ssl openssl

2. Download certbot using the curl command:

$ sudo curl -O https://dl.eff.org/certbot-auto

3. Next, move the certbot file to the /usr/local/bin directory and assign the execute file permissions:

$ sudo mv certbot-auto /usr/local/bin
$ sudo chmod 755 /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto


To Assign the permissions to the Document root of a domain:

$ sudo chown -R apache:apache /var/www/domain.com

For the changes to come into effect, restart the Apache service:

$ sudo systemctl restart httpd

Install MySQL on CentOS 7 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and secure a MySQL server on a CentOS 7 server. MySQL is one of the most widely used database management systems for websites and server applications.


To start the MySQL server daemon with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl start mysqld

systemctl doesn't display the outcome of all service management commands, so to be sure we succeeded, we'll use the following command:

$ sudo systemctl status mysqld

To configure MySQL, run the following command:

$ sudo mysql_secure_installation

To Current MySQL Version, run the command:

$ mysql -u root -p


Terms used in Managing MySQL User Permissions:

  • SELECT – users can read through the database using the select command.
  • CREATE – they can generate new tables.
  • DROP – allows users to remove tables.
  • DELETE – users can take out rows from tables.
  • INSERT – lets users add in rows into tables.
  • UPDATE – enable them to update the rows.
  • GRANT OPTION – they can grant or remove the privileges of other users.