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Hide Files Inside Images in Ubuntu Using Steganography - Steps to do it ?

This article covers how to hide files inside images through four different methods including both the command line and the graphical methods. 

You can simply embed the confidential data, along with a password or passkey so that only a trusted person can open that file. 

This type of encryption where you hide one file securely into another is called Steganography.


How to install Steghide utility via command line on Ubuntu ?

1. To install the latest version of this tool, open the Ubuntu Terminal and first update your repository index through the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt update

2. Now install the steghide utility through the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install steghide


To Remove / Uninstall Steghide tool from Debian:

Whenever you want to uninstall the Steghide tool from your system, simply enter the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt-get remove steghide


Install FileZilla on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install FileZilla on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. Also we mentioned the steps to remove FileZilla in case you need to so.

FileZilla is a ftp client for both windows & linux operating system. It is a powerful client for plain FTP, FTP over SSL/TLS (FTPS) and the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). 


To Install FileZilla from command line on Ubuntu / Debian:

Use the following commands.

$sudo apt-get update
$sudo apt-get install filezilla

First command synchronizes the configured repositories.

This command is used to ensure that always the latest version of the software is installed.


Install FileZilla on Debian 10 - Step by Step process ?

This article covers the installation of FileZilla on Debian 10. FileZilla is a powerful open-source FTP client that comes in handy when you simply want to access your FTP server and manage files.


To install FileZilla on Debian Linux System:

1. Login to the Debian 10 system and run below apt command to update package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install FileZilla using command-line, run following apt command:

$ sudo apt install -y filezilla

3. Once FileZilla and its dependencies are installed successfully, run below command to verify the FileZilla version:

$ filezilla --version


Create SFTP User with Specified Directory Permissions in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to setup and new SFTP server by making the ssh configuration changes, adding new users, and assigning the required directory permissions. You can add as many users as you want or simply create a new group and make new users part of that group.

FTP is a great protocol for accessing and transferring files, but it has the shortcoming of being a clear text protocol. 

In other words, it's not secure to use over an internet connection, since your credentials and data are transmitted without encryption. 

The 'S' in SFTP stands for 'Secure' and tunnels the FTP protocol through SSH, providing the encryption needed to establish a secure connection.


To Configure SSH daemon on Ubuntu:

1. SFTP requires SSH, so if SSH server is not already installed on your system, install it with the following command:

$ sudo apt install ssh

2. Once SSH is installed, we need to make some changes to the SSHD configuration file. Use nano or your favorite text editor to open it:

$ sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

3. Scroll to the bottom of the file and add the following 5 lines at the very end and save file:

Match group sftp
ChrootDirectory /home
X11Forwarding no
AllowTcpForwarding no
ForceCommand internal-sftp

4. Restart the SSH service for these new changes to take effect:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh


Backup and Restore MySQL Databases on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to take Backups and restore a MySQL database on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.


Advantage of logical backup:

The main advantage of logical backup over physical backup is portability and flexibility. 

The data can be restored on other hardware configurations, MariaDB versions or Database Management System (DBMS), which is not possible with physical backups.

Note that physical backup must be performed when the mariadb.service is not running or all tables in the database are locked to prevent changes during the backup.


The mysqldump client is a backup utility, which can can be used to dump a database or a collection of databases for the purpose of a backup or transfer to another database server. 

The output of mysqldump typically consists of SQL statements to re-create the server table structure, populate it with data, or both. 

Alternatively, mysqldump can also generate files in other formats, including CSV or other delimited text formats, and XML.


Advantages of Physical backup:

1. Output is more compact.

2. Backup is smaller in size.

3. Backup and restore are faster.

4. Backup includes log and configuration files.


You can use one of the following MariaDB backup approaches to back up data from a MariaDB database:

1. Logical backup with mysqldump

2. Physical online backup using the Mariabackup tool

3. File system backup

4. Replication as a backup solution


To Backing up an entire database with mysqldump:

Execute the command:

# mysqldump [options] db_name > backup-file.sql


Using mysqldump to back up a set of tables from one database:

To back up a subset of tables from one database, add a list of the chosen tables at the end of the mysqldump command:

# mysqldump [options] db_name [tbl_name …​]



To restore the data while keeping the original backup files, use the following procedure:

1. Run the mariabackup command with the --copy-back option:

$ mariabackup --copy-back --target-dir=/var/mariadb/backup/

2. Fix the file permissions.

When restoring a database, Mariabackup preserves the file and directory privileges of the backup. However, Mariabackup writes the files to disk as the user and group restoring the database. 

For example, to recursively change ownership of the files to the mysql user and group:

# chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql/

3. Start the mariadb service:

# systemctl start mariadb.service


Install LibreOffice on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers LibreOffice installation on CentOS 8 distribution. LibreOffice is a powerful and open-source office suite that can be used on Linux, Mac as well as on Windows.

It provides various features such as word documentation, spreadsheets, data processing, drawing, presentation design, Math calculation, and more.


How to uninstall Old LibreOffice or OpenOffice Versions ?

If any previously installed LibreOffice or OpenOffice versions you have, remove it using following command.

# yum remove openoffice* libreoffice* [on RedHat based Systems]
$ sudo apt-get remove openoffice* libreoffice*	[On Debian based Systems]


Install TeamViewer on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install TeamViewer on Ubuntu 20.04 via the command-line and GUI. You can also explore our related how-tos for Debian  and CentOS .

TeamViewer is a cross-platform solution that can be used for remote control, desktop sharing and file transfer between computers.


To Install TeamViewer on Ubuntu:

1. Open your terminal either by using the Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut or by clicking on the terminal icon.

Download the latest TeamViewer .deb package with the following wget command:

$ wget https://download.teamviewer.com/download/linux/teamviewer_amd64.deb

2. Install TeamViewer

Install the TeamViewer .deb package by issuing the following command as a user with sudo privileges:

$ sudo apt install ./teamviewer_amd64.deb

At the prompt Do you want to continue? [Y/n], type Y to continue the installation.


To Uninstall TeamViewer from Ubuntu System:

1. In order to uninstall TeamViewer from your system without removing any configurations you might have made, enter the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt remove teamviewer

The system will prompt you with a Y/n option in order to begin the uninstall procedure. Please enter Y and hit Enter to begin. TeamViewer will then be removed from your system.

2. If you have made any configurations, you can remove TeamViewer and all those by using the following command:

$ sudo apt purge teamviewer


Set Up Postman on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the method of installation of Postman on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Also, we explored the method to set up Postman and how to send a request for the first time. 

Here, you will also learn the method of removing Postman application from system.


Postman is a complete API development platform that helps you manage your APIs in every stage of development, from designing and testing, to publishing API documentation and monitoring. 

Postman started as a Chrome browser extension and quickly became one of the most widely used API tools by developers all over the world.


Installing Postman on Ubuntu:

The easiest way is to install Postman on Ubuntu is by using the snappy packaging system. 

Snaps are self-contained software packages that include the binary all dependencies needed to run the application. Snap packages can be installed from either the command-line or via the Ubuntu Software application.

To install the Postman snap, open your terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and run the following command as a user with sudo privileges :

$ sudo snap install postman


Install Dropbox on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process ?

This article covers how to install Dropbox on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. Dropbox online storage provides us support for Ubuntu Linux. 

Dropbox provides us online storage to store or backup our data automatically. We use Dropbox to backup our contents with some security and peace of mind. 

In the event of our PCs crash, Our data will be saved and ready to be restored onto server.


To install Dropbox from Command Line on Ubuntu:

1. Install the wget package using the apt command,

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install wget

2. Dropbox cli version is available for both 32 and 64 bit editions, we will download Dropbox upon out version.

For 32-bit,

$ cd ~ && wget -O - "https://www.dropbox.com/download?plat=lnx.x86" | tar xzf -

For 64-bit, 

$ cd ~ && wget -O - "https://www.dropbox.com/download?plat=lnx.x86_64" | tar xzf -

3. Run the following command to start the Dropbox from .dropbox-dist folder.

$ ~/.dropbox-dist/dropboxd


To manage Dropbox service:

1. Enable dropbox service using command below.

$ sudo systemctl enable dropbox

2. Start dropbox service using command below.

$ sudo systemctl start dropbox

3. Check running of the service using command below.

$ sudo systemctl status dropbox


Password Protect a File Using Vim on Ubuntu - Step by Step process ?

This article covers how to password protect a file using Vim on Linux.  When password protecting a file, make sure you remember it, or else you will not be able to access your file.

You can also use a password management software if you find it difficult to remember passwords. Or visit our guide on how to install Teampass password manager on Ubuntu .

Always remember to appropriately secure text files that could contain secret info such as usernames and passwords, financial account info and so on, using strong encryption and a password.


To install VIM in Linux:

Vim is available in the repositories of most major distributions. 

So, use your distribution package manager to get installed.

For Debian based systems, use apt-get or apt package manager to install vim.

$ sudo apt-get install vim

For RHEL/CentOS based systems, use yum package manager to install vim.

$ sudo yum install vim-enhanced

For Fedora system, use dnf package manager to install vim.

$ sudo dnf install vim-enhanced

For openSUSE system, use zypper package manager to install pass.

$ sudo zypper in vim

For Arch Linux based systems, use pacman package manager to install vim.

$ sudo pacman -S vim


View Standard Log Files on Ubuntu Linux Servers - How to do it ?

This article covers how to view standard log files for troubleshooting any Linux system. Linux system administrators often need to look at log files for troubleshooting purposes.

Linux and the applications that run on it can generate all different types of messages, which are recorded in various log files. Linux uses a set of configuration files, directories, programs, commands and daemons to create, store and recycle these log messages. 

Knowing where the system keeps its log files and how to make use of related commands can therefore help save valuable time during troubleshooting.


To view log files on Linux:

Open the Terminal or login as root user using ssh command. 

Go to /var/log directory using the following cd command:

# cd /var/log

To list files use the following ls command:

# ls


To Configure Log Files on Ubuntu and CentOS:

This section explains different mechanisms for configuring log files. Let's start with a CentOS example.

To view users currently logged onto a Linux server, enter the who command as a root user:

$ who

This also lists the login history of users. 

To view the login history of the system administrator, enter the following command:

$ last reboot

To view information of the last login, enter:

$ lastlog


To Execute Log Rotation on Linux:

Log files that have zeroes appended at the end are rotated files. That means log file names have automatically been changed within the system.

The purpose of log rotation is to compress outdated logs that are taking up space. Log rotation can be done using the logrotate command. This command rotates, compresses, and mails system logs.

logrotate handles systems that create significant amounts of log files. The command is used by the cron scheduler and reads the logrotate configuration file /etc/logrotate.conf. It's also used to read files in the logrotate configuration directory.


Automatically Empty the Trash in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do this ?

This article covers how to install Autotrash on Ubuntu system. With Autotrash, you can automatically delete the files residing in the Trash based on the conditions you specified.

trash-cli is a command-line interface to the trash-can used by Linux Systems. 

The trash-cli is present in repositories of most of the Linux Distributions.


To remove Autotrash from Ubuntu:

Run the command:

$ sudo snap remove autotrash-unofficial


Find out Which Groups a User Belongs to in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how you can easily find out which groups a user belongs to in Ubuntu. Also we shared how to list all groups in a system, list members of a group, add and remove a user from the group. For information about adding/removing users in a system, visit our guide on how to add and remove users on Ubuntu .

Adding a user to an existing group is one of the typical tasks of a Linux administrator.

A group is a collection of users. 

The main purpose of the group is to define a set of privileges to their members within the group.


To find out if a user has sudo access is by checking if the said user is member of the sudo group. 

If you see the group 'sudo' in the output, the user is a member of the sudo group and it should have sudo access.

In order to list groups on Linux, you have to execute the "cat" command on the "/etc/group" file. 

When executing this command, you will be presented with the list of groups available on your system.


To login as Sudo on Ubuntu:

1. Open a terminal Window. Press Ctrl + Alt + T to open the terminal on Ubuntu.

2. To become root user type: sudo -i. sudo -s.

3. When promoted provide your password.

4. After successful login, the $ prompt would change to # to indicate that you logged in as root user on Ubuntu.


What is /etc/passwd file?

"/etc/passwd" is a text file containing every user information that is required to login to the Linux system. It maintains useful information about users such as username, password, user ID, group ID, user information, home directory and shell.


To find out which groups a user belongs to in Linux:

1. groups: Show All Members of a Group.

2. id: Print user and group information for the specified username.

3. lid or libuser-lid: It display user's groups or group's users.

4. getent: Get entries from Name Service Switch libraries.

5. compgen: compgen is bash built-in command and it will show all available commands for the user.

6. members: List members of a group.

7. /etc/group file: Also, we can grep the corresponding user’s groups from the /etc/group file.


What is Wheel Group in Linux?

The wheel group is a special user group used on some Unix systems, mostly BSD systems, to control access to the su or sudo command, which allows a user to masquerade as another user (usually the super user). Debian-like operating systems create a group called sudo with purpose similar to that of a wheel group.


Types of groups in Linux:

1. Primary Group - The primary group is the main group associated with the user account. Each user must be a member of a single primary group.

2. Secondary Group - The secondary or supplementary group is used to grant additional rights to the user. Each user can become a member of multiple secondary groups.


Install Plex Media Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process to get this done ?

This article covers the installation of the Plex media server on Ubuntu. Using the Plex, you can save all your favorite Tv shows, movies, videos, and photos in a single place. You can approach them from anywhere to any device. 


To install Plex Media Server on Ubuntu:

1. Download the .deb package

2. run sudo dpkg -i plexmediaserver_1.19.4.2935-79e214ead_amd64.deb (replacing the last filename with the name of the package you downloaded)

3. To setup Plex Media Server, on the same machine you installed the server on, open a browser window, and go to http://127.0.0.1:32400/web.


To Enable and start Plex media server on Ubuntu:

Execute the following command as sudo: $ sudo systemctl start plexmediaserver.service.


Install Arduino IDE on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process to implement it ?

This article covers different methods to install the Arduino IDE on Debian system. To get the latest version of Arduino IDE, simply go for installation via tarball and snap. If you prefer an older release of Arduino, go for installation via apt.

Arduino boards are able to read inputs – light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message – and turn it into an output – activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online. You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board. 

To do so you use the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring), and the Arduino Software (IDE), based on Processing.”


To Install Arduino IDE on Ubuntu:

1. Execute the command:

$ sudo apt install Arduino

2. You will be provided with Y/N option, press y to continue.

3. Now wait for a while until the installation of Arduino IDE is completed.


To Launch Arduino IDE:

To launch Arduino IDE application on your system, hit the super key and in the search bar that appears, type Arduino. When the Arduino IDE icon appears, click on it to launch.

You will see the default view of Arduino IDE.


Install KDE Plasma on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to install KDE Plasma on Ubuntu 20.04 system. The Plasma desktop option will be available along with the standard Ubuntu system. Also, you will learn the steps to uninstall KDE Plasma from the Ubuntu system. 

KDE is the short form for K Desktop Environment.

Plasma is the desktop environment and KDE is the umbrella project responsible for the development of Plasma desktop and a bunch of other applications.


To Install KDE desktop environment on Ubuntu:

For KDE Full - This is the complete KDE pack. It comes with the complete package and core KDE plasma desktop. 

$ sudo apt install kde-full


For KDE Standard - It includes Plasma desktop with standard set of KDE apps such as Kate (default text editor), Konqueror (default web browser), Kget (Download Manager), KMail (email client), Dolphin (File Manager) and so on. 

$ sudo apt install kde-standard


To install KDE Plasma Desktop:

Run the command - $ sudo apt install kde-plasma-desktop


Install Skype on Linux Mint 20 - How to perform this task ?

This article covers how to install Skype on Linux Mint 20 system. Skype is used to make free video and voice calls, send instant messages, and also to share files with other people on Skype.

However, if at any instance, you feel like you are getting more inclined towards some other application or Skype is not fulfilling your needs anymore, then you can easily remove it by following the removal method prescribed in this guide.


To Install Skype on Linux Mint using the Software Center:

1. Click ‘Menu’, type ‘Software Manager’ in the search box and launch it.

2. Search for ‘Skype’ in the Software Manager’s search box. You should see Skype and Skype (Flathub). These are just coming from two different sources. Click on only the “Skype” version. This is coming from the official Linux Mint’s Repository source.

3. Click “Install”, enter the Root password to complete the installation.

4. After the installation is complete, you can click on the “Launch” button or open the app from the “Applications” menu.

5. Start using Skype!


Install Skype on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to perform it ?

This article covers the different methods to install Skype on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS including both the GUI and the command line. 


To install the Skype snap, open your terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and run the following command:

$ sudo snap install skype --classic

That's it. You have installed Skype on your Ubuntu machine, and you can start using it.


How to install Skype with apt on Ubuntu ?

Skype is available from the official Microsoft Apt repositories. To install it, follow the steps below:

1. Open your terminal and download the latest Skype .deb package using the following wget command:

$ wget https://go.skype.com/skypeforlinux-64.deb

2. Once the download is complete, install Skype by running the following command as a user with sudo privileges :

$ sudo apt install ./skypeforlinux-64.deb

You will be prompted to enter your password.

3. When a new version is released, you can update the Skype package through your desktop standard Software Update tool or by running the following commands in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update

$ sudo apt upgrade


Install Emacs Editor in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to perform it ?

This article covers methods to install Emacs editor in the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Emacs is a text editor designed for POSIX operating systems and available on Linux, BSD, macOS, Windows, and so on.


Emacs is an open-source, cross-platform editor that is highly customizable and provides a user-friendly interface to its users. 

It Provide features like multiple editing modes, full Unicode support for scripts, text manipulation tools, and integration with numerous external tools like the shell and git clearly gives an indication of how powerful it is.


To Install Emacs on Linux:

You can check if your Linux system has emacs installed by simply running the following command:

$ emacs

If you get an error message such as "-bash: -bash:: command not found", then you need to install it.

To install the emacs packages, run the command:

$ yum install emacs

On Ubuntu, execute:

$ apt-get install emacs


To install Emacs using Snap on Ubuntu:

Execute the following command in the command line:

$ sudo snap install emacs --classic

Once this is done, you can find Emacs in your list of installed applications.


Install Mozilla Firefox on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install the Mozilla Firefox browser on the Ubuntu system. Mozilla Firefox is the official Internet browser for Ubuntu, therefore, most Ubuntu distros have it installed by default.

If your system lacks this browser due to any reason or if you have accidentally deleted it, we will tell you how to install it on your Ubuntu.


To update Firefox on Linux:

1. Click the menu button , click. Help and select About Firefox. On the menu bar click the Firefox menu and select About Firefox.

2. The About Mozilla Firefox Firefox window opens. Firefox will check for updates and download them automatically.

3. When the download is complete, click Restart to update Firefox.


To Delete Firefox and all it's data from Ubuntu:

1. run sudo apt-get purge firefox.

2. Delete /etc/firefox/ , this is where your preferences and user-profiles are stored.

3. Delete /usr/lib/firefox/ should it still be there.

4. Delete /usr/lib/firefox-addons/ should it still be there.


Install Spotify on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to do it ?

This article covers the different methods of installation of Spotify on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. 

Spotify is a Popular music streaming application used globally and users can use any of the methods discussed above for its installation. 

The uninstallation process is also quite easy and we covered it for the ease of our readers. 

Users can also update Spotify with each newly released version.


Where is Spotify installed Linux?

If you followed the instructions on https://www.spotify.com/download/linux/ and installed from Ubuntu Software or snap, it should be located at /snap/bin/spotify . 

If you installed the debian package, it should be located at /usr/bin/spotify .


To update Spotify on Ubuntu:

1. Update list of available packages:

$ sudo apt-get update.

2. Install Spotify:

$ sudo apt-get install spotify-client.


To uninstall Spotify on Linux:

1. Quit Spotify.

2. Uninstall. sudo apt-get remove spotify-client.

3. Remove old config and cache.

cd $HOME/.config. rm -r spotify. cd $HOME/.cache. rm -r spotify.

4. Reinstall by following instructions on https://www.spotify.com/download/linux. 


To Install via command line on Ubuntu:

If you don't have access or don't want to use Ubuntu Software, it is possible to install Spotify from the command line with snap. 

Run the following command in your terminal:

$ snap install spotify


Install and Configure Apache Web Server with Virtual Host on Debian 10 - Do it now ?

This article covers how to perform installation and configuration of Apache web server on Debian 10.

Also, you will learn how to create virtual hosts on an Apache server and troubleshoot errors. These steps are almost the same for Ubuntu and LinuxMint distributions.

Apache HTTP Server is a free and open-source web server that delivers web content through the internet. It is commonly referred to as Apache and after development, it quickly became the most popular HTTP client on the web.


On most systems if you installed Apache with a package manager, or it came preinstalled, the Apache configuration file is located in one of these locations: /etc/apache2/httpd. conf. /etc/apache2/apache2.


Debian/Ubuntu Linux Specific Commands to Start/Stop/Restart Apache:

1. Restart Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 restart. $ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart.

2. To stop Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 stop.

3. To start Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 start.


To check running status of LAMP stack:

1. For Ubuntu: # service apache2 status.

2. For CentOS: # /etc/init.d/httpd status.

3. For Ubuntu: # service apache2 restart.

4. For CentOS: # /etc/init.d/httpd restart.

5. You can use mysqladmin command to find out whether mysql is running or not.


Find Files in Debian 10 - How to perform this ?

This article covers the different methods of finding files in Debian 10. 


To find a file in Debian:

Use the Locate command

1. Debian and Ubuntu sudo apt-get install locate.

2. CentOS yum install locate.

3. Prepare locate command for first use. To update the mlocate.db database before first use, run: sudo updatedb. 

To use locate, open a terminal and type locate followed by the file name you are looking for.


To locate a file in Linux:

1. find . - name thisfile.txt. If you need to know how to find a file in Linux called thisfile.

2. find /home -name *.jpg. Look for all . jpg files in the /home and directories below it.

3. find . - type f -empty. Look for an empty file inside the current directory.

4. find /home -user randomperson-mtime 6 -iname ".db".


To find packages in Debian:

You can also search for a package using the aptitude Ncurses user interface. 

1. Type 'aptitude' in the terminal and the following interface will be displayed in the window. 

2. To search for a package, press '/' and then type the package name into the search bar.


How to use grep to find a file?

The grep command searches through the file, looking for matches to the pattern specified. 

To use it type grep , then the pattern we're searching for and finally the name of the file (or files) we're searching in. 

The output is the three lines in the file that contain the letters 'not'.


To list files in Linux:

The easiest way to list files by name is simply to list them using the ls command. Listing files by name (alphanumeric order) is, after all, the default. 

You can choose the ls (no details) or ls -l (lots of details) to determine your view.


Which command have more searching options to search a file in file system in Linux?

Grep is a Linux / Unix command-line tool used to search for a string of characters in a specified file. The text search pattern is called a regular expression. 

When it finds a match, it prints the line with the result. 

The grep command is handy when searching through large log files.


grep is a command-line utility for searching plain-text data sets for lines that match a regular expression. 

Its name comes from the ed command g/re/p (globally search for a regular expression and print matching lines), which has the same effect.


To grep recursively in a directory:

To recursively search for a pattern, invoke grep with the -r option (or --recursive ). When this option is used grep will search through all files in the specified directory, skipping the symlinks that are encountered recursively.


Install Opera Web Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to perform it ?

This article covers how to install Opera web browser on an Ubuntu 20.04 system. Opera web browser provides its unique features and has many users all over the world.

Users can access and then use the Opera browser once they have installed it in their systems. You will also learn how to uninstall the browser from the Ubuntu 20.04 system.


To install Opera browser on Linux:

1. Add Opera browser Repository. Let's start by adding an Opera repository and keyring.

2. Install Opera Browser. At this stage to install the Opera browser on Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver is easy as executing the below command: $ sudo apt install opera-stable.

3. Start Opera Browser.


To Install Google Chrome on Debian:

1. Download Google Chrome. Open your terminal either by using the Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut or by clicking on the terminal icon.

2. Install Google Chrome. Once the download is complete, install Google Chrome by typing: $ sudo apt install ./google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb.


To start Chrome on Linux:

1. Edit ~/. bash_profile or ~/. zshrc file and add the following line alias chrome="open -a 'Google Chrome'"

2. Save and close the file.

3. Logout and relaunch Terminal.

4. Type chrome filename for opening a local file.

5. Type chrome url for opening url.


To install Google Chrome on Linux Mint:

1. Add this link to the list of repo sources "deb http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ stable main"

2. Run in terminal "sudo apt-get update"

3. Run in terminal "sudo aptitude install google-chrome-stable"


The sudo apt-get update command is used to download package information from all configured sources.

So when you run update command, it downloads the package information from the Internet. It is useful to get info on an updated version of packages or their dependencies.


To Uninstall Opera on Ubuntu:

1. In order to uninstall Opera through the command line, enter the following

$ sudo apt-get remove opera-stable

2. The repository you added will still be residing on your system. Enter the following command in order to remove it:

$ sudo apt-delete-repository "deb [arch=i386,amd64] https://deb.opera.com/opera-stable/ stable non-free


Free Up Disk Space in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - How to do this ?

This article covers different effective ways to free up some disk space on your Ubuntu system or other Linux distro. 

Although Linux does not clutter up like Windows, it may be useful to occasionally clean up Linux. Especially in systems with a smaller hard drive it can be beneficial to clean Linux. Occasionally cleaning up Linux does have to be done on a daily basis or weekly basis, 1 time per month is more than sufficient.


Terminal commands to free up some disk space on your Linux System:

There are 3 terminal commands which you can use top clean up Linux Mint. 

Each terminal will be explained about what they do and remove. 

All three commands contribute to free up disk space.

1. sudo apt-get autoclean

This terminal command deletes all .deb files from /var/cache/apt/archives. It basically cleans up the apt-get cache.

2. sudo apt-get clean

This terminal command is used to free up the disk space by cleaning up downloaded .deb files from the local repository.

3. sudo apt-get autoremove

This terminal command used to remove packages that were automatically installed to satisfy dependencies for some package and no longer needed by those packages.


Methods to Find Your Private IP Address in CentOS 8 ?

This article will guide you on the different methods to find the private IP address in CentOS 8.


Different ways to display IP addresses in Centos:

1. Using ifconfig command. The ifconfig command is the most commonly used command for displaying and modifying IP addresses on the system.

2. Using ip command.

3. Using the hostname command.

4. using nmcli command.

5. Using ip route show command.


To configure a static IP address on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7:

1. Create a file named /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 as follows:

2. DEVICE=eth0.

3. BOOTPROTO=none.

4. ONBOOT=yes.

5. PREFIX=24.

6. IPADDR=192.168.x.xxx.

7. Restart network service: systemctl restart network.


Commands will get you the private IP address of your interfaces:

i. ifconfig -a.

ii. ip addr (ip a)

iii. hostname -I | awk '{print $1}'

iv. (Fedora) Wifi-Settings→ click the setting icon next to the Wifi name that you are connected to → Ipv4 and Ipv6 both can be seen.

v. nmcli -p device show.


Modify the Date, Time, and Timezone in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - How to do it ?

This article will guide you on the different methods to modify the date, time, and Timezone of your #Ubuntu 20.04 system. 

However, if you have attempted to change these entities just for the sake of demonstration, then it is highly recommended to activate the #NTP Service again once you are done so that your system can again synchronize itself with NIST atomic clock. 

This can be done by running the “timedatectl set-ntp yes” command.

To change the time zone in Linux systems use the sudo timedatectl set-timezone command followed by the long name of the time zone you want to set.


To change the hostname in #Linux:

1. Type the following command to edit /etc/hostname using nano or vi text editor: sudo nano /etc/hostname. Delete the old name and setup new name.

2. Next Edit the /etc/hosts file: sudo nano /etc/hosts.

3. Reboot the system to changes take effect: sudo reboot.


#NTP server sync date and time in Linux by:

i. On the Linux machine, log in as root.

ii. Run the ntpdate -u <ntpserver> command to update the machine clock. For example, ntpdate -u ntp-time.

iii. Open the /etc/ntp. conf file and add the NTP servers used in your environment.

iv. Run the service ntpd start command to start the NTP service and implement you configuration changes.


Methods to Find your Private IP Address in Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on the different methods through which you can easily figure out the private IP #address of your Debian 10 system.

The network statistics ( netstat ) command is a networking tool used for troubleshooting and configuration, that can also serve as a monitoring tool for connections over the network. Both incoming and outgoing connections, routing tables, port listening, and usage statistics are common uses for this #command.

To find out the #IP address of #Linux system, you need to use the command called ifconfig on #Unix and the ip command or hostname command on Linux. 


To get you the private IP address of your interfaces:

i. ifconfig -a.

ii. ip addr (ip a).

iii. hostname -I | awk '{print $1}'.

iv. ip route get 1.2.

v. (Fedora) Wifi-Settings - click the setting icon next to the Wifi name that you are connected to - Ipv4 and Ipv6 both can be seen.

vi. nmcli -p device show.


Methods to Find Your Public IP address in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This guide will help you to Find Your Public IP address in #Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. 

ipconfig stands for Internet Protocol Configuration, while ifconfig stands for Interface Configuration.

The #ifconfig command is supported by Unix-based operating systems.

The ipconfig command displays all the currently connected network interfaces whether they are active or not.

The presence of a #public IP #address on your router or computer will allow you to organize your own server (VPN, FTP, WEB, etc.), remote access to your computer, video surveillance cameras, and access them from anywhere in the global network.


To Find Local / Public IP Address in #Ubuntu 20.04:

1. Open Settings and navigate to Network in left pane.

2. Click on the gear icon under connected wired network.

3. In the pop-up it shows the detailed information including your IP address.


To find my IP address and port number in Linux:

i. All you have to do is type “netstat -a” on Command Prompt and hit the Enter button. 

ii. This will populate a list of your active TCP connections. 

iii. The port numbers will be shown after the IP address and the two are separated by a colon.


Configure Static IP in Debian 10 - Step by step process to do it ?

This article will guide you on the how to set up a static IP configuration in #Debian 10. Using either the command line or #GUI method, you can easily configure the static IP address on your system.

The ifconfig utility is used to change the IP address of a network interface.

To change your #IP address on #Linux, use the “ifconfig” command followed by the name of your network interface and the new IP address to be changed on your computer. 

To assign the subnet #mask, you can either add a “netmask” clause followed by the subnet mask or use the CIDR notation directly.

To Configure static IP address on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS Server:

1. Edit the /network/interfaces file. sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces.

2. Restart the networking service (or reboot) Once you are confident the change has been made, and if you don't want to reboot you can just restart the networking service.

To Display Available Network Interfaces in Linux:

i. ip #command – It is used to show or manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels.

ii. #netstat command – It is used to display network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships.

iii. #ifconfig command – It is used to display or configure a network interface.


Methods to Log Out of Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on how you can log out from your Debian 10 system. Here, you will learn the different methods of logging out of a #Debian system. 

exit command in #linux is used to exit the shell where it is currently running. 

It takes one more parameter as [N] and exits the shell with a return of status N. 

If n is not provided, then it simply returns the status of last #command that is executed. Syntax: exit [n].

pkill is a command-line utility that sends signals to the processes of a running program based on given criteria. 

The processes can be specified by their full or partial names, a user running the process, or other attributes.


Methods to Log Out of Linux Mint 20 ?

This article will guide you on methods to logout from the Linux #Mint. Based on your convenience, you can use either the keyboard shortcut or the system menu to logout from your session. When you use a terminal or if you log in to an #Ubuntu system via #SSH, you open a shell session. If you want to logout from your session, you simply exit the #shell. This is why the exit command is equivalent to log out command in Linux.

To switch users in #Linux:

The su command lets you switch the current user to any other user. 

If you need to run a command as a different (non-root) user, use the –l [username] option to specify the user account. 

Additionally, su can also be used to change to a different shell interpreter on a go.


Methods to shutdown Debian 10 from the command line and GUI ?

This article will guide you on how to shut down your Debian 10 system properly using different methods.

If you run a desktop environment, there is usually an option to "log out" available from the #application menu that allows you to shutdown (or #reboot) the system. 

Alternatively you can press the key combination Ctrl+Alt+Del.

To shut down #Linux:

1. To shut down the system from a terminal session, sign in or "su" to the "root" account. 

2. Then type ``/sbin/shutdown -r now''. It may take several moments for all processes to be terminated, and then Linux will shut down.


Steps by step process to install VLC media player on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on different installation methods for the VLC. We have also seen how we can uninstall this streaming #software from the system when it is not needed.

VLC Media Player is one of the most well known and arguably best media players available for any platform, including Windows. #VLC can also help you convert video files from one format to another, save YouTube videos for offline playback, and record your own videos using your webcam.

Using #Linux #Terminal to Install VLC in #Ubuntu:

1. Click on Show Applications.

2. Search for and launch Terminal.

3. Type the command: sudo snap install VLC .

4. Provide the sudo password for authentication.

VLC will be downloaded and installed automatically.


Step by step process to Install the latest MySQL on Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on how to #install #MySQL server on Debian 10 #Linux system. Also we looked into how to secure the installation and connect with the MySQL shell. Using the Validate password #plugin you can make a more secure database MySQL password #authentication.

MySQL is an #RDBMS tostore, retrieve, modify and administrate a database usingSQL.

The mysql #command:

1. -h followed by the server host name (server.linuxapt.com).

2. -u followed by the account user name (use your MySQL username).

3. -p which tells mysql to prompt for a password.

4. database the name of the database (use your database name).


Methods to check the status of laptop battery on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on different methods to view detailed information on your battery using both the #command line and UI.

To check your #battery health you'll want to open the app, click on the relevant battery item in the sidebar, and double-check that you're faced with the Details tab.

1. Use upower command to check battery status from command line:

Type the following command:

$ upower -i /org/freedesktop/UPower/devices/battery_BAT0

2. Displaying #Linux Laptop Battery Status Using the apci #terminal command

The acpi command may not be installed by default so use apt-get command or yum command to install the same:

$ sudo yum install acpitool

3. Use /proc/acpi/ directory to get laptop battery info (deprecated method)

You can browse the same data by visiting /proc/acpi/ directory:

$ cd /proc/acpi/

$ ls -l


Steps to install XAMPP Server on Linux Mint 20 ?

This article will guide you on steps to install #XAMPP on Linux Mint 20. You will also learn the method of uninstalling XAMPP web server whenever you feel like it.

The #htdocs folder can be found in /opt/lampp/ . You can navigate to your root folder from the file manager (nautilus by default), by clicking on Other locations from the sidebar, then #Computer . From there you can find the opt folder that contains the lampp folder.

To install xampp in MX #Linux:

1. Click XAMPP for Linux. It's in the middle of the page.

2. Allow the download to complete.

3. Open #Terminal.

4. Change over to the "Downloads" directory.

5. Make the downloaded file executable.

6. Enter the installation #command.

7. Enter your password when prompted.

8. Follow the installation prompts.


Steps to create and run a C program using Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on steps to write your first C #program. Hello World! the program may seem useless and simple, but it is the best way to get started on learning how to program. By writing this yourself, you better under concepts that may otherwise seem abstract and vague. To run C program: Open #Command #prompt or Terminal(if you use #Ubuntu or Mac OS), and go to the directory where you have saved the hello. c program file. Now, to run the program, type in ./a. out and you will see Hello, World displayed on your screen. To compile and run a C program on Ubuntu Linux using the gcc compiler: 1. Open up a #terminal. Search for the terminal application in the Dash tool (located as the topmost item in the Launcher). 2. Use a text editor to create the C source code. 3. #Compile the program. 4. Execute the program.


How to install Notepad++ on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on steps to install #Notepad++ on Ubuntu 20.04 #Linux operating system using snap package manager. Notepad++ is a #GUI based user friendly text editor that can be used on #Linux as well as on Windows platform. To #Install Notepad++ on Ubuntu 20.04 : 1. Install Notepad++ on Ubuntu 20.04. Notepad++ runs over the WINE platform, which provides compatibility for the Windows application on Unix-like operating systems. 2. Open Notepad++. 3. Uninstall Notepad++.


Different Methods to Mount a Drive in Linux ?

This article will guide you on how to use the #mount and #umount command to attach and detach various file systems. You can perform this task on several media options like ISO file, NFS share and USB flash drive. Mounting will not erase everything. The #disk does get modified slightly each time you mount it, though. However, since you have serious directory corruption which cannot be repaired by Disk Utility you need to repair and replace the directory before it can be mounted.


How to know Ubuntu version via command line ?

This article will guide you on how to check your Ubuntu version so that you can apply patches and update versions for security and performance reasons. The Process of Checking the #Ubuntu version in the #terminal ? i. Open the terminal using "Show Applications" or use the keyboard shortcut [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [T]. ii. Type the #command "lsb_release -a" into the command line and press enter. iii. The terminal shows the Ubuntu version you're running under "Description" and "Release".


Steps to save a file in Linux command line

This article will guide you on how to use the #cat #command to display or create a new file on #Linux. To save a file, you must first be in Command mode. Press Esc to enter Command mode, and then type :wq to write and quit the file. The other, quicker option is to use the keyboard shortcut ZZ to write and quit.


A complete guide on how to set up Static IP address on CentOS 8

This article will guide you on how to configure a Static IP address on CentOS 8.