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Install Podman on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Podman on your system. Podman is the drop-in replacement for Docker on the Red Hat/CentOS/Fedora environments. 

This new container technology improves on Docker by decentralizing the components necessary for container management. 

Instead of having a single daemon for everything, Podman uses individualized components that are only used when necessary. 

Another advantage of Podman is that it can work with pods, in similar fashion to Kubernetes. 


To install Podman with the command: 

$ sudo apt-get install podman -y

When the installation completes, verify the installation with the command: 

$ podman --version


Copy and Paste Text in the Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux Terminal - Step by Step ?

This article covers how you can copy and paste text in the Linux Terminal. This saves the time that spends in typing the long commands and text.

When you enter a long command into the Terminal window that you found on the web or in a document, you can save yourself some time by easily copying and pasting the command at the prompt.


To Copy and Paste Text into the Linux Terminal:

1. To begin, highlight the text of the command you want on the webpage or in the document you found. 

2. Press Ctrl + C to copy the text.

3. Press Ctrl + Alt + T to open a Terminal window, if one is not already open. Right-click at the prompt and select "Paste" from the popup menu.

4. The text you copied is pasted at the prompt. 

5. Press Enter to execute the command.

6. You can also copy text from the Terminal window to paste into other programs. 

7. Simply highlight the text, right-click on it, and select "Copy" from the popup menu. 

You can paste this text into a text editor, word processor, and so on.


Install Blender on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to install Blender on Ubuntu Systems. Blender 3D is a professional open-source 3D graphics and animation software. It has a rich feature set like animations, visual effects, 3D modeling, and motion graphics. 

It produces great results and is used in professional film production. 


To install Blender 3D on Ubuntu:

1. We need to update our Ubuntu 20.04 system before installing Blender 3D on it. This can be done with the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Now, we can install Blender 3D on our Ubuntu 20.04 system with the following command:

$ sudo apt install blender

During the installation of this software, you will be asked to provide confirmation for this action by typing in "y" and then pressing the Enter key.


Install Python 3.9 on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and compile Python3.9 using different methods, using PPA repo, compiling it from the source code, and installing it using the Linuxbrew tool.

We can now start using Python 3.9 for our projects.

Python is a high-level programming language, mostly used to write scripting and automation. It is a very popular language known for its simplicity and easy syntax. 

Python one of the best language for for artificial intelligence (AI).


To Install Python 3.9 on Ubuntu 20.04 using APT:

1. Update package list, type:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install software-properties-common package to easily manage distribution and independent software vendor software sources:

$ sudo apt install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa

3. Now install python 3.9 using apt command:

$ sudo apt-get install python3.9

4. The following command can help to identify the proper install location of Python:

$ which python3

The execution of the above command produces the following output on console:

/usr/bin/python3


Add a User to Sudoers on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to add a user to sudoers using different methods, limit root access with sudo and remove a user from sudoers.

Sudo is a very handy tool for system administrators that allow them to provide root access to a user with granularity.


Steps to Add Sudo User on Ubuntu ?

1. Log into the system with a root user or an account with sudo privileges.

2. Open a terminal window and add a new user with the command:

# adduser newuser

The adduser command creates a new user, plus a group and home directory for that user.

You may get an error message that you have insufficient privileges. (This typically only happens for non-root users.) Get around it by entering:

# sudo adduser newuser

3. You can replace newuser with any username you wish. The system will add the new user; then prompt you to enter a password. Enter a great secure password, then retype it to confirm.


To Add User to Sudo Group:

1. In a terminal, enter the command:

# usermod -aG sudo newuser

Replace newuser with the username that you entered in Step 1.

Again, if you get an error, run the command with sudo as follows:

# sudo usermod -aG sudo newuser

The -aG option tells the system to append the user to the specified group. (The -a option is only used with G).


Install Nmap on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers different methods to install Nmap on Ubuntu. If you want to learn how to use nmap, visit our guide on 15 Mostly Used Nmap Commands for Scanning Remote Hosts .

Nmap works by sending data packets on a specific target (by IP) and by interpreting the incoming packets to determine what posts are open/closed, what services are running on the scanned system, whether firewalls or filters are set up and enabled, and finally what operating system is running.


To install Nmap on Ubuntu:

1. Make sure the software packages on your Ubuntu system are up-to-date with the command:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. To install NMAP on Ubuntu, run the command:

$ sudo apt-get install nmap

The system prompts you to confirm and continue by typing y and pressing Enter.

3. To verify the installation was successful and to determine the current version of Nmap:

$ nmap --version


Install Netdata Monitoring Tool on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and configure Netdata on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS and different metrics visualized in it. Netdata provides an excellent solution for monitoring your single node in real-time. You can configure alarms and notifications which can be triggered when a certain event or threshold is exceeded.


To install Netdata on Ubuntu:

1. You can install netdata on Ubuntu by running the following commands.

$ sudo apt update 
$ sudo apt install netdata 

Press 'y' if confirmation prompted by the installer.

2. Edit netdata configuration file in your favorite text editor.

$ sudo vim /etc/netdata/netdata.conf 

3. After modifying its configuration file, you can Save your file and restart netdata service:

$ sudo systemctl restart netdata 


Install FileZilla on Debian 10 - Step by Step process ?

This article covers the installation of FileZilla on Debian 10. FileZilla is a powerful open-source FTP client that comes in handy when you simply want to access your FTP server and manage files.


To install FileZilla on Debian Linux System:

1. Login to the Debian 10 system and run below apt command to update package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install FileZilla using command-line, run following apt command:

$ sudo apt install -y filezilla

3. Once FileZilla and its dependencies are installed successfully, run below command to verify the FileZilla version:

$ filezilla --version


Install Skype on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily install Skype on Debian 10. Skype is one of the most popular communication applications in the world.

It allows you to make free online audio and video calls and affordable international calling to mobiles and landlines worldwide.


To Skype on Debian Linux System:

Perform the following steps as root or user with sudo privileges to install Skype on your Debian Buster:

1. Open your terminal and enter the following wget command to download the latest Skype deb package:

$ wget https://go.skype.com/skypeforlinux-64.deb

2. Once the download is complete, install Skype by typing:

$ sudo apt install ./skypeforlinux-64.deb

That's it. Skype has been installed on your Debian desktop, and you can start using it.


Install LibreOffice on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers LibreOffice installation on CentOS 8 distribution. LibreOffice is a powerful and open-source office suite that can be used on Linux, Mac as well as on Windows.

It provides various features such as word documentation, spreadsheets, data processing, drawing, presentation design, Math calculation, and more.


How to uninstall Old LibreOffice or OpenOffice Versions ?

If any previously installed LibreOffice or OpenOffice versions you have, remove it using following command.

# yum remove openoffice* libreoffice* [on RedHat based Systems]
$ sudo apt-get remove openoffice* libreoffice*	[On Debian based Systems]


Install and Use Flatpak on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the different commands for Flatpak installation on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Here, you will learn how you can install an application through Flatpak software. Also you will see the two different removal processes of Flatpak. 

Flatpak is a universal package system for software deployments, application virtualization, and most importantly package management that works on all Linux distros.

With a Flatpak package, you don’t need to worry about any dependencies and libraries as everything is already bundled within the application itself.


To Install Flatpak through Ubuntu Official Repository:

1. Update your system's repository index through the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Now you are ready to install Flatpak; you can do so by running the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt-get install flatpak

3. You can check the version number of the application, and also verify that it is indeed installed on your system, through the following command:

$ flatpak --version


To Install Flatpak on OpenSUSE.

To enable Flatpak on OpenSUSE invoke the command:

$ sudo zypper install flatpak


To Install Flatpak on ArchLinux / Manjaro.

Finally, to enable Flatpak on Arch Linux and its flavors, invoke the command:

$ sudo pacman -S flatpak


How to remove Flatpak from Ubuntu?

This was all you needed to know about Flatpak. If you want, you can remove it through the following commands:

$ sudo apt-get remove flatpak

If you have installed the package from the PPA, you can remove the PPA through the following command:

$ sudo rm /etc/apt/sources.list.d/alexlarsson-ubuntu-flatpak-bionic.list


Install Atom Text Editor on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Atom text editor on the Debian system. Atom is a very powerful text editor.

The Atom user interface is very clean and it has support for many important features such as split view, Git integration and so on. Atom is cross platform. It runs on Linux, Windows and macOS.


To Enable snaps on Debian and install Atom:

Snaps are applications packaged with all their dependencies to run on all popular Linux distributions from a single build. They update automatically and roll back gracefully. 

1. Enable snapd

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd
$ sudo snap install core

2. To install Atom, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install atom --classic


To Update Atom Text Editor on Debian:

You can update the Atom when a new version is available. You can update it through your desktop standard Software Update tool. 

Alternatively, you can update by running the following commands in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade


Set Up Postman on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the method of installation of Postman on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Also, we explored the method to set up Postman and how to send a request for the first time. 

Here, you will also learn the method of removing Postman application from system.


Postman is a complete API development platform that helps you manage your APIs in every stage of development, from designing and testing, to publishing API documentation and monitoring. 

Postman started as a Chrome browser extension and quickly became one of the most widely used API tools by developers all over the world.


Installing Postman on Ubuntu:

The easiest way is to install Postman on Ubuntu is by using the snappy packaging system. 

Snaps are self-contained software packages that include the binary all dependencies needed to run the application. Snap packages can be installed from either the command-line or via the Ubuntu Software application.

To install the Postman snap, open your terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and run the following command as a user with sudo privileges :

$ sudo snap install postman


Install Dropbox on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process ?

This article covers how to install Dropbox on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. Dropbox online storage provides us support for Ubuntu Linux. 

Dropbox provides us online storage to store or backup our data automatically. We use Dropbox to backup our contents with some security and peace of mind. 

In the event of our PCs crash, Our data will be saved and ready to be restored onto server.


To install Dropbox from Command Line on Ubuntu:

1. Install the wget package using the apt command,

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install wget

2. Dropbox cli version is available for both 32 and 64 bit editions, we will download Dropbox upon out version.

For 32-bit,

$ cd ~ && wget -O - "https://www.dropbox.com/download?plat=lnx.x86" | tar xzf -

For 64-bit, 

$ cd ~ && wget -O - "https://www.dropbox.com/download?plat=lnx.x86_64" | tar xzf -

3. Run the following command to start the Dropbox from .dropbox-dist folder.

$ ~/.dropbox-dist/dropboxd


To manage Dropbox service:

1. Enable dropbox service using command below.

$ sudo systemctl enable dropbox

2. Start dropbox service using command below.

$ sudo systemctl start dropbox

3. Check running of the service using command below.

$ sudo systemctl status dropbox


Download YouTube Videos on Ubuntu Linux - How to do it ?

This article covers how you can download YouTube videos on Linux using the youtube-dl utility. The youtube-dl is a handy utility with a large feature set. However, there is a lot more you can do with this utility. To explore more features, visit its official documentation . To play the downloaded videos, you can use any media players like VLC , FFmpeg , and so on.

youtube-dl is a command-line program that lets you easily download videos and audio from more than a thousand websites. 


youtube-dl is a Python based small command-line tool that allows to download videos from YouTube.com, Dailymotion, Google Video, Photobucket, Facebook, Yahoo, Metacafe, Depositfiles and few more similar sites. 

It written in pygtk and requires Python interpreter to run this program, it's not platform restricted. It should run on any Unix, Windows or in Mac OS X based systems.


To Install YouTube-DL in RHEL/CentOS and Fedora:

The youtube-dl program can be installed by enabling epel repository under your systems. Once enabled, you can install using 'yum' package manager tool:

$ yum install youtube-dl

Also, if you wish to add any third party repository, you can still install it right away using curl or wget command:

$ curl https://yt-dl.org/latest/youtube-dl -o /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

OR

$ wget https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

Your system must have curl or wget packages installed to fetch the recent version youtube-dl file. If you don't have them, you may yum to get it.

After fetching the file, you need to set a executable permission on the script to execute properly:

$ chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl


To Install YouTube-DL in Ubuntu/Linux Mint and Debian:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nilarimogard/webupd8
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install youtube-dl

Also, instead using any third party PPA, you can use curl or wget command to install latest version of youtube-dl script:

$ sudo curl https://yt-dl.org/latest/youtube-dl -o /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

OR

$ sudo wget https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

After downloading the script, set the executable permission:

$ sudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl


To Update YouTube-DL,

Youtube-dl itself can be updated to the latest version using the following command:

$ youtube-dl -U


Install TeamViewer on Debian 10 - Step by Step process ?

This article covers how to install TeamViewer on Debian 10. TeamViewer is a cross-platform application that can be used for remote control, desktop sharing, online meetings, and file transfer between computers.


To install TeamViewer on Debian:

TeamViewer is proprietary computer software, and it is not included in the default Debian repositories.

TeamViewer maintains its own APT repository from which we’ll install the package, and update it when a new version is available.

1. Download TeamViewer

Open your terminal either by using the Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut or by clicking on the terminal icon.

Use wget to download the latest TeamViewer .deb package:

$ wget https://download.teamviewer.com/download/linux/teamviewer_amd64.deb

2. Install TeamViewer

Install the downloaded .deb package by typing the following command:

$ sudo apt install ./teamviewer_amd64.deb

When prompted Do you want to continue? [Y/n], type Y to continue the installation.


Install and Use Veracrypt on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to do it ?

This article covers how to Install and Setup VeraCrypt on Ubuntu 20.04. VeraCrypt, a fork of TrueCrypt, is a free and open source on-the-fly disk encryption (OTFE) tool.


Main features offered by VeraCrypt include:

1. Creates a virtual encrypted disk within a file and mounts it as a real disk.

2. Encrypts an entire partition or storage device such as USB flash drive or hard drive.

3. Encrypts a partition or drive where Windows is installed (pre-boot authentication).

4. Encryption is automatic, real-time(on-the-fly) and transparent.

5. Parallelization and pipelining allow data to be read and written as fast as if the drive was not encrypted.

6. Encryption can be hardware-accelerated on modern processors.

7. Provides plausible deniability, in case an adversary forces you to reveal the password: Hidden volume (steganography) and hidden operating system.


To Install VeraCrypt Using DEB binary Package on Ubuntu:

Debian/Ubuntu packages for VeraCrypt are also available for download on download’s page. However, as of this writing, there is not available a binary package for Ubuntu 20.04 yet. As such, we using binary package for Ubuntu 19.04.

Note that the installers are also available, both for GUI and console based installations.

To install console-based VeraCrypt;

wget https://launchpad.net/veracrypt/trunk/1.24-update4/+download/veracrypt-console-1.24-Update4-Ubuntu-19.10-amd64.deb

Then install it;

$ dpkg -i veracrypt-console-1.24-Update4-Ubuntu-19.10-amd64.deb

To install GUI based;

$ wget https://launchpad.net/veracrypt/trunk/1.24-update4/+download/veracrypt-1.24-Update4-Ubuntu-19.04-amd64.deb

Next, use APT package manager to ensure that any would-be dependency is dealt with automatically:

$ apt install ./veracrypt-1.24-Update4-Ubuntu-19.04-amd64.deb

You can uninstall GUI based VeraCrypt by executing;

$ apt remove --purge veracrypt
$ apt autoremove


Install Sublime Text Editor on CentOS 8 - Step by Step process to do it ?

This article covers how to install sublime text editor on the CentOS 8 system through the terminal. Sublime text editor is quite similar to vim editor. Sublime text has a built-in Python API available in Windows, Linux, and Mac OS.


To install Sublime Text on Ubuntu:

1. Install the GPG key:

$ wget -qO - https://download.sublimetext.com/sublimehq-pub.gpg | sudo apt-key add -

2. Ensure apt is set up to work with https sources:

$ sudo apt-get install apt-transport-https

3. Select the channel to use:

i. Stable

$ echo "deb https://download.sublimetext.com/ apt/stable/" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/sublime-text.list

ii. Dev

$ echo "deb https://download.sublimetext.com/ apt/dev/" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/sublime-text.list

4. Update apt sources and install Sublime Text:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install sublime-text


To fix yum-config-manager command not found:

You need to Install yum-utils by running the command below:

$ yum install yum-utils


Install Plex Media Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process to get this done ?

This article covers the installation of the Plex media server on Ubuntu. Using the Plex, you can save all your favorite Tv shows, movies, videos, and photos in a single place. You can approach them from anywhere to any device. 


To install Plex Media Server on Ubuntu:

1. Download the .deb package

2. run sudo dpkg -i plexmediaserver_1.19.4.2935-79e214ead_amd64.deb (replacing the last filename with the name of the package you downloaded)

3. To setup Plex Media Server, on the same machine you installed the server on, open a browser window, and go to http://127.0.0.1:32400/web.


To Enable and start Plex media server on Ubuntu:

Execute the following command as sudo: $ sudo systemctl start plexmediaserver.service.


Install Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to install Nginx on the Ubuntu system. Also, you will learn how to configure the firewall and manage Nginx services. 

Finally, you will see how to uninstall Nginx in case you no longer need it in your system.

Nginx is a free, open-source Linux application for web servers. It works as a reverse proxy server by directing web traffic to specific servers.

Also, Nginx is used for security and load-balancing, but can also function independently as a web server.


To Install Nginx From Ubuntu Repositories:

1. Update Software Repositories

It is important to refresh the repository lists before installing new software. This helps make sure that the latest updates and patches are installed.

Open a terminal window and enter the following:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Nginx is included in the Ubuntu 20.04 default repositories. Install it by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install nginx


How to manage Nginx on Ubuntu ?

The behavior of Nginx can be adjusted. Use this to start or stop Nginx, or to enable or disable Nginx at boot.

Start by checking the status of the Nginx service:

$ sudo systemctl status nginx

If the status displays active (running), Nginx has already been started. 

Press CTRL+z to exit the status display.

If Nginx is not running, use the following command to launch the Nginx service:

$ sudo systemctl start nginx

To set Nginx to load when the system starts, enter the following:

$ sudo systemctl enable nginx

To stop the Nginx service, enter the following:

$ sudo systemctl stop nginx

To prevent Nginx from loading when the system boots:

$ sudo systemctl disable nginx

To reload the Nginx service (used to apply configuration changes):

$ sudo systemctl reload nginx

For a hard restart of Nginx:

$ sudo systemctl restart nginx

To Test the Configuration

$ sudo nginx –t

The system should report that the configuration file syntax is OK, and that the configuration file test is successful.


Install KDE Plasma on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to install KDE Plasma on Ubuntu 20.04 system. The Plasma desktop option will be available along with the standard Ubuntu system. Also, you will learn the steps to uninstall KDE Plasma from the Ubuntu system. 

KDE is the short form for K Desktop Environment.

Plasma is the desktop environment and KDE is the umbrella project responsible for the development of Plasma desktop and a bunch of other applications.


To Install KDE desktop environment on Ubuntu:

For KDE Full - This is the complete KDE pack. It comes with the complete package and core KDE plasma desktop. 

$ sudo apt install kde-full


For KDE Standard - It includes Plasma desktop with standard set of KDE apps such as Kate (default text editor), Konqueror (default web browser), Kget (Download Manager), KMail (email client), Dolphin (File Manager) and so on. 

$ sudo apt install kde-standard


To install KDE Plasma Desktop:

Run the command - $ sudo apt install kde-plasma-desktop


Install Mozilla Firefox on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install the Mozilla Firefox browser on the Ubuntu system. Mozilla Firefox is the official Internet browser for Ubuntu, therefore, most Ubuntu distros have it installed by default.

If your system lacks this browser due to any reason or if you have accidentally deleted it, we will tell you how to install it on your Ubuntu.


To update Firefox on Linux:

1. Click the menu button , click. Help and select About Firefox. On the menu bar click the Firefox menu and select About Firefox.

2. The About Mozilla Firefox Firefox window opens. Firefox will check for updates and download them automatically.

3. When the download is complete, click Restart to update Firefox.


To Delete Firefox and all it's data from Ubuntu:

1. run sudo apt-get purge firefox.

2. Delete /etc/firefox/ , this is where your preferences and user-profiles are stored.

3. Delete /usr/lib/firefox/ should it still be there.

4. Delete /usr/lib/firefox-addons/ should it still be there.


Install UrBackup Server and Client on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install and setup the UrBackup server on Ubuntu 20.04. Here, you will also learn how we can add a Linux host to be backed up. 

The main reason for data backup is to save important files if a system crash or hard drive failure occurs, you will lose your data. 

Therefore, a backup solution is much important for any data critical organization.

UrBackup is a free and powerful network backup solution for personal and enterprise. It has almost all features you need from a backup software. UrBackup supports Linux, Windows and Mac OS X.


Benefits of having UrBackup Server on your network are:

1. Centralized backup management

2. Supports multiple clients

3. Supports multiple simultaneous backups

4. Easy to restore


To Install client on Debian or Ubuntu:

1. Install the dependencies UrBackup needs: WxWidgets >= 2.9.0 On Debian/Ubuntu you can do that with apt or your favourite package manager:

$ apt install build-essential "g++" libwxgtk3.0-dev "libcrypto++-dev" libz-dev

2. Download the UrBackup client source files and extract them via e.g.

$ wget https://hndl.urbackup.org/Client/2.4.11/urbackup-client-2.4.11.tar.gz

$ tar xzf urbackup-client-2.4.11.tar.gz


3. Build the UrBackup client and install it:

$ cd urbackup-client-2.4.11

./configure

make -j4

sudo make install


4. Make sure that the UrBackup client backend runs correctly:

$ sudo urbackupclientbackend -v info


5. Start the UrBackup client backend on startup by adding it e.g. to rc.local:

$ sudo chmod +x /etc/rc.local

editor /etc/rc.local

Now add /usr/local/sbin/urbackupclientbackend -d before the exit 0.


6. Start the UrBackup client frontend and setup your paths by executing:

$ urbackupclientgui

and clicking on the tray icon and add paths. You can also do that on the server.


To Install UrBackup Client on Windows:

If you have a fully functioning UrBackup Server on Ubuntu, then you can install UrBackup client on client computers. For example, you can install UrBackup client on Windows 10.

1. Download UrBackup client for Windows 10: https://hndl.urbackup.org/Client/2.4.11/UrBackup%20Client%202.4.11.exe

2. After you install the client software on Windows 10, it will automatically search and connect to the UrBackup server. 

3. You will see the client computer listed on your UrBackup web administration console.

4. There will be an UrBackup icon in your taskbar where you can do several things such as:

i. Change settings

ii. Add/remote backup path

iii. Change component to backup

iv. See the status


Install and Configure Apache Web Server with Virtual Host on Debian 10 - Do it now ?

This article covers how to perform installation and configuration of Apache web server on Debian 10.

Also, you will learn how to create virtual hosts on an Apache server and troubleshoot errors. These steps are almost the same for Ubuntu and LinuxMint distributions.

Apache HTTP Server is a free and open-source web server that delivers web content through the internet. It is commonly referred to as Apache and after development, it quickly became the most popular HTTP client on the web.


On most systems if you installed Apache with a package manager, or it came preinstalled, the Apache configuration file is located in one of these locations: /etc/apache2/httpd. conf. /etc/apache2/apache2.


Debian/Ubuntu Linux Specific Commands to Start/Stop/Restart Apache:

1. Restart Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 restart. $ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart.

2. To stop Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 stop.

3. To start Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 start.


To check running status of LAMP stack:

1. For Ubuntu: # service apache2 status.

2. For CentOS: # /etc/init.d/httpd status.

3. For Ubuntu: # service apache2 restart.

4. For CentOS: # /etc/init.d/httpd restart.

5. You can use mysqladmin command to find out whether mysql is running or not.


Install Slack on CentOS 8 - Step by Step process to perform it ?

This article covers how you can easily install slack platform on your CentOS 8 Linux system through the command line. 

Using a slack application, team members of an organization can unify all conversations from different sources.


Slack is one of the most popular collaboration platforms in the world that brings all your communication together. 

Conversations in Slack are organized in channels. 

You can create channels for your teams, projects, topics, or any other purpose. 

You can search through everything that's been posted in channels or your messages. 

Slack also allows you to talk with your teammates over audio or video calls and share documents, images, videos, and other files.


To Install Slack on CentOS:

1. Update system

sudo yum -y update

2. Download and Install Slack on CentOS

sudo yum -y install wget

wget https://downloads.slack-edge.com/linux_releases/slack-3.4.0-0.1.fc21.x86_64.rpm

sudo  yum -y install https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-7.noarch.rpm

sudo yum localinstall slack-3.4.0-0.1.fc21.x86_64.rpm

3. Start and Use Slack

Now that Slack is installed on your CentOS / RHEL 8 desktop, you can launch it through the command line,

$ slack


Block or Unblock Ping Request on Debian 10 - How to perform this task ?

This article covers how you can block/unblock ping requests to your Debian system. You will learn different ways for blocking/unblocking ping requests either temporarily or permanently.


The --query-icmp-block=<type> option can be used to determine if a type is confgured to allow or deny. 

The --add-icmp-block=<type> option can be used to block a certain type. 

The --remove-icmp-block=<type> option can be used to not block a certain type. 

After adding or removing a block, reload the firewall.


To block ping requests in Linux:

1. Edit /etc/sysctl.conf. Add the following line to your /etc/sysctl.conf : net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_all=1. Then: sysctl -p.

2. Using iptables: iptables -I INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j DROP.

3. With cron. Run crontab -e as root, then add the following line: @reboot echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_all.


To block ping in iptables:

1. Add a rule that tells the iptables firewall to block ping in and out of a server by controlling the ICMP requests.

2. Remove the rule that tells the iptables firewall to allow ping in and out of a server by controlling the ICMP requests.


To enable ping on Linux server?

# iptables -D INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j REJECT D : 

This command switch is used to delete the rule. Once the ping enabled, the server should now respond to ping requests


5 Key Google Chrome Extensions

This article covers the key Google Chrome extensions which will definitely enhance your browsing experience and will make Google Chrome even more helpful and useful for you. Google Chrome extensions are programs that can be installed into Chrome in order to change the browser's functionality.

Adding to do lists or notes to Chrome. Password management. Making it easier to copy text from a site. Protect your privacy and making web browsing more secure.

Some extensions can be ethically dubious or even malicious, but Chrome features new restrictions on extension developers that should help mitigate that problem.


Unzip Files in Linux - How to perform it ?

This article covers how to use the unzip command on the CentOS 8 Linux system.

Also, you will learn various uses of the unzip command through which you can list ZIP archive content and extract files. You can utilize the unzip command according to your needs.


How to Create a ZIP File with the zip Command ?

To create a ZIP file, you need to tell zip the name of the archive file and which files to include in it. 

You don't need to add the ".zip" extension to the archive name, but it does no harm if you do.

To create a file called source_code.zip containing all the C source code files and header files in the current directory, you would use this command:

$ zip source_code *.c *.h


How to Unzip a ZIP File With the unzip Command ?

To extract the files from a ZIP file, use the unzip command, and provide the name of the ZIP file. 

Note that you do need to provide the ".zip" extension.

$ unzip source_code.zip


To Unzip on the Linux command line:

The simplest option that will extract the contents to current directory:

$ unzip backup.zip


To change the target directory for extracted material, use -d option followed by the desired directory:

$ unzip backup.zip -d ./restore-directory


To preview contents of zip file:

$ unzip -l backup.zip


If you don't want to unzip the whole file, then add the specific files to extract at the end:

$ unzip backup.zip file1 subdirectory/file2


The inverse of the above command. Unzip every file EXCEPT the ones specified after the -x modifier:

$ unzip backup.zip -x file1 subdirectory/file2


Unzipping a password protected file:

$ unzip -p mypassword backup.zip


Modify Date, Time, and Timezone in Debian 10 - How to do it ?

This article covers how you can easily change the date, time, and timezone in your Debian system. To change your Debian system's timezone, run the sudo timedatectl set-timezone command followed by the long name of the time zone you want to set

Based on your convenience, you can either choose the command line or the GUI method. If you are using Ubuntu OS, you can visit our post on How to Change the Date, Time, and Timezone in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS .


Using the correct timezone is essential for many systems related tasks and processes. 

For example, the cron daemon uses the system's timezone for executing cron jobs, and the timestamps in the log files are based on the same system's timezone.

On Debian, the system's timezone is set during the install, but it can be easily changed at a later time.


To check the Current Timezone:

timedatectl is a command-line utility that allows you to view and change the system's time and date. It is available on all modern systemd-based Linux systems:

$ timedatectl


To modify Change Time Zone in Debian 10 / Debian 9:

1. Using /etc/localtime File. In this method, we will use /etc/localtime (link to the original time zone file) file to set the timezone for your system.

2. Using timedatectl command. In this method, we will use the timedatectl command to change the time zone in Debian.


Install and Use TermRecord on CentOS 8 - Do it now

This article Covers how to install the TermRecord application on CentOS 8. The TermRecord application allows you to better enjoy the recorded #Terminal content. 

TermRecord is a simple, open source, terminal session recorder with easy-to-share self-contained HTML output.

#TermRecord Stores these files as your own notes, email them to collaborators, use them as instructional examples, or whatever you wish.

TermRecord consumes output from the script command with timing information and can create a self-contained HTML file which replays the recorded session without needing to load anything from the web. 

These term sessions can be emailed and viewed on practically any device (including iPads etc.). 

The end user only needs a modern browser.


Features of TermRecord includes:

1. User friendly.

2. Detects the terminal size.

3. Nest sessions.

4. Cross-platform HTML-based output.

5. Stores the output as either JSON, embeddable JavaScript, or a static HTML file.

6. Written in Python.


To install on TermRecord #CentOS:

1. First of all, connect to your server via SSH and make sure that all of your system software is up to date. 

Run the following command to update the package list and upgrade all of your system software to the latest version available:

$ sudo yum update -y

2. Install Pip. 

Add the EPEL Repository:

$sudo yum install epel-release

Install pip:

$ sudo yum install python-pip

Once the installation has completed, you can verify that it was successful by using the following command:

$pip -V

3. Install TermRecord

Install TermRecord using the Python package manager (pip):

$sudo pip install TermRecord


How to use TermRecord on CentOS system ?

Taking a video of the terminal with TermRecord is rather simple, just run the following command (be attentive to capital letters):

TermRecord -o record.html

Note: We specify the output file in which the video will be recorded using the -o option. the .html format is the default format.

For more complex operations check out TermRecord --help


Assign Multiple IP Addresses to Single NIC in Debian 10 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to assign and remove multiple IP addresses to and from a single NIC. Based on your preferences, you can either assign the multiple IP addresses temporarily or permanently.

There's no simple command that you can run to determine whether the IP address on a Linux system is assigned by DHCP or static. 

If it changes when the system restarts, it's clearly dynamically assigned, but even a dynamic address has some resistance to change. 

The best way is to look at the configuration file.


To add a static route in Linux:

1. Use the route command with the –p option to add a persistent route: # route -p add default ip-address.

2. Use the route command with the –name option to add a persistent route by specifying a name rather than destination and gateway: # route -p add destination-address gateway-address -name name.


What is ip route command in Linux?

ip route is used to manipulate entries in the kernel routing tables. 

Route types: 

1. unicast - the route entry describes real paths to the destinations covered by the route prefix. 

2. unreachable - these destinations are unreachable. 

Packets are discarded and the ICMP message host unreachable is generated.


Create and Run a Shell Script in Debian 10 -Step by step process to do it ?

This article covers how to easily create a shell script and automate repetitive jobs in #Linux. Shell scripts are just a series of commands that you add in a file and run them together.  


To write and execute a #script:

1. Open the #terminal. Go to the directory where you want to create your script.

2. Create a file with . sh extension.

3. Write the script in the file using an editor.

4. Make the script executable with command chmod +x <fileName>.

5. Run the script using ./<fileName>.


#Shell is a #UNIX term for an interface between a user and an operating system service. 

Shell provides users with an interface and accepts human-readable commands into the system and executes those commands which can run automatically and give the program's output in a shell script.


Reboot Debian 10 - Different methods to do it ?

This article covers different methods to reboot your Debian 10 system. reboot command is used restart or reboot the system.
In a Linux system administration, there comes a need to restart the server after the completion of some network and other major updates.
It can be of software or hardware that are being carried on the server.

To reboot Linux using the command line:
1. To reboot the Linux system from a terminal session, sign in or “su”/”sudo” to the “root” account.
2. Then type “ sudo reboot ” to reboot the box.
3. Wait for some time and the Linux server will reboot itself.

To restart a Linux (Ubuntu / Debian) network?
1. Use the following command to restart the server networking service. # sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart or # sudo /etc/init.d/networking stop # sudo /etc/init.d/networking start else # sudo systemctl restart networking.
2. Once this done, use the following command to check the server network status.


Install MongoDB on Debian 10 - Step by step process to do it ?

This article covers how to #install / #uninstall MongoDB on your Debian system. You have also learned how to manage MongoDB services.
MongoDB is an opensource, cross-platform NoSQL database server.
In MongoDB, data is stored in flexible, JSON-like documents where fields can vary from document to document.
It does not require a predefined schema, and data structure can be changed over time.

To install MongoDB on #Debian:
Perform the following steps as root or user with sudo privileges to install MongoDB on a Debian system.
1. Install the packages required for adding a new repository:

$ sudo apt install dirmngr gnupg apt-transport-https software-properties-common ca-certificates curl

2. Add the MongoDB GPG key to your system:

$ curl -fsSL https://www.mongodb.org/static/pgp/server-4.2.asc | sudo apt-key add -

3. Enable the MongoDB repository:

$ sudo add-apt-repository 'deb https://repo.mongodb.org/apt/debian buster/mongodb-org/4.2 main'

4. Packages with older versions of MongoDB are not available for Debian 10.
Update the packages list and install the mongodb-org meta-package:

$ sudo apt update
$sudo apt install mongodb-org


The following packages will be installed on the system as a part of the mongodb-org package:
mongodb-org-server - The mongod daemon and corresponding init scripts and configurations.
mongodb-org-mongos - The mongos daemon.
mongodb-org-shell - The mongo shell is an interactive JavaScript interface to MongoDB. It is used to perform administrative tasks through the command line.
mongodb-org-tools - Contains several MongoDB tools for importing and exporting data, statistics, as well as other utilities.

To Start the #MongoDB service and enable it to start on boot:

sudo systemctl enable mongod --now


Install Wine on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step process to do it ?

This article covers how to install Wine on Ubuntu 20.04. We used the WineHQ repositories and downloaded them directly for their installation.
Users can use it now for running all Windows-based applications.

To Install Wine from a Standard Ubuntu Repository (recommended):
We recommend that you install Wine on your system through the standard Ubuntu repository, as this way you can have a more stable version on your system.
1. Run the following command in the Terminal as a root user in order to install Wine on a 64-bit version of Ubuntu:
$ sudo apt install wine64
2. Please enter y when you are prompted with a y/n option for installation.
After that, the Wine application will be installed and ready for use.
3. For a 32-bit Ubuntu system, you can use the following command:
$ sudo apt install wine32
4. You can verify the version of Wine through the following command:
$ wine --version

To Install Wine without Internet:
To install Wine on an Ubuntu machine without internet access, you must have access to a second Ubuntu machine (or VM) with an internet connection to download the Wine .deb package and its dependencies.
On the machine with internet, add the WineHQ repository and run apt update.
Next, cache just the packages necessary for installing wine, without extracting them:
sudo apt-get clean
sudo apt-get --download-only install winehq-devel
sudo apt-get --download-only dist-upgrade

Copy all of the .deb files in /var/cache/apt/archives to a USB stick:
cp -R /var/cache/apt/archives/ /media/usb-drive/deb-pkgs/

Finally, on the machine without internet, install all of the packages from the flash drive:
cd /media/usb-drive/deb-pkgs
sudo dpkg -i *.deb


Install Google Chrome on Debian 10 - How to do it ?

This article covers different methods to install and enjoy Google Chrome on your Debian 10 system. Moreover, whenever you feel like you do not need this browser any longer, then we have even explained to you the method of removing this browser from your Debian 10 system for your convenience.


To Install Google Chrome on Debian:

1. Downloading Google Chrome. Open the terminal either by using the Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut or by clicking on the terminal icon.

2. Installing Google Chrome. Once the download is complete, install Google Chrome with apt : sudo apt install ./google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb.


Install PostgreSQL on Debian 10 - Step by step process to do it ?

This article will guide you on how you can install PostgreSQL #DBMS on your Debian 10 system. Also, we also shared with you the method with which you can remove the PostgreSQL DBMS from your #Debian 10 system.

#PostgreSQL supports transaction s, subselects, trigger s, view s, foreign key referential integrity, and sophisticated locking.


pgAdmin is the de facto GUI tool for PostgreSQL, and the first tool anyone would use for PostgreSQL. It supports all PostgreSQL operations and features while being free and open-source. With pgAdmin you can Create, view and edit on all common PostgreSQL objects.

#PgAdmin is graphical user interface administration tool for PostgreSQL. It does not include a PostgreSQL database server.


To install PostgreSQL 9.5 on #Ubuntu:

1. sudo apt-get update.

2. sudo apt-get install postgresql postgresql-contrib.

3. sudo -u postgres psql.

4. # Replace xxxxxxx with your own password ALTER USER postgres WITH ENCRYPTED PASSWORD 'xxxxxxx';

5. # Feel free to replace nano with an editor of your choice sudo nano /etc/postgresql/9.5/main/pg_hba.conf.


ANALYZE in #Postgres collects statistics about the contents of tables in the database, and stores the results in the pg_statistic system catalog. Subsequently, the query planner uses these statistics to help determine the most efficient execution plans for queries.


Install Wine on Debian 10 - Step by step process ?

This article will guide you on steps to install Wine on Debian via WineHQ repository. Also you will learn how to uninstall it from your system if you no longer need it. 

For official documentation, you can visit Wine for Debian.

If you are working on Linux Mint OS, visit our post on How to Install Wine on Linux Mint 20 .


Wine stands for Wine Is Not an Emulator. While a virtual machine or emulator simulates internal Windows logic, Wine translates those Windows logic to native UNIX/POSIX-complaint logic. 

In simple and non-technical words, Wine converts internal Windows commands to commands your Linux system can natively understand.


To Check Wine Version:

Wine installation successfully completed. 

Use the following command to check the version of wine installed on your system

wine --version 


A Linux repository is a storage location from which your system retrieves and installs OS updates and applications. 

Each repository is a collection of software hosted on a remote server and intended to be used for installing and updating software packages on Linux systems.

Repositories contain thousands of programs.


MariaDB on Debian 10 - Step by step process to install it ?

This article will guide you on the different methods to conveniently install and start the MariaDB service on a Debian 10 system. Also, we dealt with how to easily remove MariaDB from your Debian 10 system. 

In MariaDB replication is faster whereas in MySQL replication is slower. 

MariaDB is Open Source whereas MySQL uses some proprietary code in its Enterprise Edition. 

MariaDB doesn't support Data Masking and Dynamic column while MySQL supports it. Comparatively MariaDB is faster than MySQL.

Since MariaDB is a fork of MySQL, the database structure and indexes of MariaDB are the same as #MySQL. 

This allows you to switch from MySQL to MariaDB without having to alter your applications since the data and data structures will not need to change. Data and table definition files are compatible.


To install #MariaDB on #Debian , follow these steps:

1. First update the apt packages index by typing: sudo apt update.

2. Once the packages list is updated, install MariaDB by running the following command: sudo apt install mariadb-server.

3. The MariaDB service will start automatically.


Assign Multiple IP Addresses to Single NIC in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - How to do it ?

This article will guide you on how to assign multiple IP addresses to a single NIC in Ubuntu OS. Now you can allocate multiple IP addresses to a single NIC.

To change your IP address on #Linux, use the "ifconfig" command followed by the name of your network interface and the new IP #address to be changed on your computer. 

To assign the subnet mask, you can either add a "netmask" clause followed by the subnet mask or use the CIDR notation directly.

The ifconfig command can be used from the #command line either to assign an address to a #network interface or to configure or display the current network interface configuration information. 

The ifconfig command must be used at system startup to define the network address of each interface present on a machine.


To determine my IP address in Linux :

1. ifconfig -a.

2. ip addr (ip a).

3. hostname -I | awk '{print $1}'.

4. ip route get 1.2.

5. nmcli -p device show.


To add secondary IP address permanently on Ubuntu system, just edit /etc/network/interfaces file and add the requires IP details. 

Verify the newly added IP address. # ifconfig eth0


NTP Server and Client on Ubuntu - How to Configure it ?

This article will guide you on how to configure the #NTP server on Ubuntu. You will learn how to configure the NTP client on another #Ubuntu machine and synchronize it with the NTP server. By means of this, you can easily synchronize all system clocks in a network.

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a networking protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks.

NTP is intended to synchronize all participating computers to within a few milliseconds of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).


To Configure NTP server:

1. Install NTP Server. First, install NTP package on your server using the appropriate package management tool that is available on your Linux distro.

2. Setup Restrict values in ntp. conf.

3. Allow Only Specific Clients.

4. Add Local Clock as Backup.

5. Setup NTP Log Parameters.

6. Start the NTP Serrver.


To Configure NTP client:

1. To configure your Linux system as an NTP client, you will need to install the ntp daemon (ntpd).

2. The ntpd configuration file is located at /etc/ntp.conf.

3. This file contains the list of NTP servers that will be used for time synchronization.

4. Next, restart the NTP deamon with the sudo service ntp reload command


Methods to Find your Private IP Address in Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on the different methods through which you can easily figure out the private IP #address of your Debian 10 system.

The network statistics ( netstat ) command is a networking tool used for troubleshooting and configuration, that can also serve as a monitoring tool for connections over the network. Both incoming and outgoing connections, routing tables, port listening, and usage statistics are common uses for this #command.

To find out the #IP address of #Linux system, you need to use the command called ifconfig on #Unix and the ip command or hostname command on Linux. 


To get you the private IP address of your interfaces:

i. ifconfig -a.

ii. ip addr (ip a).

iii. hostname -I | awk '{print $1}'.

iv. ip route get 1.2.

v. (Fedora) Wifi-Settings - click the setting icon next to the Wifi name that you are connected to - Ipv4 and Ipv6 both can be seen.

vi. nmcli -p device show.


Display System and Hardware Details in Debian 10 - How to do it ?

This article will guide you how to display the system details in your Debian 10 system.

The uname command Displays the operating system name as well as the system node name, operating system release, operating system version, hardware name, and processor type. 

To Check os version in Linux:

1. Open the terminal application (bash shell).

2. For remote server login using the ssh: ssh user@server-name.

3. Type any one of the following command to find os name and version in Linux: cat /etc/os-release. lsb_release -a. hostnamectl.

4. Type the following command to find Linux kernel version: uname -r.


Commands to Check Hardware Information on Linux:

i. lscpu. The lscpu command reports information about the cpu and processing units.

ii. lshw - List Hardware. will give you a very comprehensive list of hardware and settings.

iii. hwinfo - Hardware Information.

iv. lspci - List PCI. will show you most of your hardware in a nice quick way.

v. lsscsi - List scsi devices.

vi. lsusb - List usb buses and device details.

vii. Inxi.

viii. lsblk - List block devices.


Configure Static IP in Debian 10 - Step by step process to do it ?

This article will guide you on the how to set up a static IP configuration in #Debian 10. Using either the command line or #GUI method, you can easily configure the static IP address on your system.

The ifconfig utility is used to change the IP address of a network interface.

To change your #IP address on #Linux, use the “ifconfig” command followed by the name of your network interface and the new IP address to be changed on your computer. 

To assign the subnet #mask, you can either add a “netmask” clause followed by the subnet mask or use the CIDR notation directly.

To Configure static IP address on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS Server:

1. Edit the /network/interfaces file. sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces.

2. Restart the networking service (or reboot) Once you are confident the change has been made, and if you don't want to reboot you can just restart the networking service.

To Display Available Network Interfaces in Linux:

i. ip #command – It is used to show or manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels.

ii. #netstat command – It is used to display network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships.

iii. #ifconfig command – It is used to display or configure a network interface.


Methods to Log Out of Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on how you can log out from your Debian 10 system. Here, you will learn the different methods of logging out of a #Debian system. 

exit command in #linux is used to exit the shell where it is currently running. 

It takes one more parameter as [N] and exits the shell with a return of status N. 

If n is not provided, then it simply returns the status of last #command that is executed. Syntax: exit [n].

pkill is a command-line utility that sends signals to the processes of a running program based on given criteria. 

The processes can be specified by their full or partial names, a user running the process, or other attributes.


NFS Client and Server - Step by step process to configure on Debian 10 Linux System

This article will guide you on how you can setup NFS server and client in Debian 10 system. Also, you will learn steps to install the NFS server and client, configure NFS shared directories, and mount/unmount the NFS shares on the client system.

Configuring a system to share files and directories using NFS is straightforward. 

NFS uses port 2049. NFSv3 and NFSv2 use the portmapper service on TCP or UDP port 111.

Every filesystem being exported to remote users via NFS, as well as the access rights relating to those filesystems, is located in the /etc/exports file.

To check #NFS mount #Linux:

1. Use showmount to show NFS shares.

2. Use exportfs to show NFS shares.

3. Use master export file /var/lib/nfs/etab to show NFS shares.

4. Use mount to list NFS mount points.

5. Use nfsstat to list NFS mount points.

6. Use /proc/mounts to list NFS mount points.



Methods to shutdown Debian 10 from the command line and GUI ?

This article will guide you on how to shut down your Debian 10 system properly using different methods.

If you run a desktop environment, there is usually an option to "log out" available from the #application menu that allows you to shutdown (or #reboot) the system. 

Alternatively you can press the key combination Ctrl+Alt+Del.

To shut down #Linux:

1. To shut down the system from a terminal session, sign in or "su" to the "root" account. 

2. Then type ``/sbin/shutdown -r now''. It may take several moments for all processes to be terminated, and then Linux will shut down.


Methods to check memory usage in CentOS 8 ?

This article will guide you on how to check the #memory #usage on the #CentOS 8 system. Moreover, we have executed different commands such as cat, free, #vmstat, top and htop that are used to display the memory information. 

sudo apt-get clean clears out the local #repository of retrieved package files.It removes everything but the lock file from /var/cache/apt/archives/ and /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/. Another possibility to see what happens when we use the command sudo apt-get clean is to simulate the execution with the -s -option.

Using these commands, you can easily get information about your system RAM, and CPU.

Commands to check memory usage on Linux:

1. free command. The free command is the most simple and easy to use command to check memory usage on linux.

2. /proc/meminfo. The next way to check memory usage is to read the /proc/meminfo file. 3. vmstat. The vmstat command with the s option, lays out the memory usage statistics much like the proc command.

5. top command.

5. htop.


Methods to check memory usage in Linux Mint 20 ?

This article will guide you on different methods system administrators can use to check #memory #usage in #Linux #Mint 20. One of these methods was based on GUI and is intended for the users who prefer to work with a catchy interface. 

The other three methods are #CLI based since most of the tasks in the Linux based operating systems is performed via the command-line interface.

The simplest way is to fill /tmp, assuming it is using tmpfs which is the default. Run df -k /tmp to make sure it is. Keep in mind that without giving the program a maximum amount of memory it'll allocate until it exhausts the amount it can (may be limited by ulimit, amount of memory, or size of address space).

Commands to Check Memory Use in Linux:

1. cat Command to Show Linux Memory Information.

2. free Command to Display the Amount of Physical and Swap Memory.

3. vmstat Command to Report Virtual Memory Statistics.

4. top Command to Check Memory Use.

5. htop Command to Find Memory Load of Each Process.


Methods to uninstall programs from Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on how to uninstall programs from Debian 10. The first method can be used if you prefer #GUI over #CLI. The second method can be used if you only intend to delete a program without its configuration files. The third mthod can be used if you intend to delete a program along with all of its configuration files. Finally, the fourth mthod can be used if you want to get rid of all the unused packages and dependencies altogether.

Whenever you add a repository using "add-apt-repository" command, it will be stored in /etc/apt/sources. list file. 

To delete a software repository from Ubuntu and its derivatives, just open the /etc/apt/sources. list file and look for the repository entry and delete it.

Running sudo apt-get update (or sudo aptitude update ) updates this on your local system. This is the step that actually retrieves information about what packages can be installed, including what updates to currently installed packages packages are available, from Internet sources.

To Uninstall Programs on #Debian:

1. Go to the Installed tab. 

2. It will list all the installed #applications in your system. 

3. From the list, search for the application you want to #uninstall and click the Remove button in front of it. 

4. When you click the Remove button, the following message will appear for you to confirm the decision.


Step by step process to Install the latest MySQL on Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on how to #install #MySQL server on Debian 10 #Linux system. Also we looked into how to secure the installation and connect with the MySQL shell. Using the Validate password #plugin you can make a more secure database MySQL password #authentication.

MySQL is an #RDBMS tostore, retrieve, modify and administrate a database usingSQL.

The mysql #command:

1. -h followed by the server host name (server.linuxapt.com).

2. -u followed by the account user name (use your MySQL username).

3. -p which tells mysql to prompt for a password.

4. database the name of the database (use your database name).


Steps to install the latest Zoom on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on different methods to #install zoom on #Ubuntu 20.04 system. 

To launch it, navigate to the #Ubuntu #Applications menu. Alternatively, you can start it from the Command-line by executing the 'zoom' command. The #Zoom application Window will open. You should see the 'Sign In' and 'Join Meeting' buttons.


Step by step process to install the latest Sublime Text editor on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how to #install #Sublime Text code editor on Ubuntu 20.04 using both the #command line and the #Ubuntu #Software Center.

All Ubuntu versions have Snap enabled by default. This means you can install Notepad++ on Ubuntu from the Software Center. Once the installation completes, you can launch it from the search or by typing notepad-plus-plus into the terminal.

Sublime Text Editor is cross-platform, you can use it in #Linux, #Windows or Mac systems.


Methods to check the status of laptop battery on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on different methods to view detailed information on your battery using both the #command line and UI.

To check your #battery health you'll want to open the app, click on the relevant battery item in the sidebar, and double-check that you're faced with the Details tab.

1. Use upower command to check battery status from command line:

Type the following command:

$ upower -i /org/freedesktop/UPower/devices/battery_BAT0

2. Displaying #Linux Laptop Battery Status Using the apci #terminal command

The acpi command may not be installed by default so use apt-get command or yum command to install the same:

$ sudo yum install acpitool

3. Use /proc/acpi/ directory to get laptop battery info (deprecated method)

You can browse the same data by visiting /proc/acpi/ directory:

$ cd /proc/acpi/

$ ls -l


Steps to restart network services in Linux ?

This article will guide you on how to start, stop, and restart the #network service on different Linux distribution like Ubuntu, #Debian, Linux Mint, and CentOS 8. Moreover, you can troubleshoot the network #error through the #NetworkManager tool on #CentOS 8.

Please don't stop services if you have a remote ssh connection that may create a problem.

Restarting networking on a desktop machine will cause dbus and a bunch of #service to stop and never be started again, usually leading to the whole system being unusable.

To restart a Linux service:

1. Linux provides fine-grained control over system services through #systemd, using the systemctl command.

2. To verify whether a service is active or not, run this command: sudo systemctl status apache2.

3. To stop and restart the service in Linux, use the command: sudo systemctl restart SERVICE_NAME.


Steps to install XAMPP Server on Linux Mint 20 ?

This article will guide you on steps to install #XAMPP on Linux Mint 20. You will also learn the method of uninstalling XAMPP web server whenever you feel like it.

The #htdocs folder can be found in /opt/lampp/ . You can navigate to your root folder from the file manager (nautilus by default), by clicking on Other locations from the sidebar, then #Computer . From there you can find the opt folder that contains the lampp folder.

To install xampp in MX #Linux:

1. Click XAMPP for Linux. It's in the middle of the page.

2. Allow the download to complete.

3. Open #Terminal.

4. Change over to the "Downloads" directory.

5. Make the downloaded file executable.

6. Enter the installation #command.

7. Enter your password when prompted.

8. Follow the installation prompts.


Steps to create and run a Perl script in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on steps to #install Perl and how to create and run Perl #script using the command line on #Ubuntu 20.04. We have also discussed how to configure necessary #Perl #modules on your system.

Perl is a programming language that can be used to perform tasks that would be difficult or cumbersome on the command line. Perl is included by default with most GNU / #Linux #distributions. Usually, one invokes Perl by using a text editor to write a file and then passing it to the perl #program.

Perl has a wide range of command-line options or switches that you can use. The options are also called switches because they can turn on or turn off different behaviors. For example, the -e option lets you specify a line of code directly on the command line instead of creating a script file.

To install Perl in Linux:

1. SSH to your server.

2. Change your directory to /opt by running the below command. cd /opt.

3. Download the zipped source code available for Unix/Linux.

4. After download the zip file runs the below commands to extract and install Perl.


Methods to safely shutdown Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how to easily shut down your #Ubuntu 20.04 system. Here you will learn different methods will eventually cause your Ubuntu 20.04 #system to shut down.

There's nothing different in running sudo #reboot in a instance versus on your own server. This action shouldn't cause any problems. I believe the author was worried if the disk is persistent or not. Yes you can shutdown/start/reboot the instance and your data will persist.

If your system fails to boot for whatever reason, it may be useful to boot it into recovery mode. This mode just loads some basic services and drops you into command line mode. You are then logged in as root (the superuser) and can repair your system using command line tools.

To remove all #files from a directory in #Linux:

1. Open the terminal #application.

2. To delete everything in a #directory run: rm /path/to/dir/*

3. To remove all sub-directories and files: rm -r /path/to/dir/*


Steps to install Apache web server on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on steps to #install and configure #Apache on #Linux server.

Apache is one of the most popular web servers that allows you to run a secure website without too much of a headache.

#HTTPD is a program that is (essentially) a program known as Apache Web server. The only difference I can think of is that on Ubuntu/Debian the binary is called apache2 instead of httpd which is generally what it is referred to as on RedHat/CentOS. Functionally they are both 100% the same thing.

Apache server root will be located in /etc/httpd. The path to the apache #program will be /usr/sbin/httpd. In the document root three directories are created: cgi-bin, html and icons.

By default, Apache web server is instructed to listen for incoming connection and bind on port 80. If you opt for the TLS configuration, the server will listen for secure connections on port 443.

To start Apache server on Debian / Ubuntu Linux Specific Commands to Start/Stop/Restart Apache:

1. Restart Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 restart. $ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart.

2. To stop Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 stop.

3. To start Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 start.


Methods to check an available memory in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how different methods of checking the available #memory in #Ubuntu 20.04. By following any of these methods, you can check the available memory along with lots of other useful memory statistics of your Ubuntu 20.04 system.

Logical Volume Manager (#LVM) is a software-based RAID-like system that lets you create "pools" of storage and add hard drive space to those pools as needed. There are lots of reasons to use it, especially in a data center or any place where storage requirements change over time.

#Linux by default tries to use RAM in order to speed up disk operations by making use of available memory for creating buffers (file system metadata) and #cache (pages with actual contents of files or block devices), helping the system to run faster because disk information is already in memory which saves I/O #operations 

To check memory #usage on Linux:

1. free command. The free command is the most simple and easy to use command to check memory usage on linux.

2. /proc/meminfo. The next way to check memory usage is to read the /proc/meminfo file.

3. vmstat. The vmstat command with the s option, lays out the memory usage statistics much like the proc command.

4. top command.

5. htop.


Step by step process to install MariaDB on Linux Mint 20 ?

This article will guide you on steps to install #MariaDB on the #Linux operating system. 

MariaDB offers more and better storage engines. NoSQL support, provided by Cassandra, allows you to run SQL and NoSQL in a single database system. MariaDB also supports TokuDB, which can handle big data for large organizations and corporate users.

As a columnar database, MariaDB ColumnStore stores table data in columns rather than rows. Data partitioning by columns is also called Vertical Partitioning.

MariaDB is a drop in place replacement for #MySQL, but you can also install it alongside MySQL. 

To install MariaDB on #Ubuntu 18.04, follow these steps:

1. Update packages index. sudo apt update.

2. Once the packages list is updated, install MariaDB by issuing the following command: sudo apt install mariadb-server.

3. The MariaDB service will start automatically.


Steps to Install Webmin on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on the steps to install #Webmin in your Linux system. Webmin comes with a very simple webserver called miniserv.pl that is capable of doing all that is necessary for Webmin to run. However, it is not as fast or memory efficient as a well-developed server such as #Apache.

To modify the default port, 10000 to 10101, open the /etc/webmin/miniserv. conf file and modify line 1 and 16. Now you can access the Webmin through url with new custom port.

To Install Webmin on #Ubuntu:

1. Log in to your Ubuntu #server.

2. Issue the command sudo nano /etc/apt/sources. list.

3. Hit [CTRL][x] and save the file.

4. Add the downloaded key with the command sudo apt-key add jcameron-key. asc.

5. Update apt with the command sudo apt-get update.

6. Install Webmin with the command sudo apt-get install webmin.


How to install and configure DHCP server on Linux ?

This article will guide you on steps to install and configure the #DHCP #server in the Linux system and assign dynamic and fixed #IP addresses to the clients. It takes just a few simple steps to configure the DHCP server in a #Linux machine. Once you have configured it, it will automatically assign the assigning IP addresses and related information to each machine on the network.

The main DHCP #configuration file is /etc/dhcp/dhcpd. conf. The file is used to store the network configuration information required by DHCP #clients.

To enable DHCP or change other TCP/IP settings:

1. Select Start , then select Settings > #Network & Internet.

2. Do one of the following: For a Wi-Fi network, select Wi-Fi > Manage known networks.

3. Under IP assignment, select Edit.

4. Under Edit IP settings, select Automatic (DHCP) or Manual.

5. When you're done, select Save.


Steps to Install Samba on Ubuntu 20.04 and share files on Linux and Windows

This article will guide you on steps to #install #Samba in #Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. We have executed all #commands and set of procedures on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system and Windows 10. Also, We have implemented how to share folders via a local #network using Samba shares. Enjoy the benefits of Samba on your #system.

To Set up the Samba File Server on Ubuntu / #Linux:

1. Open the terminal.

2. Install samba with the following command: sudo apt-get install samba smbfs.

3. Configure samba typing: vi /etc/samba/smb.conf.

4. Set your workgroup (if necesary).

5. Set your #share folders.

6. Restart samba.

7. Create the share #folder: sudo mkdir /your-share-folder.


How to use SSH to connect to a remote server in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how to #SSH remote Linux servers using #OpenSSH utility. We have also discussed some basic configurations that you may find useful when connecting via SSH. Now you can easily manage remote #Linux servers for administration and troubleshooting.

To Enable #root login over SSH:

1. As root, edit the sshd_config file in /etc/ssh/sshd_config : 

nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config.

2. Add a line in the Authentication section of the file that says PermitRootLogin yes.

3. Save the updated /etc/ssh/sshd_config file.

4. Restart the SSH server: service sshd restart.


How to change MTU size in Linux ?

This article will guide you on how to change the #MTU size of a #network #interface either temporarily or permanently in your #Linux system. To change the MTU size: 1. Launch a web browser from a computer or mobile device that is connected to your router's network. 2. The user name is admin. The default password is password. 3. Select ADVANCED > Setup > WAN Setup. 4. In the MTU Size field, enter a value from 64 to 1500. 5. Click the Apply button. Your settings are saved.


How to use Linux command to delete the PREROUTING rule in iptables ?

This article will guide you on how to list and remove/delete iptables pretrouting chain nat rules on your #Linux based system. The -D or --delete option delete one or more rules from the selected chain. There are two versions of this #command, the rule can be specified as a number in the chain or a rule to match. One of the ways to delete #iptables #rules is by rule specification. To do so, you can run the iptables command with the -D option followed by the rule specification.


Easy way to Disable SELinux on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Fedora Linux ?

This article will guide you on the steps to disable SELinux running on your CentOS 7, RHEL 7 and Fedora Linux. Security-Enhanced #Linux (#SELinux) is a security architecture for Linux #systems that allows administrators to have more control over who can access the system. It was originally developed by the United States National Security Agency (#NSA) as a series of patches to the Linux #kernel using Linux #Security Modules (LSM).


How To Exit Vim Text Editor Command ?

This article will guide you on how to exit #vim text editor using various options. 1. Open a new or existing file with vim filename . 2. Type i to switch into insert mode so that you can start editing the file. 3. Enter or modify the text with your file. 4. Once you're done, press the escape key Esc to get out of insert mode and back to #command mode. 5. Type :wq to save and exit your file.


How to know Ubuntu version via command line ?

This article will guide you on how to check your Ubuntu version so that you can apply patches and update versions for security and performance reasons. The Process of Checking the #Ubuntu version in the #terminal ? i. Open the terminal using "Show Applications" or use the keyboard shortcut [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [T]. ii. Type the #command "lsb_release -a" into the command line and press enter. iii. The terminal shows the Ubuntu version you're running under "Description" and "Release".


Perform SSH Installation And Configuration in CentOS

This article will guide you on the steps to install openssh server (sshd) and clients on CentOS Linux using the yum command. The #ssh #command provides a secure encrypted connection between two hosts over an insecure #network. This connection can also be used for #terminal access, file transfers, and for tunneling other applications. Graphical X11 applications can also be run securely over SSH from a remote location.


Steps to save a file in Linux command line

This article will guide you on how to use the #cat #command to display or create a new file on #Linux. To save a file, you must first be in Command mode. Press Esc to enter Command mode, and then type :wq to write and quit the file. The other, quicker option is to use the keyboard shortcut ZZ to write and quit.


Extend file system after resizing disk volume in Linux

This article will guide you on the different #command line options to extend #disk space storage in #Linux thereby allowing you to add #storage capacity to your #VM. If your filesystem has the resize capability, that capability is what you use. 1. Check if disk is available: #dmesg | grep sdb. 2. Check if disk is mounted: df -h | grep sdb. 3. Ensure there are no other partitions on disk: fdisk -l /dev/sdb. 4. Verify the #disk: fsck /dev/sdb. 5. Resize the #filesystem: resize2fs /dev/sdb.


How to Install sudo on OpenSUSE to execute commands as root ?

This article will guide you on how to use the root user on #OpenSUSE Linux and the sudo command.To use sudo, you need to install and configure sudo on the OpenSUSE #Linux server. The #sudo command allows you to run #programs with the security privileges of another user (by default, as the #superuser). Using the #sudoers file, system administrators can give certain users or groups access to some or all commands without those users having to know the root password.


Install and Configure VNC on Ubuntu 20.04 - Steps to do it.

This article will guide you on the steps to set up a secured VNC server up and running on your Ubuntu 20.04 server. This will help you to manage your files, software, and settings with a user-friendly graphical interface, and you will be able to run graphical software like web browsers remotely.


How To Run a Script In Linux?

This tutorial will guide you on how to write a simple shell script and run a script in Linux operating system with help of chmod and other commands.


How to use and run bash aliases over ssh based session

This article will guide you on how to run commands and bash shell aliases on a remote machine using the ssh command.


Commands to list installed rpm packages on Linux

This article will guide you on the different commands to list all installed rpm packages on CentOS, RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux), SUSE/OpenSUSE and other rpm based distros using rpm and dnf/yum command that print a list of all installed packages on your distro.


Different apt commands which you can use in Ubuntu and Debian Servers

This article will show you the different ways to use apt commands with practical examples.


Complete guide on how to modify Hostname on Ubuntu 20.04

This article will guide you on how to change your Ubuntu server hostname without restarting the system.


Different methods of showing or hiding line numbers in Linux vi / vim text editor

This article will guide you on how to show or hide line numbers in vim / vi text editors using commands.


Steps to update and upgrade Pi-hole with an OpenVPN Server on Ubuntu / Debian Linux server

This guide will show you how to easily update and upgrade Pi-hole with an OpenVPN on Ubuntu/Debian Linux server.