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Related to debian


6 Best Text Editors for Linux

This article covers the best text editor for Linux. In fact, some Linux editors add extra features or an easy-to-use interface.


The Types of Text Editor in Linux are:

  • Command-line text editors: A good example is Vim, which gives you the option of jumping into the editor from the command line. System admins will find this very useful when editing configuration files.
  • Graphical user interface (GUI) text editors: This type of text editor features a GUI but cannot be used from the command line.

LVEXTEND Command in Linux - Explained with Examples ?

This article covers how to extend LVM partition on the fly using lvextend command. In fact, LVM(Logical Volume Manager) provides the facility to increase and reduce the file system size. 

Best 6 Backup Tool for Debian 11.4 (Bullseye) system

This article covers the different types of backup software you can use on Debian Linux system. In fact, Backup tools are a bridge connecting a server, client computer, or backup device with a data access point that is on another end. You would not want anything to go wrong while useful and sensitive data is passing through this bridge.

Configure a Remote Git Repo on Debian 11 bullseye system - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to create a repository on Bitbucket, fetch it, modify, and push it locally. In fact, If you are a web server administrator, learning to use GIT is what you should do. It can make your job a lot easier and help speed up the development process.

Automate Tasks on Debian 11 - How to do it ?

This article covers how simple bash scripting can help us to avoid wasting our time on repetitive tasks. In fact, these tasks should run in the background and in case of any failure we simply need to look into the log files. 

Install the Traceroute on Ubuntu 22.04 (Jammy Jellyfish) - Step by step guide ?

This article covers a detailed description of the traceroute command, which can be used to determine the delays in network path responses and look for routing loops (if any exist) in the network. In fact, network diagnostics tools such as traceroute, and ping are available in most Linux distribution. 


How to install and run a traceroute in Linux ?

For most Linux distributions, you'll need to first install the traceroute package.

To install:

  • Open your terminal.
  • Run the following to install in Ubuntu: $ sudo apt-get install traceroute
  • Once installed, you can run the command as follows: $ traceroute example.com
  • Some Linux variants require you to also specify the protocol after -I. For example: $ traceroute -I ICMP example.com

Install i3 on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers some basic information regarding the i3 window manager. In fact, this includes instructions on how to set up i3 and launch an application.

Different methods to Install Debian (.deb) Package

This article covers how to install Debian (.deb) packages on Debian 11 Linux system. In fact, A file ending with ".deb" is called a Debian Software Package file, and it’s used to install apps on Linux. DEB files are used only in Debian-based Linux distributions like Ubuntu and its various flavors, Pop!_OS, Linux Mint, and others.

Install Buho Task Manager on Debian 11 bullseye system - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to easily install Buho Task Manager on your Debian 11 bullseye system. In fact, Buhos is an application that enables the development and management of systematic literature reviews. It may be used individually, on the researcher's computer or online for developing collaborative reviews. The software supports and records each step of the systematic review process: document search, screening of useful documents for the research, information extraction and reports generation.

Install Cherry Tree on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install, configure, and make use of the Cherry Tree application for note-taking and support in programming. In fact, CherryTree is a hierarchical note taking application, featuring rich text, syntax highlighting, images handling, hyperlinks, import/export with support for multiple formats, support for multiple languages, and more.


How To Uninstall cherrytree from Ubuntu 21.04 ?

To uninstall only the cherrytree package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove cherrytree

Different ways to Install TeamSpeak Client on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa

This article covers how to easily install the TeamSpeak client on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS OS. In fact, TeamSpeak is a VoIP (voice-over-Internet Protocol) solution first released in 2001 and most popular with those who play team-based online games.

Install Firefox on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the latest version of Mozilla Firefox browser on Debian 11 system. In fact, firefox is Safe and easy web browser from Mozilla Safe and easy web browser from Mozilla.

Install Sublime Text 3 on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to remove the sublime text editor from the Debian 11 system. In fact, Sublime Text is a cross-platform text editor written in C++ and python and developed for individuals who are looking for an effective yet minimalist tool for shuffling code around. Not only does it supports many languages, but you can also even extend the functionality using plugins.

Install Chrome on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Google Chrome on Debian 11 Bullseye. In fact, Google Chrome is a cross-platform web browser developed by Google. It was first released in 2008 for Microsoft Windows, built with free software components from Apple WebKit and Mozilla Firefox. It was later ported to Linux, macOS, iOS, and Android, where it is the default browser.


How to Update Google Chrome ?

To update Google Chrome, run the APT update command in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update

If one is available, use the upgrade option:

$ sudo apt upgrade google-chrome-stable

Install Microsoft Teams on openSUSE - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation of Microsoft Teams on the openSUSE system. In fact, Using either the repository or the snap package manager, you can easily install Microsoft Teams on your openSUSE.


Why use Microsoft Teams?

  • Meetings in groups make this process a lot easier. You may start conversing with the attendees about the agenda as soon as you create the meeting, exchange the files you need them to review, and keep track of the meeting notes and to-dos as soon as you create the meeting.
  • You no longer have all the email-on-email responses, which are often delivered as a Reply All, because discussions are now held in a structured way in your Teams.
  • The call recording is immediately available in the same tab, so you don’t have to look for it if you missed the meeting. It’s right there, along with the meeting minutes and agreed-upon tasks.
  • In Teams, you may use the chat box to have brief conversations with your coworkers.
  • You can access all of your apps and documents right away with the Teams phone app.
  • In Teams, you can create a Word, Excel, or PowerPoint document, share it with your teammates right away, and then co-author it in the single glance.

Install NGINX on openSUSE - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can easily install Nginx on your openSUSE system. In fact, Nginx or engine x is a high-performance HTTP- and proxy server with low memory consumption. It is used by large scale websites like Netflix, Pinterest, CloudFlare , Github etc. Nginx has an easy to learn configuration syntax and can act also as a load balancer with health checks and reverse proxy with caching features.


You can Install Nginx with the "zypper in" command:

$ zypper in nginx

Start nginx and enable it to be started at boot time:

$ systemctl start nginx
$ systemctl enable nginx

Install UNRAR on Fedora 35 / 34 / 33 / 32 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and use UNRAR freeware on Fedora. In fact, UNRAR is a great option for extracting RAR files and provides a myriad of options depending on how you want your files organized upon extraction. 

Use Rsync on your Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the basics of rsync command, how to transfer and sync files locally as well as remotely. In fact, Rsync is the most efficient, accessible, and secure ways to sync files between operating systems and servers.


How to Install Rsync On Linux System ?

1. Install Rsync Alma Linux, Fedora, Rhel, Rocky Linux based distributions:

$ sudo yum install rsync -y

2. Install Rsync Debian, Linux Mint, Ubuntu based distributions:

$ sudo apt install rsync -y


Rysnc Commands includes:

  • -a, –archive: archive files and directory while synchronizing ( -a equal to following options -rlptgoD)
  • -b, –backup : take the backup during synchronization
  • -l, –links: copy symlinks as symlinks during the sync
  • -d, –delete: deletes extraneous files from the destination location.
  • -e, –rsh=COMMAND: mention the remote shell to use in rsync
  • -h, –human-readable: display the output numbers in a human-readable format
  • -u, –update: don't copy the files from source to destination if destination files are newer
  • -r, –recursive: sync files and directories recursively
  • -n, –dry-run : perform a trial run without synchronization
  • –p, –progress: show the sync progress during transfer
  • -z, –compress: compress file data during the transfer
  • -q, –quiet: suppress message output
  • -v, –verbose : verbose output

Install Wireshark on Debian 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Wireshark on Debian 10. In fact, Wireshark is a network "sniffer" - a tool that captures and analyzes packets off the wire. With Wireshark, you can capture incoming and outgoing packets of a network in real-time and use it for network troubleshooting, packet analysis, software and communication protocol development, and many more.


How To Uninstall wireshark on Ubuntu 21.04

To uninstall only the wireshark package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove wireshark

We can use the following command to remove wireshark configurations, data and all of its dependencies, we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y autoremove --purge wireshark

Install PostgreSQL 14 on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install PostgreSQL 14 on the Debian 11 system. In fact, you can easily create the postgreSQL databases on your system. You can follow the steps here to install the PostgreSQL on Ubuntu: https://linuxapt.com/blog/1188-install-postgresql-on-ubuntu-20-04 .

With PostgreSQL 14 installed on your Ubuntu 20.04 system, you can now comfortably use it to steer your database-powered apps or projects to new heights.

Install Cinnamon Desktop on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Cinnamon Desktop on Debian 11.


How to Update Cinnamon Desktop Packages on Debian Linux system ?

1. Run the standard apt update && upgrade commands for future updates for the Cinnamon desktop environment and any default APT packages:

$ sudo apt update

2. When updates are available, run the standard upgrade command as you would with any other apt package:

$ sudo apt upgrade

Install Node.js 17 & NPM on Debian 11 Bullseye - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Node.js 17 & NPM on Debian 11 Bullseye. Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform, back-end JavaScript runtime environment built on Chrome’s V8 engine to build fast and scalable network applications and back-end APIs. While NPM is a package manager for the JavaScript programming language maintained by NPM, Inc. NPM is the default package manager for the JavaScript runtime environment Node.js and is arguably the most available repository for Node.JS packages.

Install Smartctl on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete steps to install smartctl on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, the smartmontools package contains two utility programs (smartctl and smartd) to control and monitor storage systems using the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology System (S.M.A.R.T.) built into most modern ATA and SCSI hard disks. It is derived from the smartsuite package, and includes support for ATA/ATAPI-5 disks. It should run on any modern Linux system.


How to Install smartmontools Using apt-get on Ubuntu / Debian system ?

1. Update apt database with apt-get using the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. After updating apt database, We can install smartmontools using apt-get by running the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y install smartmontools

Install Microsoft Teams on Debian 11 Bullseye - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Microsoft Teams on Debian 11 Linux system. In fact, Microsoft Teams is a proprietary business communication platform developed by Microsoft and is a collaboration application built for chat, calling, collaboration, and meetings all in one place to make it easier for teams to stay organized and connected easier than using several other communication platforms separately. 


How to Update Microsoft Teams on Debian?

Run the standard update commands for future updates for Teams and any default APT packages:

$ sudo apt update

When updates are available, run the standard upgrade command as you would with any other APT available updates:

$ sudo apt upgrade

Methods to Remove PPAs Package Added in Ubuntu Linux system

This article covers the different methods to remove packages in Ubuntu Linux. 


How to use PPA ?

Ubuntu provides a platform called Launchpad that enables software developers to create their own repositories. An end user i.e. you can add the PPA repository to your sources.list and when you update your system, your system would know about the availability of this new software and you can install it using the standard sudo apt install command like this.

To summarize:

  • $ sudo add-apt-repository <PPA_info> <– This command adds the PPA repository to the list.
  • $ sudo apt-get update <– This command updates the list of the packages that can be installed on the system.
  • $ sudo apt-get install <package_in_PPA> <– This command installs the package.


A repository is a collection of files that has information about various software, their versions and some other details like the checksum.

Each Ubuntu version has its own official set of four repositories:

  • Main – Canonical-supported free and open-source software.
  • Universe – Community-maintained free and open-source software.
  • Restricted – Proprietary drivers for devices.
  • Multiverse – Software restricted by copyright or legal issues.

Install VLC Media Player on Manjaro 21.2.2 Linux System

This article covers how to install VLC media player on Manjaro Linux. In fact, you can run the application whenever you want and stream videos on it. VLC supports subtitles, closed captions and is translated into numerous languages.

Most Effective GUI Tools to Free Up Space on Ubuntu and Linux Mint

This article covers the best GUI Tools to Free Up Space on Ubuntu and Linux Mint . In fact, you can use these tools to regularly keep your Ubuntu / Linux Mint system free of junk files.


How to Remove old kernels from the Ubuntu / Linux Mint system  ?

1. As we should know, the Linux Kernel is the heart of the system, but it is also known that it is updated every so often, so they are released new versions which are installed in the system displacing the old versions which remain stored without being eliminated.

For this we must type the following command:

$ sudo dpkg 'linux-image *' --list

2. Next, they must identify their oldest kernels and execute the following command to remove the previous versions.

Just replace xxxxx with the version of Linux you want to delete:

$ sudo apt-get remove linux-image-xxxxx

3. As an alternative, an easier way to clean up these old kernels is to use 'autoremove':

$ sudo apt-get autoremove  --purge

Backup Your Data on Ubuntu 20.04 using Fwbackups - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install fwbackups and backup data in the application on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, fwbackups is an open-source feature-rich user backup application that allows you to backup your important documents anytime, anywhere using a simple powerful interface with the support for scheduled backups and backing up to remote systems.


How to Install fwbackups on Debian and Ubuntu / Mint Linux ?

1. Install these following dependencies on your system:

$ sudo apt-get install gettext autotools-dev intltool python-crypto python-paramiko python-gtk2 python-glade2 python-notify cron

2. Then download fwbackups to your home directory using wget command and install it from source using the following commands:

$ wget http://downloads.diffingo.com/fwbackups/fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ tar xfj fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ cd fwbackups-1.43.7/
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr
$ make && sudo make install

3. Install fwbackups on CentOS and RHEL:

$ sudo yum install gettext autotools-dev intltool python-crypto python-paramiko python-gtk2 python-glade2 python-notify cron

4. Next, download fwbackups and install it from source using the following commands:

$ wget http://downloads.diffingo.com/fwbackups/fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ tar xfj fwbackups-1.43.7.tar.bz2
$ cd fwbackups-1.43.7/
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr
$ make && sudo make install

5. Install fwbackups on Fedora Linux:

$ sudo dnf install fwbackups


From the fwbackups Overview page, you can simply click on any one of the toolbar buttons to begin:

  • ⁠Backup Sets – To create, edit or delete backup sets as well as manually create a backup set.
  • ⁠One-Time Backup – Create "one-time" backups.
  • ⁠Log Viewer – Shows the information about fwbackups's activities.
  • Restore – Allows you to restore any backup from previously made backup.

How to install Bacula Server on Ubuntu Linux system ?

In order to install Bacula Server, log in to your Ubuntu instance and issue the command:

$ sudo apt-get install bacula -y

You will be prompted for the following:

  • Mail server configuration (unless you need email alerts, you can configure this as local only).
  • System mail name (this is the email domain for the server, if applicable).
  • Configure database for bacula-directory-pgsql (you want to do this and set it as localhost).
  • Configure a password for the Bacula PostgreSQL database.


Once you've completed the above, you'll get your prompt back and can continue on with the configuration.

Install Snort on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Snort on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Snort monitors the package data sent and received through a specific network interface. NIDS can catch threats targeting your system vulnerabilities using signature-based detection and protocol analysis technologies. NIDS software, when installed and configured appropriately, can identify the latest attacks, malware infections, compromised systems, and network policy violations.

Push a Project to Remote GitLab Using Git on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how to push changes in our local project repository to GitLab with the help of a few easy-to-follow git commands. In fact, you can collaborate with your fellow developers for work without running into errors.


More about GitLab repository

In GitLab, files are stored in a repository. In GitLab, a repository is contained in a project. A repository is similar to how you store files in a folder or directory on your computer:

  • A remote repository refers to the files in GitLab.
  • A local copy refers to the files on your computer.
  • Often, the word “repository” is shortened to "repo".

List Services on Ubuntu 20.04 - All about it ?

This article covers how to list all services by using the systemctl command on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, systemctl is a command-line utility that is used for controlling systemd and managing services, which is part of systemd.


The syntax is the rule and format of how the systemctl command can be used.

These syntax options can be reordered, but a straight format must be followed:

systemctl [OPTIONS.] {COMMAND} 
  • COMMAND: Replace COMMAND.. with the name of the command service names.
  • -t –type=TYPE, –state=STATE: Use the -t or –type or –state=STATE to list units of a particular type of service state: Active, Inactive.
  • -a –all: Use the -a or –all to show all properties/all units currently in memory, including dead/empty ones. To list all units installed on the system, use the 'list-unit-files' command instead.
  • -r –recursive: Use the -r or –recursive to show unit list of host and local containers.
  • –help: Display a help message and exit.

Upgrade .Net SDK on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install both .Net SDK and Runtime on your Debian 11 Linux system. In fact, .NET Core is the modular and high performance implementation of .NET for creating web applications and services that run on Windows, Linux and Mac.

Install John the Ripper on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can conveniently install and learn to use John the Ripper on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, this tool will not only help you in checking the strength of your passwords but will also help you in recovering them if needed.

Install PostgreSQL on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install PostgreSQL on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS machine. In fact, PostgreSQL, or Postgres, is a relational database management system that provides an implementation of the SQL querying language. It's standards-compliant and has many advanced features like reliable transactions and concurrency without read locks.


Service commands for PostgreSQL

The PostgreSQL database server runs as a service under the name "postgresql". You can manage the service by running the commands below.

1. Stop PostgreSQL server:

$ sudo systemctl stop postgresql

2. Start PostgreSQL server:

$ sudo systemctl start postgresql

3. Restart PostgreSQL(e.g. after changing configuration settings) server:

$ sudo systemctl restart postgresql

4. Reload PostgreSQL server:

$ sudo systemctl reload postgresql

5. Check PostgreSQL status:

$ sudo systemctl status postgresql

Install Psensor Temperature Monitoring Application on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the Psensor Temperature Monitoring Application on the Ubuntu machine through the command line and graphically.


psensor can monitor:

  • the temperature of the motherboard and CPU sensors (using lm-sensors).
  • the temperature of the NVidia GPUs (using XNVCtrl).
  • the temperature of the Hard Disk Drives (using hddtemp or atasmart lib).
  • the rotation speed of the fans (using lm-sensors).
  • the sensors of a remote computer (using psensor-server).


How to Install psensor Using apt on Ubuntu Linux system ?

Update apt database with apt using the following command:

$ sudo apt update

After updating apt database, We can install psensor using apt by running the following command:

$ sudo apt -y install psensor

Install Joomla on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Joomla on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, Joomla is an open-source and PHP-based content management system used for creating different types of websites including blogs, eCommerce storefronts, and marketing sites. It is simple, user-friendly, and provides an easy way to build dynamic and powerful websites.

Install Gradle on Debian 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Gradle on a Debian 10 machine. In fact, Gradle is an open-source tool for build automation Java, Groovy, and Scala development. It relies on the concepts of Ant and Maven to automate the building process.


How to Install gradle on Debian Using apt ?

Update apt database with apt using the following command:

$ sudo apt update

After updating apt database, We can install gradle using apt by running the following command:

$ sudo apt -y install gradle


How To Uninstall gradle on Ubuntu 21.10 ?

To uninstall only the gradle package we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get remove gradle

We can use the following command to remove gradle configurations, data and all of its dependencies, we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y autoremove --purge gradle

Install Nmap on Fedora 34 / 35 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and basic use Nmap on Fedora 35 Workstation or Server. In fact, Nmap is an essential enumeration tool used in penetration testing and Ethical hacking to scan for vulnerabilities associated with outdated services which are easily exploitable.



What the port terminal states when using the Nmap port scanner:

  • closed – the target port is reachable, but no application is listening or accepting.
  • open – the target port is accepting either TCP, UDP or SCTP.
  • filtered – the target port cannot be successfully determined by nmap to be open or closed due to packet filtering.
  • unfiltered – the port is reachable, but cannot be dtermined if open or closed by nmap.
  • closed|filtered – nmap reach target and nmap cannot determine if the port is open or closed.
  • open|filtered – nmap cannot determine if a port is open or filtered.

Install Rust on Debian 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the latest version of Rust programming language on Debian 10 Buster. In fact, Rust is a language that emphasizes safety, speed, control of memory layout, and concurrency. It has a number of features that help make code more reliable, including the ownership system, type inference, and borrowed values. Rust is also well-suited for writing concurrent programs. For these reasons, Rust is an attractive choice for developing high-reliability software.

Install Discord on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Discord on Rocky Linux 8. Infact, Discord is available on Windows, macOS, and Linux Distros. It allows Users to communicate with voice calls, video calls, text messaging, media, and files in private chats or as part of communities called "servers". 

Install and Run Vagrant on Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers how to install the Vagrant virtual development environment on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Vagrant is a command-line tool for building and managing virtual machines. To use Vagrant, you must have a virtualization engine like VirtualBox, Hyper-V, or Docker installed on your system. The Vagrant plugin system also provides support for KVM and VMware. 

Install GNU Octave on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete installation procedure of GNU Octave on the Ubuntu machine via different methods. In fact, Octave is a scientific application that uses a Matlab-like interpreted high-level language for numerical computations and simulations. Octave offers functions to solve linear and nonlinear problems, can plot the results as graphics and offers capabilities for data manipulation and visualization. Also it provides an interactive command line interface and a GUI interface but can also be used in noninteractive scripts for data processing.

Install Asterisk on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the latest version of the Asterisk VoIP server on Debian 11 Bullseye. In fact, Asterisk is an Open Source PBX and telephony toolkit which can be used with Voice over IP (SIP, H.323, IAX and more) standards, or the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through supported hardware.


How to Install asterisk Using apt-get on Debian ?

1. Update apt database with apt-get using the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. After updating apt database, We can install asterisk using apt-get by running the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y install asterisk

Install Kate Editor on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Machine - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Kate Editor on your Ubuntu machine without installing KDE. In fact, Kate is a multi-document, multi-view text editor by KDE. It features stuff like codefolding, syntaxhighlighting, dynamic word wrap, an embedded console, an extensive plugin interface and some preliminary scripting support.


How to Install kate on Ubuntu using snapd ?

1. Enable snapd

snapd can be installed from the command line:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd

2. Install kate

To install kate, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install kate --classic


How To Uninstall kate on Ubuntu 21.04 ?

We can use the following command to remove kate configurations, data and all of its dependencies, we can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y autoremove --purge kate

Install SC Sheets on Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and use sc Sheets on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, you can use it to create amazing spreadsheets using SC Sheets via terminal.


How to Install sc Using apt-get on Ubuntu ?

Update apt database with apt-get using the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update

After updating apt database, We can install sc using apt-get by running the following command:

$ sudo apt-get -y install sc


How to Install sc Using apt on Ubuntu ?

Update apt database with apt using the following command:

$ sudo apt update

After updating apt database, We can install sc using apt by running the following command:

$ sudo apt -y install sc


How to Install sc Using aptitude on Ubuntu ?

If you want to follow this method, you might need to install aptitude first since aptitude is usually not installed by default on Ubuntu. Update apt database with aptitude using the following command:

$ sudo aptitude update

After updating apt database, We can install sc using aptitude by running the following command:

$ sudo aptitude -y install sc

Configure LDAP Client on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to configure the LDAP client on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, LDAP allows users to store the usernames and passwords of users in a single place. This place is then used by multiple services for validating the users claiming these services. To use a service, you always need to have a client-end program that can help you to access that service.

Install Telnet Server and Client on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can easily install the Telnet server and client on your Ubuntu machines. In fact, Telnet is a command protocol that allows a user to connect to a remote host. It makes use of TCP/IP protocol to establish a connection with the remote computer.


The general format of the telnet command is:

telnet [hostname/ipaddress] [port number]


How to install telnet on AlmaLinux / Rocky Linux / CentOS / Fedora ?

Telnet command can be installed using YUM in all CentOS and Fedora distributions.

1. Execute the below command to install telnet:

# yum -y install telnet

2. Verify that the command is installed successfully:

# telnet localhost 22


How to install telnet on Ubuntu / Debian ?

Telnet command can be installed both in Ubuntu and Debian systems using the APT command.

1. Execute the below command to install telnet:

# apt-get install telnet

2. Verify that the command is installed successfully:

# telnet localhost 22

Install BalenaEtcher on Debian 11 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you install and create a bootable disk drive using balenaEtcher on Debian 11 bullseye. In fact, balenaEtcher is a free and open-source flashing utility tool famous for writing image files such as .iso and .img files and zipped folders onto storage media to create live SD cards and USB flash drives.


How to Keep balenaEtcher Updated ?

To update balenaEtcher, use the apt-update command just as you would with any APT package or system update check:

$ sudo apt update

If an available update is listed, use the apt-upgrade command to proceed:

$ sudo apt upgrade

Install FTP Server on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete procedure to install and configure the latest version of the FTP Server on the Linux Mint system. In fact, VSFTP (very secure FTP) is a secure FTP protocol which encrypts information transfer between systems.

To Install VSFTPD on Linux Mint 20, Simply Run the following commands to install VSFTP server on Linux Mint 20:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt install -y vsftpd

Install FreeIPA on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the FreeIPA on CentOS 8 system. In fact, FreeIPA is a free and open source identity management tool for managing centralized authentication along with account management, policy (host-based access control) and audit.


How to Open Required FreeIPA ports on Firewall ?

FreeIPA uses a number of ports to communicate with its services which must be opened on firewall to allow external connections. You can simply open all the required ports using the service names by running the command below:

$ firewall-cmd --add-service={freeipa-ldap,freeipa-ldaps,dns,ntp} --permanent
$ firewall-cmd --reload

Install Tmux on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Tmux on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Tmux is a popular multiplexer which makes it easy for you to run different applications in separate sessions and switch between them effortlessly.

Tmux is a Linux application that allows multitasking in a terminal window. It stands for Terminal Multiplexing, and is based around sessions. Users can start a process, switch to a new one, detach from a running process, and reattach to a running process.


How to Install Tmux in Linux ?

1. On Debian-based distributions:

$ sudo install tmux

2. On CentOS/REHL:

$ yum install tmux

3. To install tmux on Arch Linux:

$ pacman -S tmux

Once the installation is finished, launch a terminal and type in tmux to start a fresh tmux session:

$ tmux

Install WoeUSB on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the best procedure to install WoeUSB on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, WoeUSB is an open-source tool to create Windows USB bootable installation sticks from an ISO file or DVD on Linux systems. 

Install Joomla on Debian 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process to follow to install Joomla CMS on Debian 10 Buster system. In fact, Joomla is a popular and widely used CMS (Content Management System) used for creating websites with little or no knowledge in markup or web programming languages.

Install Make on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install make on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Make package is an utility for directing compilation of system Software.


How to Fix the "make: command not found" Error in Ubuntu ?

1. Before fixing the error, first, you need to verify if make is installed on your system. To do so, use the ls function to check the content of the /usr/bin/make directory:

$ ls /usr/bin/make

2. Further on, check if you are able to execute the command with its absolute path:

/usr/bin/make --version

3. If the above methods don't work and display an error, then your system doesn't have make installed.

4. Update your system's repository list using APT:

$ sudo apt-get update

5. Then, install the make command:

$ sudo apt-get install -y make

6. If the aforementioned commands don't work, you can install make by downloading the build-essential package, as follows:

$ sudo apt install build-essential

The build-essential package consists of all the necessary packages related to package building and compilation. The make command is a part of these packages.

Install ProFTPD on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how you can instantly install ProFTPD on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, ProFTPD will easily facilitate transferring your files from one end to another while fully supporting the file transfer protocol.

Reset Root Password on Debian 11 - How to get it done ?

This article covers how you can quickly reset your root password on Debian 11. In fact, When you are at your workplace, you might face the situation where you are an administrator of Debian servers but forgot the root password to log in to the server you own.

Install Bpytop Resource Monitoring Tool on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Bpytop on the CentOS system. In fact, Bpytop provides a command-line interface to monitor system resources including disk, network, process, and CPU in real-time. Bpytop can be installed on several operating systems including Linux, macOS, and FreeBSD. Now you can start using it to monitor your system's resource usage.


How to Install bpytop on your Linux system ?

1. The best way to install the bpytop is by typing the following command to install or upgrade to the latest version:

$ pip3 install bpytop --upgrade

2. On Arch Linux install bytop, Run the pacman commands:

$ sudo pacman -Syu
$ sudo pacman -S bpytop

3. On Debian 11, We use the apt command:

$ sudo sh -c 'apt update && apt -y upgrade && apt -y install bpytop'

4. For RHEL 8 enable EPEL (see how to enable and use EPEL on CentOS 8) and then type the dnf command:

$ sudo sh -c 'dnf update && dnf install bpytop'

5. On FreeBSD install bpytop, Run the pkg command to install bpytop:

$ sudo pkg install bpytop

6. On Ubuntu snap installation, Execute the following snap command:

$ sudo snap install bpytop

Install Kanboard on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Kanboard open source project management on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa. In fact, Kanboard is a free and open-source project management software that helps you visualize and limit your work in progress to focus on your goal. It follows the Kanban methodology and is specially designed for those people who want to manage their projects efficiently and simply. Kanboard also provides support for reports and analytics and can be integrated with external services. 

Install VNC on Debian 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing VNC on Debian 10 Buster system. In fact, VNC stands for Virtual Network Computer. This is a graphical desktop sharing system that uses the Remote Frame Buffer protocol(RFB). There are many software services that provide VNC, among them are TigerVNC, Vino, VNC4server, TightVNC e.t.c

Install Metasploit Framework on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Metasploit Framework on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS OS. In fact, the Metasploit Framework is an open-source project that provides public resources for vulnerability research and code development. It allows security professionals to detect intrusions into their network and identify threats and vulnerabilities in various areas such as software, systems, or networks. Metasploit comes jam-packed with existing exploits but gives the framework to create your own custom exploits.


How to Access Metasploit Console ?

Metasploit provides a command-line utility called mfconsole to manage the Metasploit. You can access it using the following command:

$ msfconsole

You should see the Metasploit console.


Now, run the following command to show all available commands in msfconsole:

$ help

To display all available exploits, run the following command:

$ show exploits

To display all available payloads, run the following command:

$ show payloads

To show more information of any exploit, run the following command:

$ info exploit exploit-name

To show more information of any payload, run the following command:

$ info payload payload-name

To set the specific payload for your exploit, run the following command:

$ set PAYLOAD windows

To display all available target operating systems that can be exploited, run the following command:

$ show targets

To set your target's IP address, run the following command:

$ set RHOST target-ip-address

To set the local IP address for the reverse communications, run the following command:

$ set LHOST ip-address

Install Asterisk on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install Asterisk on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Asterisk is a free and open-source VoIP server used for building a VoIP telephony infrastructure for all sizes of organizations. Now, you can now connect your server to any PSTN network and start calling absolutely free.

Install Android Studio on Debian 10 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the latest version of the Android Studio on the Debian 10 server. In fact, Android Studio is the IDE (Integrated Development Environment) for Android. Built on JetBrains IntelliJ IDEA software and designed for Android development.



How to Add Android studio icon to Desktop ?

  • Open android studio App and click Configure.
  • Here click 'Create Desktop Entry' option.
  • Click 'OK' for adding android studio icon to the desktop.

Configure Rsyslog Server on Debian 10 / Debian 11 (Bullseye) - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to set up the Rsyslog server on Debian 11. In fact, Rsyslog is a free and open-source logging software that forwards all log files to the centralized log server through the IP network. It helps system administrators to keep an eye on all servers from the central point. Rsyslog works in a client/server model, it receives logs from the remote client on port 514 over the TCP/UDP protocol.


How to Install Rsyslog on any Linux distribution ?

1. First, you will need to install the Rsyslog server package on the server machine. You can install it in Debian / Ubuntu using the following command:

$ apt-get install rsyslog -y

In RHEL based distros like CentOS:

$ sudo yum install rsyslog

2. After the installation, verify the Rsyslog status using the following command:

$ systemctl status rsyslog

Install KDE Plasma on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing the KDE Plasma desktop environment in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, The name KDE is derived from "K Desktop Environment". KDE Plasma Desktop Environment provides Linux users on various distributions an alternative graphical interface to customize their desktop environment and applications for everyday use enhancement.

Install MailSpring on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete process of installing MailSpring on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Mailspring is a desktop email client with modern features like a unified inbox, snoozing, reminders, templates, offline search, and support for Gmail labels. It even has built-in "dark" and "ubuntu" themes so you can style it to match your desktop.


How to Install Mailspring on Ubuntu through GUI using Ubuntu Software Center ?

1. Click the Ubuntu Software Center icon located on your desktop.

2. Click the search icon to bring up the search box.

3. Type mailspring in the search box and hit Enter. After which, you will see the Mailspring application in the search results. Click the Mailspring application.

4. The Mailspring application installation view will show up on your screen. Click the Install button.

5. Now it will ask you for authentication. Provide the password for authentication. Then click Authenticate button.

6. After authentication, the installation will be started.

7. After the installation is completed, click the Launch button to open the Mailspring application.

8. You can also launch the Mailspring Email client from the Activities menu. Hit the super key to bring up the search bar. Type Mailspring in the search bar. The icon of the Mailspring application will now display on your screen. To open the Mailspring email client, simply click the icon.

Install Nethogs on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install and use Nethogs on the CentOS system. In fact, Nethogs lets you view the bandwidth usage by your programs in order to help you figure out which processes are hogging your network bandwidth. 


Install GIMP on Debian 11 Bullseye distribution - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing GIMP image manipulation and editing tool on Debian 11 bullseye distribution. In fact, Using GIMP, you can easily optimize the image, convert the type of image etc.

GIMP is a cross platform application, available for the Linux, Windows, MAC OS, and FreeBSD etc. 


How to Install GIMP with Flatpak ?

1. First, install Flatpak and its dependencies:

$ sudo apt install flatpak gnome-software-plugin-flatpak -y

2. Next, you need to enable Flatpack for Debian using the following command in your terminal:

$ sudo flatpak remote-add --if-not-exists flathub https://flathub.org/repo/flathub.flatpakrepo

3. Now install SNAP using the following flatpak command:

$ sudo flatpak install flathub org.gimp.GIMP

Type "Y" X2 times, then press the "ENTER KEY" X2 times to proceed with the installation.

Updates are handled by Flatpack automatically every time you log into your system. 

Install HAProxy on CentOS 8 - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing HAProxy on your CentOS 8 systems. In fact, HAProxy is an open-source software widely used as a high availability load balancer and proxying TCP and HTTP connections.

Install HPLIP on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing HP's Linux Imaging and Printing software (HPLIP) on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, HPLIP is an open-source Linux drivers for HP’s inkjet and laser printers. The project is initiated and led by HP Inc. 

Install InfluxDB on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing InfluxDB on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, InfluxDB is an open-source time-series database server that you can use to build Internet of Things (IoT) applications for data monitoring purposes which is built for developers and can handle the massive volumes of time-stamped data produced by sensors and applications.

Install Nextcloud with Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing  and configuring Nextcloud personal cloud storage on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, Nextcloud is a free (Open Source) Dropbox-like software, a fork of the ownCloud project. Nextcloud is written in PHP and JavaScript, it supports many database systems such as MySQL/MariaDB, PostgreSQL, Oracle Database, and SQLite.

In order to keep your files synchronized between Desktop and your own server, Nextcloud provides applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac desktops and a mobile app for Android and iOS. Nextcloud is not just a Dropbox clone, it provides additional features like Calendar, Contacts, Schedule tasks, and streaming media with Ampache etc.

Install OwnCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete process of installing  and configuring OwnCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa system. In fact, OwnCloud allows you to host a private cloud for data synchronization, file storage, and file sharing. You can use ownCloud as an alternative to commercial services like DropBox or Box. This software is great for secure collaboration across your projects and teams.

Install FTP Server on Debian 10 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete process of installing FTP Server on your Debian 10 Buster system. In fact, VSFTPD is used as an FTP server. VSFTPD stands for Very Secure FTP Daemon that is licensed under the GNU General Public License. FTP, short for File Transfer Protocol, is a common network protocol that can be used to upload and download files depending upon the permissions the user is assigned. 

Install RabbitMQ on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the complete process of installing RabbitMQ on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa) system. In fact, RabbitMQ is one of the most popular open-source Message Broker Program which uses Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) and Streaming Text Oriented Messaging Protocol, Message Queuing Telemetry Transport, and other protocols via Plugins.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official RabbitMQ website.

Install Cacti Monitoring on Debian 10 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the process of installing Cacti Monitoring on Debian 10 Buster system. In fact, Cacti is a free and open-source, web-based network monitoring, and graphics tool which provides a fast poller with advanced graphic template creation and multiple data collection methods. 

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you check the official Cacti Monitoring website.

Install Plex Media Server on Debian 10 Buster - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to install the latest version of the Plex Media Server on Debian 10 Buster. In fact, Plex is a popular free media server that allows you to organize and stream your movies, shows, music, and photos.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you check the official Plex website .

Install Zabbix on Debian 10 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the best method of installing Zabbix monitoring software in Debian 10 Buster systems. In fact, Zabbix is 100% free open-source ultimate enterprise-level software designed for monitoring availability and performance of IT infrastructure components. 

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Zabbix website.

Install Java 17 LTS (JDK 17 ) On Debian 11 - Different ways to perform it ?

This article covers how to install the latest OpenJDK, and by extension Java 17 on your Debian 11 Bullseye system. In fact, JDK 17 (JDK 17) has brought forward new language enhancements, updates to the libraries, support for new Apple computers, removals and deprecations of legacy features, and work to ensure Java code written today will continue working without change in future JDK versions.

Install Telegram on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step process ?

This article covers the process of installing Telegram on Linux Mint 20. In fact, Telegram is a free and open-source instant messaging app that values user’s privacy and data encryption, which means as compared to Whatsapp all your messages will be on the company’s secure cloud in an encrypted form rather than on a local device. it is available for every mobile platform, Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Ubuntu Touch. Earlier it was not officially available for Desktop but recently developers have released it for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS desktop.

Install Konqueror File Manager on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step process ?

This article covers how to Install konqueror software package in Ubuntu. In fact, konqueror software package provides advanced file manager, web browser and document viewer.

You can run the commands given below on the terminal to install konqueror:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install konqueror 

Install Snap on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step Process ?

This article covers how to install snap on Linux Mint 20. In fact, Snaps are 'universal' packages that work across many different Linux systems, enabling secure distribution of the latest apps and utilities for cloud, servers, desktops and the internet of things.

Install Prometheus on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step process ?

This article covers the process of installing Prometheus open-source monitoring Software on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa). In fact, Prometheus uses visualization tools like Grafana, which uses PromQL, a flexible query language to fetch data for monitoring and analysis.

To learn more about Prometheus, please see the official documentation.

Install Odoo on Debian 10 Buster

This article covers how to install Odoo on your Debian 10 Buster system. In fact, a few popular applications for Odoo include CRMs, eCommerce, accounting, inventory, point of sale, and project management. These applications are all fully integrated and can be installed and accessed through a web interface. Using Odoo's web interface can make it easier to automate and manage your company's processes.

For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Odoo website.

Install Netdata on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how to install Netdata on a Linux Mint 20 machine and then use this service for measuring the performance of your system. In fact, Netdata is a free and open-source real-time monitoring and troubleshooting tool for cloud servers, containers, applications, and on-premise IT infrastructure. You can view the results in a highly interactive web-dashboard.

Install Docker on Debian 11 bullseye system

This article covers how to install Docker engine on the Debian 11 bullseye system. In fact, Docker is a toolset to build applications and CI/CD pipelines to build, ship and run your applications in containers.

Install Audacity on Linux Mint 20

This article covers how to install Audacity on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Audacity is a very powerful and popular editing application that can be very useful when manipulating audio files. With the help of this useful tool, you will not only be able to record your audios but will also be able to edit them very efficiently.


How to Install Audacity via Snap Store and Launch on Linux ?

1. Perform system update:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install Snapd:

$ sudo apt install snapd

3. Install Audacity:

$ sudo snap install audacity

4. Once Audacity has been installed via Snap, run the Audacity application by searching for the term 'audacity' in the Application menu.

5. Click the Audacity icon to open Audacity.

Install and Use FFmpeg on Debian 11

This article covers how to install and use the FFmpeg multimedia framework on Debian 11 bullseye distribution. In fact, FFmpeg is a cross-platform solution for streaming audio and video as well as recording and conversion. With FFmpeg, you can convert between various video and audio formats, set sample rates, capture streaming audio/video, and resize videos.


How to Install FFmpeg on Debian ?

1. Log in to SSH and Update Debian package lists:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install FFmpeg with the apt package manager:

$ sudo apt install ffmpeg

3. Check the installed FFmpeg version:

$ ffmpeg -version

Install Grsync on Debian 10 Linux system

This article covers how to install and remove Grsync from Debian 10 Linux system. In fact, Grsync is a Graphical rsync backup tool for Linux systems. It basically provides a graphical user interface to backup or sync important files & directories to remote machines or in local machines using rsync.


How to Install Grsync on Debian ?

Open the Terminal, run the below apt-get command:

$ sudo apt-get install grsync

Install Jenkins on CentOS 8

This article covers how to install Jenkins on CentOS system. In fact, Jenkins is an open-source software written in Java and Scala which allows users the ability to automate almost any task and, it saves significant time that can be better utilized addressing other issues. When automating tasks with Jenkins, users can optimize their workflow by quickly automating the jobs that servers cannot do themselves.

Also, you will learn how to manage Jenkins services, allow them in firewall, and access Jenkins using the web browser.

Install and Use NVM on Debian 11

This article covers the basic nvm commands that you can use to install and manage multiple versions of Node.JS. In fact, Node.js uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model that makes it lightweight and efficient, perfect for data-intensive real-time applications that run across distributed devices.


You can use the following command to list installed version's of Node for the current user:

$ nvm ls 

With this command you can find available Node.js version for the installation:

$ nvm ls-remote 

To find the default Node version set for the current user, run the command:

$ nvm run default --version 

Install Anaconda on CentOS 8

This article covers how you install Anaconda on your CentOS system. In fact, Anaconda manages many pre installed packages and that packages are helpful for data science, Machine Learning and Artificial intelligence applications. Once installed on your system, you can now start building your machine learning projects.

Install LAMP Server on Debian 11

This article covers a step-by-step procedure of how you can install LAMP stack on the Debian 11 Bullseye server. In fact, LAMP is a popular opensource stack that stands for Linux Apache MySQL/MariaDB and PHP. It’s mostly used by front-end and back-end developers to test and host a website. The stack comprises of 3 components. First, we have  Apache, which is a web server. Then we have Mariadb, which is a fork of MySQL and PHP which is a server-side scripting language. All the components are absolutely free and opensource.


How to Install Apache webserver on your Linux system ?

1. To get started, log into your server instance and update the package lists with the below command:

$ sudo apt update

2. Once your packages are up to date, install the Apache webserver with the below command:

$ sudo apt install apache2 apache2-utils

3. Once installed, verify the status of apache to see if it is running, by executing the command:

$ sudo systemctl status apache2

4. If apache is not running, you can start and enable it on boot using the commands:

$ sudo systemctl start apache2
$ sudo systemctl enable apache2

Install Nethogs on Ubuntu 20.04 - Follow these steps ?

This article covers how to install and use the Nethogs utility in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, nethogs is a networking monitoring tool for Linux capable of monitoring any specific network interface or all the networking interfaces on your computer. Also, it shows bandwidth usage per process on your computer in real time.


How to install nethogs on Ubuntu / Debian ?

nethogs is not installed on Ubuntu/Debian by default. But, it is available in the official package repository of Ubuntu/Debian.

1. First, update the APT package manager cache with the following command:

$ sudo apt update

2. Now, install nethogs with the following command:

$ sudo apt install nethogs

3. Now, to check whether nethogs is working, run the following command:

$ nethogs -V

Install HexChat on Debian - The easiest method ?

This article covers how to install and remove HexChat 10 buster edition. In fact, HexChat is a nice chatting utility to connect with IRC servers.

Installing hexchat package on Ubuntu is as easy as running the following commands on terminal:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install hexchat


How to Install HexChat in Linux ?

Run the below command as per your Linux distribution:

$ sudo apt install hexchat [On Debian/Ubuntu & Mint]
$ sudo yum install hexchat [On CentOS/RHEL 7]
$ sudo dnf install hexchat [On CentOS/RHEL 8 & Fedora]
$ sudo yay -S hexchat [On Arch Linux]
$ sudo zypper install hexchat  [On OpenSUSE Linux]
$ sudo pkg install hexchat [On FreeBSD]

Install .Net 5 on Debian 10 - Best Guide Online ?

This article covers how to install .NET version 5 on Debian 10 Linux system distribution. In fact, .NET 5.0 is a Free, Cross-Platform, Open Source Developer Platform for building many different types of Applications. Also, with .NET SDK you can use multiple Languages, Editors, and Libraries to build for Web, Mobile, Desktop, Games, and IoT.


What are the languages supported in the net core?

C#, F#, and VB can be used to write applications and libraries for .Net Core. Because compilers run on .Net Core, it allows you to design and develop wherever .Net Core itself can. This means that you will not use the compilers directly, but will use them indirectly using the SDK tools.

Because the C# Roslyn compiler and .Net Core tools have the ability to integrate with various text editors and IDEs, including Visual Studio, Visual Studio Code, Sublime Text, and Vim, .Net Core has become a suitable platform for developers. To perform their desired coding in their favorite environment and operating system.

Install w3m Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Easy steps to follow ?

This article covers how to install, run, and remove a fantastic, multi-color, and terminal-based browser w3m for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS terminal. In fact, If you're looking for text-based web browser To use it from the terminal and Lynx does not convince you, W3M can be a good alternative. This is a modern text-based terminal web browser for Gnu / Linux it has a lot to offer. 

Install Stacer on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the best procedure of Installing Stacer on Linux Mint 20. In fact, Stacer is an amazing tool for Linux system monitoring and optimizing. It is a multi utility tool with features that allows you to easily manager your Linux system. Once installed successfully, Stacer can easily be used for system monitoring and improving its performance and efficiency.


How to Install Stacer on Linux ?

If you want the latest version of Stacer then open a new Terminal Window and execute the following command line by line:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:oguzhaninan/stacer
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install stacer

This will add Stacer PPA in your repository and install the latest version of Stacer on your system.

However, if you want to install the most stable release (tested) of stacer, which can be installed from the official repository of your operating system then open terminal and execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install stacer

Install Ghost CMS on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Ghost CMS on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Ghost is a lightweight, open-source Content Management System (CMS) and blogging platform built with Node.js. It is easy to install and update with Ghost-CLI.


How to Troubleshoot Ghost CMS ?

1. Troubleshoot the system for any potential issues when installing or updating Ghost:

$ ghost doctor

2. Get help about Ghost:

$ ghost --help

Install Oracle Java 16 On Ubuntu 18.04 / 20.04 / 21.04 - A step by step Process ?

This article covers the right steps to successfully install Oracle Java 16 on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, The Java JDK (Java Development Kit) is a software development environment used for developing Java Applications. The JDK is a collection of programming tools, notably JRE (Java Runtime Environment), Java (Loader for Java Application), Javac (Compiler), Jar (Archiver), etc. You can now proceed and start developing your Java applications with the enhanced features provided with the latest Java 16 version.

To Check the java version Installed on the system, sumply issue the following command:

$ java -version


How to Set Default Java Version on Ubuntu Linux system ?

1. You can Use the alternatives command to set the default java version.

Simply run the below command on the terminal:

$ sudo update-alternatives --config java

Then you will be given an output such as this to Select Java:

There are different choices for the alternative java (providing /usr/bin/java).


  Selection    Path                                         Priority   Status
------------------------------------------------------------
  0            /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64/bin/java   1111      auto mode
  1            /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64/bin/java   1111      manual mode
  2            /usr/lib/jvm/jdk-11.0.12/bin/java             2         manual mode
  3            /usr/lib/jvm/jdk-16.0.2/bin/java              1         manual mode
* 4            /usr/lib/jvm/jdk1.8.0_301/bin/java            3         manual mode
Press  to keep the current choice[*], or type selection number: 1

2. Then, Enter the number below the selection column to set the default Java version and press Enter button to proceed.

Install GDebi on Linux Mint 20 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of the GDebi tool on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Gdebi is a lightweight deb packages installer is default in Ubuntu Desktop. It help you to Install and Manage Packages you downloaded from 3rd Party sites and Software centre.


How to Install GDebi through Command Line ?

If you don't have gdebi installed you'll get the below error:

$ sudo gdebi command not found

1. Update the APT Repository:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Install Gdebi now:

$ sudo apt-get install gdebi

Install Scribus on Ubuntu 20.04 - A step by Step guide ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Scribus on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Scribus is an open-source cross-platform application for designing and publishing brochures, newspapers, magazines, posters, books, and even newsletters.


How to Install Scribus in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

1. Update the system repository:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install Scribus and related dependencies (if any):

$ sudo apt install scribus

Install PostgreSQL 13 on Debian 11 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers a step-by-step procedure of installing PostgreSQL 13 on Debian 11 Bulls-Eye. In fact, PostgreSQL is an open source, powerful, resilient and fault tolerant relational database management system powering many mission critical applications. 


Features of PostgreSQL 13 includes:

  • Improvements from de-duplication of B-tree index entries – Space savings and performance gains from.
  • Queries that use aggregates or partitioned tables gets improved performance.
  • Incremental sorting.
  • Better query planning when using extended statistics.
  • Parallelized vacuuming of indexes.

Set a Static IP on Debian 11 - How to do it ?

This article covers the different ways of assigning a static IP on your Debian 11 system which could either be via GUI or the terminal. In fact, DHCP or Dynamic Host Control Protocol dynamically assigns an IP address to an interface. It requires a DHCP server running in the network. In the static IP assignment, we manually assign the IP address, routing gateway, and DNS resolvers. Static IP assignment gives to more control on assigning an IP address and setting the DNS resolvers.

Install VirtualBox Guest Additions on Debian 11 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to successfully install VirtualBox Guest Additions on Debian 11. In fact, Using VirtualBox you can run multiple guest operating system simultaneously. The Guest Additions provides some useful functionalities for guest machines like a mouse pointer integration, full screen view, shared folders, shared clipboard, better and accelerated and much more.

Install OnlyOffice on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers the Installation procedure of OnlyOffice on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, ONLYOFFICE for Linux Mint 20 is an online office that enables you to manage documents, projects, team and customer relations in one place. Also, it offers a complete productivity suite with document management, project management, CRM, calendar, mail, and corporate network. 


How to Install ONLYOFFICE Desktop Editors via Snap ?

The easiest way of installing ONLYOFFICE Desktop Editors might be using a snap package.

1. To get the application installed, just execute the following command:

$ snap install onlyoffice-desktopeditors

2. When the installation process is over, you can launch ONLYOFFICE Desktop Editors using this terminal command:

$ snap run onlyoffice-desktopeditors

Enable SSH on Debian 9 System - Step by Step procedure ?

This article covers how to install and Enable SSH service on Debian 9 system. In short, SSH stands for Secure Shell. SSH is used for connecting to a remote computer accessing files and perform administrative tasks. You can now login remotely to your server using any SSH client from Linux or Windows system. To increase security of SSH connection by Changing default SSH port to custom one on you system. Get more details about SSH server from official SSH site.


How to Install SSH Server ?

On the system that acts as a server, run the following command:

$ sudo apt install openssh-server

You can check the status of the SSH service with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl status ssh

The system confirms that the SSH service is running.

Install and Configure Fail2ban on Ubuntu 20.04 - Do it this way ?

This article covers how to install Fail2ban and protect SSH from illegitimate attempts. For webmasters or anyone managing Linux server that is accessible over the Internet, the risks of the server being compromised is high, so implementing best security practices to help mitigate these attacks should be a priority. In fact, Fail2ban is a tool that help protect Linux servers from brute force and other automated attacks by monitoring the services logs for malicious activity. It uses regular expressions to scan the server's logs for malicious attempts and bans offending IPs for a specific length of time using the system's firewall.


How to Install Fail2ban on any Linux system ?

Fail2ban packages are automatically included in Ubuntu repositories. To install it, simply run the commands below:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install fail2ban

Once the installation is complete, the service should automatically start up and ready to be configured.

To check if the service is up and operational, run the commands below:

$ sudo systemctl status fail2ban

Upgrade Debian 10 Buster to Debian 11 Bullseye - Step by Step guide ?

This article covers a step by step guide on how to perform upgrade from Debian 10 Buster to Debian 11 Bullseye. Before this upgrade, it is crucial that you make a backup of your data and system configurations. For cloud-based VMs one can quickly backup and restore using snapshots.


The most important things you have to backup are contents of /etc, /var/lib/dpkg, /var/lib/apt/extended_states and the output of dpkg –get-selections "*".


Debian 11 comes with the following features:

  • Newer version of desktop environments such as Gnome 3.38, KDE Plasma 5.20, MATE 1.24, Xfce 4.16, LXDE 11, LXQt 0.16 e.t.c
  • Linux Kernel 5.10LTS
  • ExFAT support
  • Package updates
  • Printer and Scanner improvement
  • Supports many architectures such as 32-bit and 64-bit PC, 64-bit ARM, ARMv7, ARM EABI, little-endian MIPS, 64-bit little-endian PowerPC, 64-bit little-endian MIPS, IBM System z e.t.c thus referred to as a universal operating system


Best tools to backup Linux system data and configurations:

  • Rsync– a commandline utility tool used to backup personal and $ Home directory data
  • Deja Dup– a GUI utility used to backup personal data.
  • Timeshift– a tool used to backup system files and configurations.
  • Restic– a commandline utility toolthat saves multiple revisions of files in an encrypted repository stored on different backends.
  • Rsnapshot– this is a commandline utility tools that creates periodic snapshots for local and remote machines over ssh.
  • Other tools include: Barman, BackupPC, Bup, Lsyncd, Bareos, Bacula, Duplicati, Borg e.t.c

Install OwnCloud on Rocky Linux 8 - A step by step guide ?

This article covers how to successfully install OwnCloud on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, OwnCloud is an open source project that can be installed on your server to securely store and access files. Also allows you to share and collaborate contents that lets teams work on data easily from anywhere, on any device. With the support of a lot of plugins, Nextcloud becomes such a Collaboration software. You can install plugins for project management, video conferencing, collaborative editing, note-taking, email client, etc.


To Open port  80 in firewall, use the following command:

$ firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=80/tcp --permanent
$ firewall-cmd --reload


How to Install Apache or httpd web server on the Rocky Linux server ?

1. Simply Execute the dnf command below to install the httpd web server:

$ sudo dnf install httpd

Type "y" and press "Enter" to confirm and install httpd packages.

2. Now, enable and start the httpd service using the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable httpd
$ sudo systemctl start httpd

The "systemctl enable" command will enable the service to start at every boot.

3. Finally, run the command below to verify the httpd service:

$ sudo systemctl status httpd

Install bpytop on Linux Mint 20 - Complete guide ?

This article covers how to install bpytop tool on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, BpyTop is a Linux command-line utility for resource monitoring. It shows usage and stats for processors, memory, disks, network, and processes. With this tool installed on your system, you can use it very efficiently for resource usage monitoring.

To check the version of Python running on your Linux distribution, type:

$ python3 --version

After installing Bpytop, you can start monitoring your Linux system resources by running the command below:

$ bpytop

Install Timeshift on Debian 10 - Step by Step Procedure ?

This article covers how to install Timeshift on Debian 10 from its stable repositories. Timeshift brings the System Restore feature in Windows or the Time Machine tool in macOS to Linux.


How to Restore Ubuntu, Debian & Linux Mint from Snapshot using Timeshift ?

  • To revert your system to Snapshot state, select the Snapshot you want to restore to and click the "Restore" tab on the top menu.
  • This will ask you to "Select target device" and options for /boot and /home.
  • Timeshift will Perform Dry run before doing the actual restore.
  • Confirm Actions to initiate Snapshot restore process.
  • Timeshift will start to sync Snapshot files to the root filesystem.
  • The system should reboot after the process is completed.

Automatic Kernel Updates on Linux - How to Configure it ?

This article covers the procedure on how to set up automatic kernel updates on Linux. In fact, Applying security updates to the Linux kernel is a simple process that can be done with tools like apt, yum, or kexec. 

For organizations with more than a few servers, live patching is the best option. It is an automatic way to fix the Linux kernel while the server is running, making it more efficient and safer than manual methods.

Control File Content in Debian 10 Buster Linux Server

This article covers how to efficiently use both diff and patch programs which help a Linux server admin to control their files and make new files when things go wrong. In fact, The grep command, which stands for global regular expression print, is one of the most versatile commands in a Linux terminal environment. It is an immensely powerful program that allows the user to sort input according to complex rules, which makes it a rather popular link in numerous command chains. The grep command is primarily used to search text or any file for lines that contain a match to the specified words/strings. By default, grep displays the matched lines, and it can be used to search for lines of text that match a regular expression(s), and it outputs only the matched lines.

Install VidCutter on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install VidCutter on a Linux Mint 20 machine. In fact, VidCutter is a cross-platform video cutting or trimmer software for Linux.


Features of VidCutter video editor:

  • Open source Software.
  • Cross-platform app available for Linux, Windows and MacOS.
  • Supports most of the common video formats such as: AVI, MP4, MPEG 1/2, WMV, MP3, MOV, 3GP, FLV etc.
  • Simple interface.
  • Trims and merges the videos.

Install MariaDB on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step-by-step installation procedure of the MariaDB server on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, MariaDB was developed as a "drop-in" replacement for MySQL. As such, both software packages are functionally equivalent and interchangeable.

To enable MariaDB service to start on boot time and start the service using the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl enable mariadb
$ sudo systemctl start mariadb

To verify the running status of MariaDB, run the below command:

$ sudo systemctl status mariadb

Install Webmin on Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to Install and configure Webmin on Rocky Linux 8 using the automated installation script. Webmin web interface is used to set up user and disk management, Apache, DNS, PHP, MySQL, check CPU usage, system info, network config, and more.


How to Install Webmin using RPM package ?

It is also possible to install Webmin using the rpm package available on the download page of Webmin. This is the quickest way to get Webmin up and running on your Linux machine.

1. Install dependencies

Since Webmin is written in Perl, you need to install Perl and its dependencies:

$ sudo dnf install perl perl-Net-SSLeay perl-Data-Dumper perl-Encode-Detect

2. Download and Install Webmin RPM package

This will install the latest version of Webmin using the rpm package:

$ sudo dnf install https://www.webmin.com/download/rpm/webmin-current.rpm


How to uninstall Webmin ?

You can simply uninstall Webmin using the script /etc/webmin/uninstall.sh.

Configure and Use Git on Debian - Best Procedure ?

This article covers steps to install and configure Git on a Debian 10 server. As one of the most popular version control systems currently available, Git is a common choice among open-source and other collaborative software projects. Many project's files are maintained in a Git repository, and sites like GitHub, GitLab, and Bitbucket help to facilitate software development project sharing and collaboration.


How to install Git on Debian / Ubuntu Linux System ?

1. Use the apt package management tools to update your local package index and then download and install Git:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

2. You can confirm that you have installed Git correctly by running the following command:

$ git --version

Install the Brackets Code Editor on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Guide ?

This article covers how you can install Brackets code editor on Ubuntu OS via either the command line or the GUI. Brackets is a powerful text editor focused on web development and especially on the frontend.


Features of Brackets code editor:
  • Cross-platform: It has binaries for Windows, Linux, and macOS. This makes the transition to Linux easy if you come from another system.
  • Open Source: With an open code, you can examine it. And above all, you will not have license problems.
  • Support extensions: Supports many different extensions that help even more with the functionality of the program.
  • Preprocessor Support: Work with preprocessors (LESS and SCSS) in a whole new way.
  • Live Preview: Get a real-time connection to your browser.
  • Inline Editors: Instead of jumping between file tabs, Brackets lets you Open a window into the code you care about most.

Install Timeshift on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Procedure ?

This article covers how to install Timeshift utility on Linux Mint system. Timeshift help in creating the backups of your precious data. Also,it is a fabulous tool that is used for the backup & restoration of the Linux operating system, it takes incremental backup after the first initial complete backup. TImeshit creates filesystem snapshots using Rsync or BTRFS. It has a nice GUI as well as support for CLI.

Install Tor Browser on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and configure the latest Tor browser version on LinuxMint 20 system. In fact, now using the tor browser, you can browse privately and securely and visit all websites blocked by your ISP providers.


How to install Tor on Ubuntu 21.04 ?

1. We access the terminal in Ubuntu 21.04 and install Tor with the following command:

$ sudo apt install tor 

2. Install the browser itself with the following command:

$ sudo apt install torbrowser-launcher 


How to Remove Tor browser from Debian / Ubuntu / Linux Mint ?

If you are not happy with the Tor browser (installed via APT), you can remove it using the command below:

$ sudo apt purge torbrowser-launcher

If you installed it using Flatpak via software center, you can easily uninstall it from there. If you installed it from terminal, type in the following command:

$ flatpak uninstall com.github.micahflee.torbrowser-launcher

Rkhunter for Scanning Backdoors, Rootkits, and Local Exploits in Your Ubuntu Linux System - How to use it ?

This article covers an easy procedure to install rkhunter, configure, scan the system and view log to identify actual backdoor, rootkits, and local exploits. In fact, Rkhunter (Rootkit Hunter) is an open-source Unix/Linux based scanner tool for Linux systems released under GPL that scans backdoors, rootkits, and local exploits on your systems. It scans hidden files, wrong permissions set on binaries, suspicious strings in the kernel, and so on. 

To scan the entire Linux  file system, run the Rkhunter command as a root user:

$ rkhunter --check

Install PHP 8.0 on Debian / Linux Mint - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PHP 8.0 on Debian 10. To verify the installed version of PHP, use the php command below:

$ php -v


How to install PHP 7.x extensions ?

The following syntax is used to install PHP 7.x extensions:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.x-extension

or

$ sudo apt-get install php-extension


To install the most commonly used PHP 7.x extensions by running the command in the terminal:

for PHP 7.4,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.4-mysql php7.4-mbstring php7.4-xml php7.4-bcmath php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-zip

for PHP 7.3,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.3-mysql php7.3-mbstring php7.3-xml php7.3-bcmath php7.3-curl php7.3-gd php7.3-zip

for PHP 7.2,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql php7.2-mbstring php7.2-xml php7.2-bcmath php7.2-curl php7.2-gd php7.2-zip

for PHP 7.1,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.1-mysql php7.1-mbstring php7.1-xml php7.1-bcmath php7.1-curl php7.1-gd php7.1-zip

for PHP 7.0,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.0-mysql php7.0-mbstring php7.0-xml php7.0-bcmath php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-zip

Add and Remove Users in Debian 10 system - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can easily remove or add a new user to your Debian 10 system. One of the most basic tasks that you should know how to do on a fresh Linux server is add and remove users. 

In order to add and delete users on Debian, you need to have sudo rights, or to belong to the sudo group.

To check your sudo rights, run the following command:

$ sudo -v

If no error messages appear, you are good to go, otherwise ask your system administrator to provide you with sudo rights.


How to add a user using useradd ?

Run the following command:

$ sudo useradd <username>

To assign a password to the user, you can use the -p flag but it is not recommended as other users will be able to see the password.

To assign a password to a user, use the passwd command:

$ sudo passwd <username>

Install TeamViewer on AlmaLinux 8 / Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily install TeamViewer on AlmaLinux 8. With TeamViewer you can control computer systems running Linux, Windows and Mac OS remotely as if you were sitting right in front of that system. It also provides a spontaneous support to unattended computers such as servers.

Install Dropbox on Centos 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install Dropbox on the CentOS system and sync your local files and folders with Dropbox cloud storage. Dropbox is a useful file-sharing and syncing service that lets you sync files between different machines over the Internet for free. It's very useful for backing up your important documents, pictures, MP3 files, video files, and other data.

Add a User to Sudoers on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to add users into the sudoers group. Also you will learn how to edit rules in the sudoers configuration file through the command. You can customize the sudoers file based on the user requirements. Sudo stands for superuser do. Sudo is a command used in Unix-like systems to allow a regular user to execute a program as another user. In most cases, it is the root user.

The sudo command allows authorized users to perform commands as another user, which is by default the root user. 

This option gives you administrator-level permissions to run programs on your machine. It is an alternative to using the su command.

Install Cockpit on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can easily install Cockpit on your CentOS system and manage other Linux servers. With Cockpit, you can have a quick glance at the performance of all your added servers. Also, you can monitor system resources, start and stop services, shut down the system, install updates, view network activity (send/received). create or remove user accounts, access Terminal, and much more on the remote servers. Cockpit helps to save a lot of time by letting the administrators manage the remote servers that are spread across the network using a lightweight and intuitive interface. 


Benefits of Cockpit in our GNU/Linux servers:

  • It consists of systemd service manager for ease.
  • It has a Journal log viewer to perform troubleshoots and log analysis.
  • Storage setup including LVM was never easier before.
  • Basic Network configuration can be applied with Cockpit
  • We can easily add and remove local users and manage multiple servers.


To Install  and enable Cockpit packages from repository, run the command:

$ sudo yum install cockpit

Type "y" and it will start downloading and installing the required packages.

To enable the Cockpit with the following command:

# sudo systemctl start cockpit

or

$ sudo systemctl enable --now cockpit.socket


To confirm the status of Cockpit, run the command:

# sudo systemctl status cockpit

Migrate from CentOS 8 To Rocky Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily migrate to Rocky Linux 8.4 from CentOS 8. Rocky Linux is a community enterprise operating system designed to be 100% compatible with RedHat Enterprise Linux. Rocky Linux dev team has created a migration script called migrate2rocky to easily convert an existing CentOS 8 system to Rocky Linux 8.


To Upgrade the current CentOS 8 Linux system to latest available version, run the command:

$ sudo dnf --refresh upgrade

After update is completed, Reboot your system:

$ sudo reboot

Install bashtop on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install the "bashtop" utility on your Linux Mint 20 system. Bashtop is a command-line based resource monitor written in bash, which depicts usage and statistics for the CPU processor(s), RAM, hard disks, network sources, and other running processes. It also contains a customizable menu and a fully responsive terminal user interface. 

Now, you will be able to use this utility for monitoring the resource usage statistics on your system. 


To Run or start Bashtop application, run one of the following commands.

# bashtop
# bpytop

Install the Brackets Code Editor on Linux Mint 20 - Best Method ?

This article covers the process of installing Brackets on a Linux Mint 20 system. Once this code editor is installed on your system, you can conveniently use it for professional-level frontend development. 

Brackets is a modern open-source code editor for HTML, CSS and JavaScript that’s built-in HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It has two great features: quick edit and live preview. It was created for front end developers and designers and has a very attractive interface. Brackets is developed by Adobe and is focused on web designers and front-end developers.


To Install Brackets Code Editor on Ubuntu:

1. make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install Brackets Code Editor.

$ sudo snap install brackets --classic

Disable SELinux on CentOS 7 - How to do it ?

This article covers method to permanently disable SELinux on CentOS 7. SELinux, also known as Security-Enhanced Linux, is a security feature embedded in the Linux kernel. SELinux leverages Mandatory Access controls (MAC) to confine users to certain rules and policies and prevents them from performing unauthorized tasks on the Linux system as specified by the IT administrator

To Check SELinux status, simply run the command:

# sestatus

Install Flatpak on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers the installation steps of Flatpak on the CentOS 8 system. With Flatpak, users can easily install new packages or applications from the flathub repository in an isolated space.

Flatpak is a package management system that aims to enable  users and developers to install and manage software packages on Linux systems regardless of the Linux distribution, runtime, dependencies and the type of package management. A flatpak application runs in a sandboxed environment. This is an isolated environment that is bundled with all the dependencies, libraries and everything that is needed for the app to run smoothly. 


How to Enable Flatpak in Red Hat / CentOS / Fedora ?

For RedHat / CentOS 8 and Fedora 22 and later versions, invoke the command below to enable flatpak:

$ sudo dnf install flatpak

For earlier versions of Red Hat and CentOS use the YUM package manager:

$ sudo yum install flatpak

Install qbittorrent on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the process of Installing qBittorrent on Ubuntu 20.04. For more information, visit their official site https://www.qbittorrent.org.


Main feautures of qBittorrent:

  • An interface similar to uTorrent
  • DHT, peer exchange, and complete encryption are all supported by this BitTorrent client.
  • It has a well-integrated search engine.
  • It also has UPnP port forwarding and NAT-PMP capabilities.
  • You can also use the qBittorrent Web interface to control it remotely.
  • A search engine that is well-integrated and expandable.
  • IPv6 compliant.

Install GIMP on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the different methods to install GIMP on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Also, we have also elaborated on how to launch and remove GIMP from the system. With GIMP, you can perform almost any image editing task, from the simplest task to the most complex image manipulation technique.  Gimp can be used for photo retouching, image composition, and image authoring.


How to remove GIMP on Debian / Ubuntu ?

To completely remove the GIMP package from your system, run the following command:

$ sudo apt purge gimp
$ sudo apt clean

Next, remove the ~/.gimp directory in your home directory to get rid of the profile settings.

Install Brave Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers different methods of installation of brave browser software on Ubuntu. 


Main features of Brave web browser:

  • Search – Choose default search engine – Google, Bing, Yahoo, DuckDuckGo e.t.c.
  • Fast Browsing – According to its creators, Brave loads pages three times as fast out of the box with nothing to install, learn or manage.
  • Easy to switch to Brave – It's easy to import your settings from your old browser. You can do it during the welcome tour or later through the menus.
  • Support your favorite sites with Brave Rewards – with Brave Rewards activated, you can support the content creators you love at the amount that works for you.
  • Privacy and Security – Brave fights malware and prevents tracking, keeping your information safe and secure. Clearing of browsing data and a built-in password manager.
  • Form autofill which saves you time when working with forms.
  • Extensions/Plugins – Brave Desktop now supports most of the Chrome extensions in the chrome web store.

Install Thunderbird on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers the three different methodologies of installing Thunderbird in Ubuntu. Thunderbird is available for various distributions like macOS, Linux, Microsoft Windows etc. thereby making it a cross platform application.

To Install Thunderbird through apt:

1. First update Ubuntu repository,

$ sudo apt update

2. Now, to install Thunderbird issue the following in terminal,

$ sudo apt install thunderbird

3. Lastly, Thunderbird can accessed either through System's main Menu or from terminal (Run "thunderbird" in terminal to run the application).

Change Font Type, Size, and Color on Debian 10 Terminal

This article covers how to change the font type, size, and color of a Debian Terminal and give a new look and feel to your Terminal text and background. If you spend a lot of time working in Terminal on your Linux system, you probably may not be comfortable with its default font size. Too small font size sometimes can give a burden to your eyes. However, the Terminal application in Linux gives you the flexibility to customize its look and feel to suit your style and need.

Install Notepadqq on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install notepadqq on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. Notepad is a similar copy of the most popular editor notepad++. Basically, Notepadqq is a text editor that is designed by developers for the developers. It supports more than 100 languages and useful to note down daily tasks.


How to Install Notepadqq on Debian / Ubuntu?

1. Add Repository

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:notepadqq-team/notepadqq  

2. Update Repository

$ sudo apt-get update  

3. Install Notepadqq

$ sudo apt-get install notepadqq  

4. After installation, we can access it either via terminal by typing notepadqq or by searching from the application manager. Run Notepadqq:

$ notepadqq 

Install Elasticsearch on Ubuntu 20.04 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install elasticsearch in the stable version of Ubuntu 20.04. Now you can use the hosted elasticsearch server for doing searches.

If your application generates a huge amount of data and the search procedures are slow, then using elasticsearch will be best.

Install Nmap on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers methods to install Nmap on your CentOS machine. Nmap is a handy utility for network scanning and security auditing. Nmap contains variety of options for scanning remote hosts. Have a look at the 15 Mostly Used Nmap Commands for Scanning Remote Hosts.



How to Install Nmap on Debian / Ubuntu ?

1. Install Nmap on Ubuntu by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install nmap

2. The system prompts you to confirm the installation by typing y.

3. After the installation is finished, verify the installed version of Nmap by entering:

$ nmap –version

Install Go on CentOS 8 - Best Method ?

This article covers how to install Go on CentOS 8. Go language was designed to resolve the common criticisms of other languages while maintaining their positive characteristics and most widely used for writing servers these days.


Run the below command to see the version of the Go language:

$ go version

Install Java on Debian 9 System - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and manage multiple Java versions on Debian 9 system. Also we described how to set default Java version and also how to uninstall Java once it is no longer needed.

Basically, the programming language Java and the Java virtual machine or JVM are used extensively and required for many kinds of software.


To install Default JRE/JDK Java on Debian.

1. First, update the package index.

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Next, install Java. Specifically, this command will install the Java Runtime Environment (JRE).

$ sudo apt-get install default-jre

When prompted, type y for yes to confirm the installation.

3. You can install the JDK with the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install default-jdk

Install Kdenlive on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install Kdenlive video editor on a Linux Mint 20 system. Now you can use it very conveniently for producing professional quality edited videos. Kdenlive is a free and opensource video editing software, it is built on Qt and  KDE Framework libraries, and MLT Framework is used for video processing in Kdenlive and this is part of the official KDE project.


How to Install Kdenlive 20.04 in Ubuntu 20.04 / LinuxMint /Elementary OS ?

1. Add the official PPA

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:kdenlive/kdenlive-stable

2. Update the apt repository

$ sudo apt update

3. Install Kdenlive 20.04

$ sudo apt install kdenlive

Install Brave Browser on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Brave browser on a Linux Mint 20 system. Brave is a free to use and open-source web browser developed by Brave Software, Inc. Its source code is based on the Chromium browser. Brave is designed to block ads and website trackers by default and guarantee privacy.


How to Launch Brave Web Browser on Linux Mint 20 ?

After installation you can use the terminal or Desktop Environment Launcher to start brave web browser on Linux Mint 20 Desktop machine:

$ brave-browser

Use Shutdown Command in Linux - On Ubuntu | Debian ?

This article covers how to use of shutdown command in Linux with different arguments. Learn more by visit the shutdown man page.

On Unix-like operating systems, the shutdown command shuts down or reboots the system.

The shutdown command brings the system down in a secure way. All logged-in users are notified that the system is going down, and login operations are blocked. It is possible to shut the system down immediately, or after a specified delay.

All processes are first notified that the system is going down by the signal SIGTERM. This gives programs like vi time to save the file being edited, mail and news processing programs a chance to exit cleanly, etc.


Good Linux commands:

  • halt — Stop the computer.
  • poweroff — Stop the computer.
  • reboot — Stop the computer.
  • wall — Send a message to all logged-in users.

Install and Configure VNC on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and configure VNC on Debian Linux System. Also, you will learn how to connect it from Linux, MacOS and Windows local system and manage your Debian 9 server easily using a graphic interface.
VNC (Virtual Network Computing) is a technology for remote desktop sharing. VNC enables the visual desktop display of one computer to be remotely viewed and controlled over a network connection. It is similar to MSTSC on windows. It uses the Remote Frame Buffer protocol (RFB) to remotely control another computer.


To install VNC and XFCE on Debian, run the following commands:

$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install xfce4 xfce4-goodies gnome-icon-theme tightvncserver


To Create a VNC User on Debian:
1. Create a user named vnc by using this command.

$ adduser vnc
2. Install sudo by executing this command. We will need to add vnc user to sudo group.
$ apt-get install sudo
3. Now, Add vnc user to sudo group, it will give permission to vnc user to act like a root user and execute root command.
$ gpasswd -a vnc sudo
Adding user vnc to group sudo
4. switch to a vnc user for further operations.
$ su - vnc

Install Node.js and npm on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install nodejs and npm on your Debian system with different methods. Also, you will learn how to uninstall npm from your Debian system. Node.js is a JavaScript platform for general-purpose programming that allows users to build asynchronous network applications quickly. By leveraging JavaScript on both the front and backend, Node.js can make web application development more consistent and integrated.


To Install the Official Debian Node.js Package:

1. To get Node.js from the default Debian software repository, you can use the apt package manager. First, refresh your local package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the Node.js package, and npm the Node Package Manager:

$ sudo apt install nodejs npm

3. To verify that the install was successful, run the node command with the -v flag to get the version:

$ node -v


To Remove Node.js:

1. To remove either of these versions, type the following:

$ sudo apt remove nodejs

2. To uninstall a version of Node.js that you have enabled using nvm, first determine whether or not the version you would like to remove is the current active version:

$ nvm current

3. If the version you are targeting is not the current active version, you can run:

$ nvm uninstall node_version

This command will uninstall the selected version of Node.js.

4. If the version you would like to remove is the current active version, you must first deactivate nvm to enable your changes:

$ nvm deactivate

Different ways to Check Debian Version ?

This article covers how to check OS version using different methods. You can get more information on Debian releases at official site of the Debian Releases

The easiest way on how to check what Debian version you are running is to simply read a contents from /etc/issue file. Execute the command:

# cat /etc/issue

Also, you can check for /etc/os-release release file:

# cat /etc/os-release

Change Hostname on Debian 9 - Do it Now ?

This article covers how to change the hostname on Debian 9 system using different methods. Basically, the hostname is a label that is assigned during the initial server setup and it is used to identify and easily distinguish one server from another. 

To check your current hostname:

$ hostname

And to check your Fully Qualified Domain name (FQDN) you can run the following command instead:

$ hostname -f


How to Change your Debian hostname ?

1. To change your hostname, we can simply run the following command:

$ hostname new.hostname.com

2. So in order to change our hostname permanently, you will need to update this file. You can open it with your favorite text editor, for example:

$ nano /etc/hostname

3. Change the hostname, save the file and exit the text editor.

Install Rhythmbox on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the best method of installing the Rhythmbox audio playing application on a Linux Mint 20 system. Rhythmbox is a free and open-source audio player that plays and helps organize digital audio files. the features of Rhythmbox like Music playback, gapless playback, music importing, audio CD burning and SoundCloud support. 


How to remove Rhythmbox from Ubuntu?

You can also remove it by downgrading the player via command window at the same time:

$ sudo apt-get install ppa-purge
$ sudo ppa-purge ppa:ubuntuhandbook1/apps

If it fails to remove, you can also remove it from the Software and Update utility on Ubuntu.


Main Features of Rhythmbox:

  • Fixed Critical Errors and Internal Bugs.
  • Fixed Rhythmbox crashed during import.
  • Command option added.
  • Very good layout and design.
  • Play queue UI improvements feature added.
  • Added Expand playing icon in the entry view
  • Fixed hangs for a special file type.
  • Fixed Open settings Crash for this app.
  • Fixed Keyboard navigation tab when searching an entry widget.

Top 15 SCP Command Examples in Linux

This article covers some useful SCP commands to copy files/folders between hosts in the network. Linux administrator should be familiar with CLI environment. Since GUI mode in Linux servers is not a common to be installed. SSH may the most popular protocol to enable Linux administrator to manage the servers via remote in secure way. Built-in with SSH command there is SCP command. SCP is used to copy file(s) between servers in secure way.



SCP Basic syntax:

scp [options] username1@source_host:/location1/file1 username2@destination_host:/location2/file2

Some common scp command options include:

  • –P – Specify server SSH port.
  • –p – Preserve the timestamp for modification and access (note the lower-case).
  • –q – Quiet mode, don’t display progress or messages (will still show errors).
  • –C – Compress the data during transmission.
  • –r – Recursive – include subdirectories and their contents.

Top 5 Linux Distros for Gaming

This article covers the leading gaming distros for Linux. Pop!_OS tops our list of the best gaming distros available in the market for Linux operating system users. Ubuntu, being an efficient and overall optimal operating system that ensures execution of any task, comes second on our list. Whereas GamerOS, Fedora Games Spin, and Manjaro Gaming Edition follow the suit. The here listed paradigms are found and proven to be the best gaming distros for Linux by many reviewers and users. From Pop!_OS to Manjaro Gaming Edition, any adopted distro is ensured of providing an efficient, seamless, and enhanced gaming experience to the Linux gamers. 

However, many other distros too lead the market such as Drauger OS, Lakka, etc. Still, the distros listed in this guide have proven to outperform their peers numerous times and thereby are listed here as the top five best Linux Distros for Gaming.

Top 5 Source Code Repositories

This article covers the top-performing code repositories which are all Git-based. Git was created by Linus Torvalds in 2005 for the development of the Linux kernel, and henceforth it can be safely concluded that all the discussed source code repositories support and are compatible with not just Linux but the rest of the operating systems too. Any source code developed or created in any of the operating systems can seamlessly be managed in GitHub, BitBucket, SourceForge, Assembla, and CloudForge. Along with that, the paradigms are top-rated by users and many reviewers around the globe. 

Therefore, to manage the software application development processes, any of the discussed paradigms can be safely adopted and is assured of providing optimal performance and expected services.

Enable SSH on Ubuntu 18.04 System - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install and Enable SSH service on Ubuntu 18.04 system. You can now login remotely to your server using any SSH client from Linux or Windows system. To increase security of SSH connection by Changing default SSH port to custom one on you system. Get more details about SSH server from official SSH site.

When establishing a remote connection between a client and a server, a primary concern is ensuring security. For Linux users, the best practice of accessing and managing your server remotely is through the cryptographic protocol known as Secure Shell (SSH).


How to Enable SSH on Ubuntu ?

1. To install SSH, first update the package repository cache with:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Now install the OpenSSH software package by entering:

$ sudo apt-get install openssh-server

If prompted, type in your password and press y (yes) to permit the installation.

3. To verify the installation was successful and SSH is running use the command:

$ sudo service ssh status

The confirmation message that you are looking for is: Active: active (running).

Configure SSH Keys on Debian 9 System - How to do it ?

This article covers how to create a new SSH key pair and set up an SSH key-based authentication. You can set up same key to multiple remote hosts. Also, you will learn how to disable SSH password authentication. SSH stands for Secure Shell and works as a method to establish remote connections between computers. SSH is usually used to log in and manage a remote server.

SSH key pairs can be used to authenticate a client to a server. The client creates a key pair and then uploads the public key to any remote server it wishes to access. This is placed in a file called authorized_keys within the ~/. ssh directory in the user account's home directory on the remote server.


To Disable Password Authentication:

Disabling password authentication is a security precaution. It prevents brute-force attacks against attempting to log in to the server.

1. Start by logging into the remote server:

$ ssh user@hostname

2. Next, edit the sshd_config file in a text editor of your choice (we are using nano):

$ sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

3. Find and modify the following lines to look as follows:

PasswordAuthentication no
ChallengeResponseAuthentication no
UsePAM no

4. Write the changes, then exit the editor. Restart the SSH service by entering the following:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh

Install Git on Debian 9 System - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Git on your Debian server and how to Setting up Git. With versioning tools such as Git, you can track changes, revert to previous stages, and branch to create alternate versions of files and directories.


How to Install Git with Default Packages on Debian?

1. First, use the apt package management tools to update your local package index. 

After updating the system, you can download and install Git:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

2. You can confirm that you have installed Git correctly by running the following command:

git --version

Install MySQL on Debian 9 Stretch - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install mysql 8.0 and Secure MySQL on Debian 9 server. MySQL, the world's most popular open-source relational database management system is not available in the default Debian's repositories. MariaDB is the default database system in Debian 10. 

The MySQL APT repository provides a simple and convenient way to install and update MySQL products with the latest software packages using Apt. The MySQL APT repository provides MySQL packages for the following Linux distros: Debian.


How to Uninstall MySQL from Debian?

To remove MySQL, Run the following commands:

$ sudo apt-get remove --purge mysql-server mysql-client mysql-common -y
$ sudo apt-get autoremove -y
$ sudo apt-get autoclean
rm -rf /etc/mysql
sudo find / -iname 'mysql*' -exec rm -rf {} \;


How to secure MySQL ?

MySQL comes with a command we can use to perform a few security-related updates on our new install. Let's run it now:

$ mysql_secure_installation

This will ask you for the MySQL root password that you set during installation. Type it in and press ENTER. Then answer a series of yes or no prompts. 

Secure Nginx with Let's Encrypt on Ubuntu 18.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install certbot client, obtain Let's Encrypt SSL certificate and configured to Nginx to use the certificates. Also, you will learn how to set up a cronjob for automatic certificate renewal.

Let's Encrypt is a Certificate Authority (CA) that provides an easy way to obtain and install free TLS/SSL certificates, thereby enabling encrypted HTTPS on web servers. 


To Install Certbot on Ubuntu:

1. First, add the repository.

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot

You'll need to press ENTER to accept.

2. Install Certbot's Nginx package with apt:

$ sudo apt install python-certbot-nginx

Secure Nginx with Let's Encrypt on Debian 9 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install certbot client, obtain Let's Encrypt SSL certificate and configured to Nginx to use the certificates. Also you will learn how to set up a cronjob for automatic certificate renewal.


To install the Certbot software on Debian:

1. Update your package list.

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, install the dependencies for the python3-certbot-nginx package, which include the python3-acme, python3-certbot, python3-mock, python3-openssl, python3-pkg-resources, python3-pyparsing, and python3-zope.interface packages.

$ sudo apt install python3-acme python3-certbot python3-mock python3-openssl python3-pkg-resources python3-pyparsing python3-zope.interface

3. Finally, install the python3-certbot-nginx package:

$ sudo apt install python3-certbot-nginx

Configure Nginx Server Blocks on Debian 9 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to create an Nginx server blocks to host multiple website on a single Debian machine. Nginx is a very popular high-performance web server that combines the power of reverse proxying, load balancing, caching and so much more. Depending on how it is configured, it can act as a reverse proxy as well as a load balancer for HTTP/HTTPS servers.


To install Nginx on Debian:

1. Update the Debian 10 Package Repository.

$  sudo apt update -y

2. Install Nginx on Debian 10.

$ sudo apt install nginx -y

3. To check the status of Nginx, execute:

$ systemctl status nginx

Install Nginx on Debian 9 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Nginx on your Debian 9 server. Now you can deploy your applications and use Nginx as a web or proxy server. Nginx is more resource-friendly than Apache in most cases and can be used as a web server or reverse proxy.


To install Nginx on Debian:

1. Update our local package index so that we have access to the most recent package listings:

$ sudo apt update

2. We can now install nginx:

$ sudo apt install nginx

When prompted to confirm the installation, hit Enter to proceed. After that, apt will install Nginx and any required dependencies to your server.


Profiles available for Nginx:

  • Nginx Full: This profile opens both port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic) and port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).
  • Nginx HTTP: This profile opens only port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic).
  • Nginx HTTPS: This profile opens only port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).

Install phpMyAdmin with Apache on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step by step process to Install and Configure phpMyAdmin with Apache on Debian 9 system. The phpMyAdmin utility is a graphical database management tool. By installing phpMyAdmin, you no longer need to use a default command-line interface to manage your databases.


To install wget:

1. Access your terminal window, and update your software package lists using the following command:

$ sudo apt update

2. The wget utility allows you to download files directly from the terminal window. Enter the following command to install the wget tool:

$ sudo apt install wget -y


To install Apache on Debian:

1. Open a terminal window, and install Apache by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt install apache2 -y

2. Enter the following command to make sure the Apache service is running:

$ systemctl status apache2

In the output, you should see a green status that says active (running).


To Install PHP on Debian 10:

1. Install core PHP packages and Apache and MySQL plugins with the following command:

$ sudo apt install php php-cgi php-mysqli php-pear php-mbstring php-gettext libapache2-mod-php php-common php-phpseclib php-mysql -y

2. Once the installation process is complete, verify that PHP has been installed:

$ php --version

The system displays the current version of PHP, along with the date of the release.

Install MariaDB on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install MariaDB on Ubuntu 18.04 server. Also, you will learn how to secure and connect to MariaDB server. MariaDB is an open-source relational database management system, commonly used as an alternative for MySQL as the database portion of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. Basically, It is intended to be a drop-in replacement for MySQL.


How to Install MariaDB ?

1. To install it, update the package index on your server with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2, Then install the package:

$ sudo apt install mariadb-server

Install MariaDB on Debian 9 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install MariaDB version on a Debian 10 server, and verify that it is running and has a safe initial configuration.


How To Install MariaDB on Debian 10 ?

1. To install MariaDB, update the package index on your server with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the package:

$ sudo apt install mariadb-server

3. To Configure MariaDB, Run the security script:

$ sudo mysql_secure_installation

Configure Apache Virtual Hosts on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Configure up Apache Virtual Hosts on a Debian 10 server. Using Apache Virtual Hosts you can host multiple domains on a single server. 

Apache will break its functionality and components into individual units so you can customize independently. The basic unit that describes an individual site or domain is called a virtual host.


How to configure Apache Virtual Hosts on Debian ?

Apache is a free and open source web server used web server in the world, and it is commonly used in Linux servers.

To install Apache:

1. Check whether apache is already installed and running on your server. You can do this with the following command:

$ dpkg -l apache2

2. If apache is not installed, you can do this by running the following commands. First, make sure that the system repositories are up to date:

$ apt-get update

3. To install the Apache web server, execute the following:

$ apt-get install apache2

4. After the installation is complete, you should enable Apache to start automatically upon server reboot with:

$ systemctl enable apache2

5. You can also check the status of your Apache service with the following command:

$ systemctl status apache2

If you want to secure your website with an SSL certificate, you can generate and Install a free Letsencrypt SSL certificate.

Secure Apache with Let's Encrypt on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to use certbot client of Let’s Encrypt to obtain SSL certificate for you domain.

To set these up DNS records for your server, you can follow these instructions for adding domains and then these instructions for creating DNS records:

  • An A record with your_domain pointing to your server’s public IP address.
  • An A record with www.your_domain pointing to your server’s public IP address.


To install Certbot as a snap on Debian

You must first have snapd installed on your server. 

snapd is a daemon required to install, use, and manage snaps. 

Installing the snapd package will also install the snap command on your server.

1. To install snapd, update your local package index if you've not done so recently:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the snapd package:

$ sudo apt install snapd

After running this command, you'll be prompted to confirm that you want to install snapd and its dependencies.

Do so by pressing Y and then ENTER.

3. Next, use the snap command to install the core snap. This will install some dependencies on your server that are needed for any snap you install, including the Certbot snap:

$ sudo snap install core

4. Then refresh the core snap. Doing so will ensure that you have the latest versions of snapd and its dependencies installed:

$ sudo snap refresh core

Following that, you can install the certbot snap with the following command.

5. Because Certbot must be allowed to edit certain configuration files in order to correctly set up certificates, this command includes the --classic option. This confinement level allows any snaps installed under it the same access to system resources as traditional packages:

$ sudo snap install --classic certbot

6. Create a symbolic link to this file in the /usr/bin/ directory to ensure that you can run the certbot command anywhere on your system:

$ sudo ln -s /snap/bin/certbot /usr/bin/certbot

Install WordPress with Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install WordPress on Ubuntu 20.04 with Nginx HTTP Server and Let's Encrypt wildcard SSL Certificates. WordPress is a free, open-source, and most popular content management system that allows you to create a blog on the Internet.


You can install nginx, MariaDB, PHP and all the required PHP extensions with the following command:

$ apt-get install nginx mariadb-server php php-curl php-mysql php-gd php-intl php-mbstring php-soap php-xml php-xmlrpc php-zip php-fpm -y

Once the LEMP server is installed, start the Nginx and MariaDB service with the following command:

$ systemctl start nginx
$ systemctl start mariadb


Nginx's inbuilt features includes:

  • Nginx is built to work on low memory usage.
  • It can support extremely high concurrency.
  • Is Ipv6 enabled.
  • Supports reverse proxy with efficient caching.
  • Provides an inbuilt load balancer.
  • Supports WebSockets.
  • Optimized handling of index files, static files and provides auto indexing.
  • Is accompanied with FastCGI for efficient caching.

Install Discord on Linux (Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint) - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Discord on any Linux Distribution such as Linux Mint 20, Ubuntu 20.04, and Debian 10. Also, we explained a quick method of uninstalling this Discord platform from your Linux system.

You can either uninstall it from the software center or use this command in the terminal:

$ sudo apt remove discord


If you have enabled Snap support on your Linux distribution, you can use the following command to install it:

$ sudo snap install discord

If you want to remove it, you can use the snap command to uninstall it:

$ sudo snap remove discord

Install PHP (7.3, 7.2) on Debian 9 Stretch - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PHP 7.3 on Debian 9 (Stretch) and Debian 8 (Jessie). With PHP 7.3 comes a number of bug fixes, new functionalities and features as well as a number of deprecations.


To Set Default PHP Version on Debian ?

You can set the default PHP version with the below command incase your system has multiple PHP versions. Change php7.3 with the version you want to set as the default PHP version:

$ sudo update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php7.3

Install Apache on Debian 9 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install an Apache web server on your Debian 9 server. The Apache HTTP server is the most widely-used web server in the world. It provides many powerful features including dynamically loadable modules, robust media support, and extensive integration with other popular software.


How to Install Apache ?

1. Let's begin by updating the local package index to reflect the latest upstream changes:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then, install the apache2 package:

$ sudo apt install apache2

 After confirming the installation, apt will install Apache and all required dependencies.


The Apache profiles begin with WWW:

1. WWW: This profile opens only port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic).

2. WWW Cache: This profile opens only port 8080 (sometimes used for caching and web proxies).

3. WWW Full: This profile opens both port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic) and port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).

4. WWW Secure: This profile opens only port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).


How to Manage Apache Process ?

To stop your web server, type:

$ sudo systemctl stop apache2

To start the web server when it is stopped, type:

$ sudo systemctl start apache2

To stop and then start the service again, type:

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

If you are simply making configuration changes, Apache can often reload without dropping connections. To do this, use this command:

$ sudo systemctl reload apache2

By default, Apache is configured to start automatically when the server boots. If this is not what you want, disable this behavior by typing:

$ sudo systemctl disable apache2

To re-enable the service to start up at boot, type:

$ sudo systemctl enable apache2

Apache should now start automatically when the server boots again.

Create a Sudo User on Debian - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to create a user with sudo privileges. You can now log in to your Debian server with this user account and use sudo to run administrative commands. Basically, In linux sudo is masterpiece to allow users to execute commands with another user's privileges, default is root user.


How to Create a new user account in Debian ?

Create a new user account using the adduser command. Don't forget to replace username with your desired user name:

$ adduser username


To Add the user to the sudo group

Use the usermod command:

$ usermod -aG sudo username

Install LEMP Stack on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to install a LEMP stack on a Debian 10 server using MariaDB as the database management system. The LEMP software stack is a group of software that can be used to serve dynamic web pages and web applications. The name "LEMP" is an acronym that describes a Linux operating system, with an (E)Nginx web server. The backend data is stored in a MariaDB database and the dynamic processing is handled by PHP.

Although this software stack typically includes MySQL as the database management system, some Linux distributions — including Debian — use MariaDB as a drop-in replacement for MySQL.


To install Nginx Web Server.

1. Run the apt commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nginx

On Debian 10, Nginx is configured to start running upon installation.

Install LAMP Stack on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install LAMP on Debian server along with PHPMyAdmin to manage your database. LAMP stands for Linux OS, with Apache web server, Data store in a MySql or MariaDB database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To install Apache on Debian:

1. Run the following command:

$ apt-get install apache2

2. To restart your web server by typing the following command:

$ service apache2 restart

Create a Sudo User on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to create a user with sudo privileges. You can now log in to your Ubuntu server with this user account and use sudo to run administrative commands.

Basically, The sudo command provides a mechanism for granting administrator privileges, ordinarily only available to the root user, to normal users. 

Clear RAM Cache, Buffer, and Swap Space on Linux System - How to do it ?

This article covers how to clear the cache and buffer memory of the physical memory along with clearing the swap space when needed.

Every Linux System has three options to clear cache without interrupting any processes or services.


If you want to clear Swap space, you may like to run the below command.

$ swapoff -a && swapon -a


To Clear PageCache, dentries and inodes:

$ sync; echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches


To Clear PageCache only:

$ sync; echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches


To Clear dentries and inodes:

$ sync; echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

Securely Delete Files Using Shred Command in Debian 10 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to use the shred command in Debian 10 Buster system along with various command line options.

You have seen that how the shred command overwrites and deletes the files, making them hard to recover using any recovery tools.

Shred old data files for the same reason you shred old paper documents. 


Commands included in the secure-delete bundle:

1. srm is a secure rm, used to erase files by deleting them and overwriting their hard drive space.

2. sfill is a tool to overwrite all free space on your hard drive.

3. sswap is used to overwrite and cleanse your swap space.

4. sdmem is used to cleanse your RAM.


How to Shred a Single FIle ?

To shred a single file, we can use the following command.

The options we are using are:

i. u: Deallocate and remove the file after overwriting.

ii. v: Verbose option, so that shred tells us what it is doing.

iii. z: Performs a final overwrite with zeroes.

$ shred -uvz test.txt_01.txt

Here, shred overwrites the file four times by default.

The first three passes use random data, and the final pass uses zeroes, as we requested.

It then removes the file and overwrites some of the metadata in the inode.

Use the Who Command in Debian 10 - How to do it ?

This article covers the who command in Linux along with its some of the useful command line options.

Sometimes, while working on the command line, you might want to know more about logged in users.

There exists a command line utility who which you can use to access this kind of information.

Basically, the who command shows who all are logged in.

Here's its syntax:

$ who [OPTION]... [ FILE | ARG1 ARG2 ]


To access time of last system boot?

For this, use the -b command line option:

$ who -b

Install Synaptic Package Manager on Linux - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the synaptic package manager on a Linux distribution of your choice and hence make the package management process all the more easier.

Synaptic is a lightweight GUI front end to apt package management system used in Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint and many other Debian/Ubuntu based distributions.


Main Features of Synaptic Package Manager:

1. install, remove, and upgrade packages.

2. upgrade your whole system.

3. search and filter the list of available packages.

4. perform smart system upgrades.

5. fix broken package dependencies.

6. edit the list of used repositories (sources.list).

Install PlayOnLinux on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install PlayOnLinux on Ubuntu OS using two different ways.

You can opt for any installation method (command line or GUI-based method) that is most convenient for you.

PlayOnLinux will allow you to install your Windows-based software on different virtual drives, which means that there is no interaction between the different applications you install. 

So if something doesn't work right, you know it won't affect the rest of your stuff and they can easily uninstall it by removing the virtual drive.


To install PlayOnLinux on Ubuntu:

PlayOnLinux can be found in the Ubuntu software repositories, so you can get it from Ubuntu Software Center or install it with the following command:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install playonlinux

It is also recommended to install some dependencies that may be necessary:

# sudo apt-get install winbind
# sudo apt-get install unrar-free p7zip-full

Install Android File Transfer for Linux on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Android File Transfer for Linux on your Ubuntu distribution.

Now you can conveniently transfer files between your android phones and Linux system.
Android File Transfer is an MTP client tool that is used to transfer files from android devices to Linux OS and from Linux OS to Android devices.
It is similar to Android File Transfer that is available for Mac OS and has a very minimalistic and easy to use interface.

To Android file transfer for Linux:
1. Connect your Android device with your computer using a USB cable.

When prompted on Android device for allowing access to the device data, tap on Allow to allow access.
2. Launch Terminal by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T key shortcut.
Then you will need to update our system by adding the PPA to your list of software sources. For this, run the following command in Terminal:

$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/samoilov-lex/aftl-stable/ubuntu artful main"

3. Once completed, run the following command in Terminal to update the repository.

$ sudo apt-get update

4. After your local repository is updated, run the following command in Terminal to install Android file transfer:

$ sudo apt install android-file-transfer

Install Drupal on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to setup Drupal on Debian Linux System.

Drupal is a powerful CMS that allows you to design stunning websites and blogs with simple tools and drag and drop features in a matter of a few hours.
It offers flexibility in terms of customization of your site to meet your desired results.
You can easily get started with free templates before advancing to premium templates that have more features.

To Configure Apache 2.4:
1. Enable Apache's rewrite module. This module is necessary since Drupal 8 enables Clean URLs by default;

$ sudo a2enmod rewrite

2. Specify the rewrite conditions for your Drupal site’s document root in Apache's configuration file using the text editor of your choice.
If you installed and configured your Apache server using LAMP stack on Debian 10 guide, the configuration file for your site is located at /etc/apache2/sites-available/example.com.conf.
File: /etc/apache2/sites-available/example.com.conf:

<Directory /var/www/html/example.com/public_html>
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride All
        Require all granted
          RewriteEngine on
          RewriteBase /
          RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
          RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
          RewriteRule ^(.*)$ index.php?q=$1 [L,QSA]
</Directory>

3. Change the ownership of your site's document root from root to www-data. This allows you to install modules and themes, and to update Drupal, without being prompted for FTP credentials.

$ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html/example.com

4. Restart Apache so all changes are applied.

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

Install NextCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 with Apache - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install NextCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 with Apache (LAMP Stack). You can now upload your files and collaborate with your team members on NextCloud. This way you have full control of your data.
Nextcloud, a fork of ownCloud, is a file sharing server that permits you to store your personal content, like documents and pictures, in a centralized location, much like Dropbox.
The difference with Nextcloud is that all of its features are open-source.
It also returns the control and security of your sensitive data back to you, thus eliminating the use of a third-party cloud hosting service.

To install Nextcloud on Ubuntu:

1. To download the Nextcloud snap package and install it on the system, type:

$ sudo snap install nextcloud

2. The Nextcloud package will be downloaded and installed on your server. You can confirm that the installation process was successful by listing the changes associated with the snap:

$ snap changes nextcloud

Install Zabbix Agent on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the Zabbix Agent on a Ubuntu 20.04 system very conveniently.
You can ensure the successful installation of the Zabbix Agent by checking its Active status on your system. However, you can also uninstall it anytime you want.
Zabbix agent is installed on the remote host (target) to monitor the hard drive, memory processor, etc. The agent collects data and sends back to Zabbix Server.
Zabbix agents can use passive or active checks to pass information.
In passive check, Zabbix server (poller) requests an agent for certain information, and the agent sends back a value.
In the active check, the agent process all data and pushes it to the Zabbix server.
However, agent periodically connects the server to collect metric which needs to be monitored.


To Configure Zabbix agent:
Make necessary changes on the Zabbix Agent configuration file "/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf".
After making changes, Save the changes and exit the file.
Then restart Zabbix agent service to the changes to be effected.

$ sudo systemctl restart zabbix-agent


To Configure the firewall on Zabbix agent:
1. If you have UFW firewall enables, execute the commands:

$ sudo ufw allow 10050/tcp

2. Then reload the firewall

$ sudo ufw reload

3. And verify that the port has been opened or allowed on the firewall.

$ sudo ufw status

Install Code::Blocks on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to conveniently install the Code::Blocks IDE on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.

After installing this IDE on your system, you can easily use it for C, C++, and FORTRAN development.

You can even uninstall it anytime you want and that too very cleanly by following the uninstallation method of the Code::Blocks IDE.

To Install Code::Blocks IDE using APT:
Code::Blocks IDE is available on Ubuntu repositories and can be installed with the APT command.
1. First update your system.

$ sudo apt update

2. To install codeblock on Ubuntu , run the following command.

$ sudo apt install codeblocks

3. When prompted to continue, just type 'Y' and press ENTER to proceed.

To Remove Code::Blocks IDE from Linux system:

1. To remove codeblocks from ubuntu, run the following command.

$ sudo apt remove codeblocks

2. To complete remove codeblock and its associated configurations, run the following two commands.

$ sudo apt purge codeblocks
$ sudo apt autoremove

Install Podman on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Podman on your system. Podman is the drop-in replacement for Docker on the Red Hat/CentOS/Fedora environments. 

This new container technology improves on Docker by decentralizing the components necessary for container management. 

Instead of having a single daemon for everything, Podman uses individualized components that are only used when necessary. 

Another advantage of Podman is that it can work with pods, in similar fashion to Kubernetes. 


To install Podman with the command: 

$ sudo apt-get install podman -y

When the installation completes, verify the installation with the command: 

$ podman --version

Copy and Paste Text in the Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux Terminal - Step by Step ?

This article covers how you can copy and paste text in the Linux Terminal. This saves the time that spends in typing the long commands and text.

When you enter a long command into the Terminal window that you found on the web or in a document, you can save yourself some time by easily copying and pasting the command at the prompt.


To Copy and Paste Text into the Linux Terminal:

1. To begin, highlight the text of the command you want on the webpage or in the document you found. 

2. Press Ctrl + C to copy the text.

3. Press Ctrl + Alt + T to open a Terminal window, if one is not already open. Right-click at the prompt and select "Paste" from the popup menu.

4. The text you copied is pasted at the prompt. 

5. Press Enter to execute the command.

6. You can also copy text from the Terminal window to paste into other programs. 

7. Simply highlight the text, right-click on it, and select "Copy" from the popup menu. 

You can paste this text into a text editor, word processor, and so on.

Install Blender on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to install Blender on Ubuntu Systems. Blender 3D is a professional open-source 3D graphics and animation software. It has a rich feature set like animations, visual effects, 3D modeling, and motion graphics. 

It produces great results and is used in professional film production. 


To install Blender 3D on Ubuntu:

1. We need to update our Ubuntu 20.04 system before installing Blender 3D on it. This can be done with the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Now, we can install Blender 3D on our Ubuntu 20.04 system with the following command:

$ sudo apt install blender

During the installation of this software, you will be asked to provide confirmation for this action by typing in "y" and then pressing the Enter key.

Install Python 3.9 on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and compile Python3.9 using different methods, using PPA repo, compiling it from the source code, and installing it using the Linuxbrew tool.

We can now start using Python 3.9 for our projects.

Python is a high-level programming language, mostly used to write scripting and automation. It is a very popular language known for its simplicity and easy syntax. 

Python one of the best language for for artificial intelligence (AI).


To Install Python 3.9 on Ubuntu 20.04 using APT:

1. Update package list, type:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install software-properties-common package to easily manage distribution and independent software vendor software sources:

$ sudo apt install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa

3. Now install python 3.9 using apt command:

$ sudo apt-get install python3.9

4. The following command can help to identify the proper install location of Python:

$ which python3

The execution of the above command produces the following output on console:

/usr/bin/python3