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This article covers how you can easily remove or add a new user to your Debian 10 system. One of the most basic tasks that you should know how to do on a fresh Linux server is add and remove users. 

In order to add and delete users on Debian, you need to have sudo rights, or to belong to the sudo group.

To check your sudo rights, run the following command:

$ sudo -v

If no error messages appear, you are good to go, otherwise ask your system administrator to provide you with sudo rights.


How to add a user using useradd ?

Run the following command:

$ sudo useradd <username>

To assign a password to the user, you can use the -p flag but it is not recommended as other users will be able to see the password.

To assign a password to a user, use the passwd command:

$ sudo passwd <username>



This article covers how you can install Dropbox on the CentOS system and sync your local files and folders with Dropbox cloud storage. Dropbox is a useful file-sharing and syncing service that lets you sync files between different machines over the Internet for free. It's very useful for backing up your important documents, pictures, MP3 files, video files, and other data.



This article covers how to add users into the sudoers group. Also you will learn how to edit rules in the sudoers configuration file through the command. You can customize the sudoers file based on the user requirements. Sudo stands for superuser do. Sudo is a command used in Unix-like systems to allow a regular user to execute a program as another user. In most cases, it is the root user.

The sudo command allows authorized users to perform commands as another user, which is by default the root user. 

This option gives you administrator-level permissions to run programs on your machine. It is an alternative to using the su command.



This article covers how you can easily install Cockpit on your CentOS system and manage other Linux servers. With Cockpit, you can have a quick glance at the performance of all your added servers. Also, you can monitor system resources, start and stop services, shut down the system, install updates, view network activity (send/received). create or remove user accounts, access Terminal, and much more on the remote servers. Cockpit helps to save a lot of time by letting the administrators manage the remote servers that are spread across the network using a lightweight and intuitive interface. 


Benefits of Cockpit in our GNU/Linux servers:

  • It consists of systemd service manager for ease.
  • It has a Journal log viewer to perform troubleshoots and log analysis.
  • Storage setup including LVM was never easier before.
  • Basic Network configuration can be applied with Cockpit
  • We can easily add and remove local users and manage multiple servers.


To Install  and enable Cockpit packages from repository, run the command:

$ sudo yum install cockpit

Type "y" and it will start downloading and installing the required packages.

To enable the Cockpit with the following command:

# sudo systemctl start cockpit

or

$ sudo systemctl enable --now cockpit.socket


To confirm the status of Cockpit, run the command:

# sudo systemctl status cockpit



This article covers the process of Installing qBittorrent on Ubuntu 20.04. For more information, visit their official site https://www.qbittorrent.org.


Main feautures of qBittorrent:

  • An interface similar to uTorrent
  • DHT, peer exchange, and complete encryption are all supported by this BitTorrent client.
  • It has a well-integrated search engine.
  • It also has UPnP port forwarding and NAT-PMP capabilities.
  • You can also use the qBittorrent Web interface to control it remotely.
  • A search engine that is well-integrated and expandable.
  • IPv6 compliant.



This article covers how to add and remove users in the sudo group to manage the sudo privileges of the users. sudo is a command-line program that allows trusted users to execute commands as root or another user.



This article covers how to install and manage multiple Java versions on Debian 9 system. Also we described how to set default Java version and also how to uninstall Java once it is no longer needed.

Basically, the programming language Java and the Java virtual machine or JVM are used extensively and required for many kinds of software.


To install Default JRE/JDK Java on Debian.

1. First, update the package index.

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Next, install Java. Specifically, this command will install the Java Runtime Environment (JRE).

$ sudo apt-get install default-jre

When prompted, type y for yes to confirm the installation.

3. You can install the JDK with the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install default-jdk



This article covers how to install and configure VNC on Debian Linux System. Also, you will learn how to connect it from Linux, MacOS and Windows local system and manage your Debian 9 server easily using a graphic interface.
VNC (Virtual Network Computing) is a technology for remote desktop sharing. VNC enables the visual desktop display of one computer to be remotely viewed and controlled over a network connection. It is similar to MSTSC on windows. It uses the Remote Frame Buffer protocol (RFB) to remotely control another computer.


To install VNC and XFCE on Debian, run the following commands:

$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install xfce4 xfce4-goodies gnome-icon-theme tightvncserver


To Create a VNC User on Debian:
1. Create a user named vnc by using this command.

$ adduser vnc
2. Install sudo by executing this command. We will need to add vnc user to sudo group.
$ apt-get install sudo
3. Now, Add vnc user to sudo group, it will give permission to vnc user to act like a root user and execute root command.
$ gpasswd -a vnc sudo
Adding user vnc to group sudo
4. switch to a vnc user for further operations.
$ su - vnc



This article covers how to install nodejs and npm on your Debian system with different methods. Also, you will learn how to uninstall npm from your Debian system. Node.js is a JavaScript platform for general-purpose programming that allows users to build asynchronous network applications quickly. By leveraging JavaScript on both the front and backend, Node.js can make web application development more consistent and integrated.


To Install the Official Debian Node.js Package:

1. To get Node.js from the default Debian software repository, you can use the apt package manager. First, refresh your local package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the Node.js package, and npm the Node Package Manager:

$ sudo apt install nodejs npm

3. To verify that the install was successful, run the node command with the -v flag to get the version:

$ node -v


To Remove Node.js:

1. To remove either of these versions, type the following:

$ sudo apt remove nodejs

2. To uninstall a version of Node.js that you have enabled using nvm, first determine whether or not the version you would like to remove is the current active version:

$ nvm current

3. If the version you are targeting is not the current active version, you can run:

$ nvm uninstall node_version

This command will uninstall the selected version of Node.js.

4. If the version you would like to remove is the current active version, you must first deactivate nvm to enable your changes:

$ nvm deactivate



This article covers how to check OS version using different methods. You can get more information on Debian releases at official site of the Debian Releases

The easiest way on how to check what Debian version you are running is to simply read a contents from /etc/issue file. Execute the command:

# cat /etc/issue

Also, you can check for /etc/os-release release file:

# cat /etc/os-release



This article covers how to change the hostname on Debian 9 system using different methods. Basically, the hostname is a label that is assigned during the initial server setup and it is used to identify and easily distinguish one server from another. 

To check your current hostname:

$ hostname

And to check your Fully Qualified Domain name (FQDN) you can run the following command instead:

$ hostname -f


How to Change your Debian hostname ?

1. To change your hostname, we can simply run the following command:

$ hostname new.hostname.com

2. So in order to change our hostname permanently, you will need to update this file. You can open it with your favorite text editor, for example:

$ nano /etc/hostname

3. Change the hostname, save the file and exit the text editor.



This article covers how to create a new SSH key pair and set up an SSH key-based authentication. You can set up same key to multiple remote hosts. Also, you will learn how to disable SSH password authentication. SSH stands for Secure Shell and works as a method to establish remote connections between computers. SSH is usually used to log in and manage a remote server.

SSH key pairs can be used to authenticate a client to a server. The client creates a key pair and then uploads the public key to any remote server it wishes to access. This is placed in a file called authorized_keys within the ~/. ssh directory in the user account's home directory on the remote server.


To Disable Password Authentication:

Disabling password authentication is a security precaution. It prevents brute-force attacks against attempting to log in to the server.

1. Start by logging into the remote server:

$ ssh user@hostname

2. Next, edit the sshd_config file in a text editor of your choice (we are using nano):

$ sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

3. Find and modify the following lines to look as follows:

PasswordAuthentication no
ChallengeResponseAuthentication no
UsePAM no

4. Write the changes, then exit the editor. Restart the SSH service by entering the following:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh



This article covers how to install Git on your Debian server and how to Setting up Git. With versioning tools such as Git, you can track changes, revert to previous stages, and branch to create alternate versions of files and directories.


How to Install Git with Default Packages on Debian?

1. First, use the apt package management tools to update your local package index. 

After updating the system, you can download and install Git:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

2. You can confirm that you have installed Git correctly by running the following command:

git --version



This article covers how to install mysql 8.0 and Secure MySQL on Debian 9 server. MySQL, the world's most popular open-source relational database management system is not available in the default Debian's repositories. MariaDB is the default database system in Debian 10. 

The MySQL APT repository provides a simple and convenient way to install and update MySQL products with the latest software packages using Apt. The MySQL APT repository provides MySQL packages for the following Linux distros: Debian.


How to Uninstall MySQL from Debian?

To remove MySQL, Run the following commands:

$ sudo apt-get remove --purge mysql-server mysql-client mysql-common -y
$ sudo apt-get autoremove -y
$ sudo apt-get autoclean
rm -rf /etc/mysql
sudo find / -iname 'mysql*' -exec rm -rf {} \;


How to secure MySQL ?

MySQL comes with a command we can use to perform a few security-related updates on our new install. Let's run it now:

$ mysql_secure_installation

This will ask you for the MySQL root password that you set during installation. Type it in and press ENTER. Then answer a series of yes or no prompts. 



This article covers how to install certbot client, obtain Let's Encrypt SSL certificate and configured to Nginx to use the certificates. Also you will learn how to set up a cronjob for automatic certificate renewal.


To install the Certbot software on Debian:

1. Update your package list.

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, install the dependencies for the python3-certbot-nginx package, which include the python3-acme, python3-certbot, python3-mock, python3-openssl, python3-pkg-resources, python3-pyparsing, and python3-zope.interface packages.

$ sudo apt install python3-acme python3-certbot python3-mock python3-openssl python3-pkg-resources python3-pyparsing python3-zope.interface

3. Finally, install the python3-certbot-nginx package:

$ sudo apt install python3-certbot-nginx



This article covers how to create an Nginx server blocks to host multiple website on a single Debian machine. Nginx is a very popular high-performance web server that combines the power of reverse proxying, load balancing, caching and so much more. Depending on how it is configured, it can act as a reverse proxy as well as a load balancer for HTTP/HTTPS servers.


To install Nginx on Debian:

1. Update the Debian 10 Package Repository.

$  sudo apt update -y

2. Install Nginx on Debian 10.

$ sudo apt install nginx -y

3. To check the status of Nginx, execute:

$ systemctl status nginx



This article covers how to install Nginx on your Debian 9 server. Now you can deploy your applications and use Nginx as a web or proxy server. Nginx is more resource-friendly than Apache in most cases and can be used as a web server or reverse proxy.


To install Nginx on Debian:

1. Update our local package index so that we have access to the most recent package listings:

$ sudo apt update

2. We can now install nginx:

$ sudo apt install nginx

When prompted to confirm the installation, hit Enter to proceed. After that, apt will install Nginx and any required dependencies to your server.


Profiles available for Nginx:

  • Nginx Full: This profile opens both port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic) and port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).
  • Nginx HTTP: This profile opens only port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic).
  • Nginx HTTPS: This profile opens only port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).



This article covers step by step process to Install and Configure phpMyAdmin with Apache on Debian 9 system. The phpMyAdmin utility is a graphical database management tool. By installing phpMyAdmin, you no longer need to use a default command-line interface to manage your databases.


To install wget:

1. Access your terminal window, and update your software package lists using the following command:

$ sudo apt update

2. The wget utility allows you to download files directly from the terminal window. Enter the following command to install the wget tool:

$ sudo apt install wget -y


To install Apache on Debian:

1. Open a terminal window, and install Apache by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt install apache2 -y

2. Enter the following command to make sure the Apache service is running:

$ systemctl status apache2

In the output, you should see a green status that says active (running).


To Install PHP on Debian 10:

1. Install core PHP packages and Apache and MySQL plugins with the following command:

$ sudo apt install php php-cgi php-mysqli php-pear php-mbstring php-gettext libapache2-mod-php php-common php-phpseclib php-mysql -y

2. Once the installation process is complete, verify that PHP has been installed:

$ php --version

The system displays the current version of PHP, along with the date of the release.



This article covers how to install MariaDB on Ubuntu 18.04 server. Also, you will learn how to secure and connect to MariaDB server. MariaDB is an open-source relational database management system, commonly used as an alternative for MySQL as the database portion of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. Basically, It is intended to be a drop-in replacement for MySQL.


How to Install MariaDB ?

1. To install it, update the package index on your server with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2, Then install the package:

$ sudo apt install mariadb-server



This article covers how to install MariaDB version on a Debian 10 server, and verify that it is running and has a safe initial configuration.


How To Install MariaDB on Debian 10 ?

1. To install MariaDB, update the package index on your server with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the package:

$ sudo apt install mariadb-server

3. To Configure MariaDB, Run the security script:

$ sudo mysql_secure_installation



This article covers how to Configure up Apache Virtual Hosts on a Debian 10 server. Using Apache Virtual Hosts you can host multiple domains on a single server. 

Apache will break its functionality and components into individual units so you can customize independently. The basic unit that describes an individual site or domain is called a virtual host.


How to configure Apache Virtual Hosts on Debian ?

Apache is a free and open source web server used web server in the world, and it is commonly used in Linux servers.

To install Apache:

1. Check whether apache is already installed and running on your server. You can do this with the following command:

$ dpkg -l apache2

2. If apache is not installed, you can do this by running the following commands. First, make sure that the system repositories are up to date:

$ apt-get update

3. To install the Apache web server, execute the following:

$ apt-get install apache2

4. After the installation is complete, you should enable Apache to start automatically upon server reboot with:

$ systemctl enable apache2

5. You can also check the status of your Apache service with the following command:

$ systemctl status apache2

If you want to secure your website with an SSL certificate, you can generate and Install a free Letsencrypt SSL certificate.



This article covers how to use certbot client of Let’s Encrypt to obtain SSL certificate for you domain.

To set these up DNS records for your server, you can follow these instructions for adding domains and then these instructions for creating DNS records:

  • An A record with your_domain pointing to your server’s public IP address.
  • An A record with www.your_domain pointing to your server’s public IP address.


To install Certbot as a snap on Debian

You must first have snapd installed on your server. 

snapd is a daemon required to install, use, and manage snaps. 

Installing the snapd package will also install the snap command on your server.

1. To install snapd, update your local package index if you've not done so recently:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the snapd package:

$ sudo apt install snapd

After running this command, you'll be prompted to confirm that you want to install snapd and its dependencies.

Do so by pressing Y and then ENTER.

3. Next, use the snap command to install the core snap. This will install some dependencies on your server that are needed for any snap you install, including the Certbot snap:

$ sudo snap install core

4. Then refresh the core snap. Doing so will ensure that you have the latest versions of snapd and its dependencies installed:

$ sudo snap refresh core

Following that, you can install the certbot snap with the following command.

5. Because Certbot must be allowed to edit certain configuration files in order to correctly set up certificates, this command includes the --classic option. This confinement level allows any snaps installed under it the same access to system resources as traditional packages:

$ sudo snap install --classic certbot

6. Create a symbolic link to this file in the /usr/bin/ directory to ensure that you can run the certbot command anywhere on your system:

$ sudo ln -s /snap/bin/certbot /usr/bin/certbot



This article covers how to install WordPress on Ubuntu 20.04 with Nginx HTTP Server and Let's Encrypt wildcard SSL Certificates. WordPress is a free, open-source, and most popular content management system that allows you to create a blog on the Internet.


You can install nginx, MariaDB, PHP and all the required PHP extensions with the following command:

$ apt-get install nginx mariadb-server php php-curl php-mysql php-gd php-intl php-mbstring php-soap php-xml php-xmlrpc php-zip php-fpm -y

Once the LEMP server is installed, start the Nginx and MariaDB service with the following command:

$ systemctl start nginx
$ systemctl start mariadb


Nginx's inbuilt features includes:

  • Nginx is built to work on low memory usage.
  • It can support extremely high concurrency.
  • Is Ipv6 enabled.
  • Supports reverse proxy with efficient caching.
  • Provides an inbuilt load balancer.
  • Supports WebSockets.
  • Optimized handling of index files, static files and provides auto indexing.
  • Is accompanied with FastCGI for efficient caching.



This article covers how to install PHP 7.3 on Debian 9 (Stretch) and Debian 8 (Jessie). With PHP 7.3 comes a number of bug fixes, new functionalities and features as well as a number of deprecations.


To Set Default PHP Version on Debian ?

You can set the default PHP version with the below command incase your system has multiple PHP versions. Change php7.3 with the version you want to set as the default PHP version:

$ sudo update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php7.3



This article covers how to install an Apache web server on your Debian 9 server. The Apache HTTP server is the most widely-used web server in the world. It provides many powerful features including dynamically loadable modules, robust media support, and extensive integration with other popular software.


How to Install Apache ?

1. Let's begin by updating the local package index to reflect the latest upstream changes:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then, install the apache2 package:

$ sudo apt install apache2

 After confirming the installation, apt will install Apache and all required dependencies.


The Apache profiles begin with WWW:

1. WWW: This profile opens only port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic).

2. WWW Cache: This profile opens only port 8080 (sometimes used for caching and web proxies).

3. WWW Full: This profile opens both port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic) and port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).

4. WWW Secure: This profile opens only port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).


How to Manage Apache Process ?

To stop your web server, type:

$ sudo systemctl stop apache2

To start the web server when it is stopped, type:

$ sudo systemctl start apache2

To stop and then start the service again, type:

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

If you are simply making configuration changes, Apache can often reload without dropping connections. To do this, use this command:

$ sudo systemctl reload apache2

By default, Apache is configured to start automatically when the server boots. If this is not what you want, disable this behavior by typing:

$ sudo systemctl disable apache2

To re-enable the service to start up at boot, type:

$ sudo systemctl enable apache2

Apache should now start automatically when the server boots again.



This article covers how to create a user with sudo privileges. You can now log in to your Debian server with this user account and use sudo to run administrative commands. Basically, In linux sudo is masterpiece to allow users to execute commands with another user's privileges, default is root user.


How to Create a new user account in Debian ?

Create a new user account using the adduser command. Don't forget to replace username with your desired user name:

$ adduser username


To Add the user to the sudo group

Use the usermod command:

$ usermod -aG sudo username



This article covers steps to install a LEMP stack on a Debian 10 server using MariaDB as the database management system. The LEMP software stack is a group of software that can be used to serve dynamic web pages and web applications. The name "LEMP" is an acronym that describes a Linux operating system, with an (E)Nginx web server. The backend data is stored in a MariaDB database and the dynamic processing is handled by PHP.

Although this software stack typically includes MySQL as the database management system, some Linux distributions — including Debian — use MariaDB as a drop-in replacement for MySQL.


To install Nginx Web Server.

1. Run the apt commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nginx

On Debian 10, Nginx is configured to start running upon installation.



This article covers how to install LAMP on Debian server along with PHPMyAdmin to manage your database. LAMP stands for Linux OS, with Apache web server, Data store in a MySql or MariaDB database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To install Apache on Debian:

1. Run the following command:

$ apt-get install apache2

2. To restart your web server by typing the following command:

$ service apache2 restart



This article covers the who command in Linux along with its some of the useful command line options.

Sometimes, while working on the command line, you might want to know more about logged in users.

There exists a command line utility who which you can use to access this kind of information.

Basically, the who command shows who all are logged in.

Here's its syntax:

$ who [OPTION]... [ FILE | ARG1 ARG2 ]


To access time of last system boot?

For this, use the -b command line option:

$ who -b



This article covers how to setup Drupal on Debian Linux System.

Drupal is a powerful CMS that allows you to design stunning websites and blogs with simple tools and drag and drop features in a matter of a few hours.
It offers flexibility in terms of customization of your site to meet your desired results.
You can easily get started with free templates before advancing to premium templates that have more features.

To Configure Apache 2.4:
1. Enable Apache's rewrite module. This module is necessary since Drupal 8 enables Clean URLs by default;

$ sudo a2enmod rewrite

2. Specify the rewrite conditions for your Drupal site’s document root in Apache's configuration file using the text editor of your choice.
If you installed and configured your Apache server using LAMP stack on Debian 10 guide, the configuration file for your site is located at /etc/apache2/sites-available/example.com.conf.
File: /etc/apache2/sites-available/example.com.conf:

<Directory /var/www/html/example.com/public_html>
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride All
        Require all granted
          RewriteEngine on
          RewriteBase /
          RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
          RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
          RewriteRule ^(.*)$ index.php?q=$1 [L,QSA]
</Directory>

3. Change the ownership of your site's document root from root to www-data. This allows you to install modules and themes, and to update Drupal, without being prompted for FTP credentials.

$ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html/example.com

4. Restart Apache so all changes are applied.

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2



This article covers how to conveniently install the Code::Blocks IDE on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.

After installing this IDE on your system, you can easily use it for C, C++, and FORTRAN development.

You can even uninstall it anytime you want and that too very cleanly by following the uninstallation method of the Code::Blocks IDE.

To Install Code::Blocks IDE using APT:
Code::Blocks IDE is available on Ubuntu repositories and can be installed with the APT command.
1. First update your system.

$ sudo apt update

2. To install codeblock on Ubuntu , run the following command.

$ sudo apt install codeblocks

3. When prompted to continue, just type 'Y' and press ENTER to proceed.

To Remove Code::Blocks IDE from Linux system:

1. To remove codeblocks from ubuntu, run the following command.

$ sudo apt remove codeblocks

2. To complete remove codeblock and its associated configurations, run the following two commands.

$ sudo apt purge codeblocks
$ sudo apt autoremove



This article covers how to add a user to sudoers using different methods, limit root access with sudo and remove a user from sudoers.

Sudo is a very handy tool for system administrators that allow them to provide root access to a user with granularity.


Steps to Add Sudo User on Ubuntu ?

1. Log into the system with a root user or an account with sudo privileges.

2. Open a terminal window and add a new user with the command:

# adduser newuser

The adduser command creates a new user, plus a group and home directory for that user.

You may get an error message that you have insufficient privileges. (This typically only happens for non-root users.) Get around it by entering:

# sudo adduser newuser

3. You can replace newuser with any username you wish. The system will add the new user; then prompt you to enter a password. Enter a great secure password, then retype it to confirm.


To Add User to Sudo Group:

1. In a terminal, enter the command:

# usermod -aG sudo newuser

Replace newuser with the username that you entered in Step 1.

Again, if you get an error, run the command with sudo as follows:

# sudo usermod -aG sudo newuser

The -aG option tells the system to append the user to the specified group. (The -a option is only used with G).



This article covers how to install and configure Netdata on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS and different metrics visualized in it. Netdata provides an excellent solution for monitoring your single node in real-time. You can configure alarms and notifications which can be triggered when a certain event or threshold is exceeded.


To install Netdata on Ubuntu:

1. You can install netdata on Ubuntu by running the following commands.

$ sudo apt update 
$ sudo apt install netdata 

Press 'y' if confirmation prompted by the installer.

2. Edit netdata configuration file in your favorite text editor.

$ sudo vim /etc/netdata/netdata.conf 

3. After modifying its configuration file, you can Save your file and restart netdata service:

$ sudo systemctl restart netdata 



This article covers how to easily install Skype on Debian 10. Skype is one of the most popular communication applications in the world.

It allows you to make free online audio and video calls and affordable international calling to mobiles and landlines worldwide.


To Skype on Debian Linux System:

Perform the following steps as root or user with sudo privileges to install Skype on your Debian Buster:

1. Open your terminal and enter the following wget command to download the latest Skype deb package:

$ wget https://go.skype.com/skypeforlinux-64.deb

2. Once the download is complete, install Skype by typing:

$ sudo apt install ./skypeforlinux-64.deb

That's it. Skype has been installed on your Debian desktop, and you can start using it.



This article covers how to install sublime text editor on the CentOS 8 system through the terminal. Sublime text editor is quite similar to vim editor. Sublime text has a built-in Python API available in Windows, Linux, and Mac OS.


To install Sublime Text on Ubuntu:

1. Install the GPG key:

$ wget -qO - https://download.sublimetext.com/sublimehq-pub.gpg | sudo apt-key add -

2. Ensure apt is set up to work with https sources:

$ sudo apt-get install apt-transport-https

3. Select the channel to use:

i. Stable

$ echo "deb https://download.sublimetext.com/ apt/stable/" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/sublime-text.list

ii. Dev

$ echo "deb https://download.sublimetext.com/ apt/dev/" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/sublime-text.list

4. Update apt sources and install Sublime Text:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install sublime-text


To fix yum-config-manager command not found:

You need to Install yum-utils by running the command below:

$ yum install yum-utils



This article covers how to perform installation and configuration of Apache web server on Debian 10.

Also, you will learn how to create virtual hosts on an Apache server and troubleshoot errors. These steps are almost the same for Ubuntu and LinuxMint distributions.

Apache HTTP Server is a free and open-source web server that delivers web content through the internet. It is commonly referred to as Apache and after development, it quickly became the most popular HTTP client on the web.


On most systems if you installed Apache with a package manager, or it came preinstalled, the Apache configuration file is located in one of these locations: /etc/apache2/httpd. conf. /etc/apache2/apache2.


Debian/Ubuntu Linux Specific Commands to Start/Stop/Restart Apache:

1. Restart Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 restart. $ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart.

2. To stop Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 stop.

3. To start Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 start.


To check running status of LAMP stack:

1. For Ubuntu: # service apache2 status.

2. For CentOS: # /etc/init.d/httpd status.

3. For Ubuntu: # service apache2 restart.

4. For CentOS: # /etc/init.d/httpd restart.

5. You can use mysqladmin command to find out whether mysql is running or not.



This article covers how to assign and remove multiple IP addresses to and from a single NIC. Based on your preferences, you can either assign the multiple IP addresses temporarily or permanently.

There's no simple command that you can run to determine whether the IP address on a Linux system is assigned by DHCP or static. 

If it changes when the system restarts, it's clearly dynamically assigned, but even a dynamic address has some resistance to change. 

The best way is to look at the configuration file.


To add a static route in Linux:

1. Use the route command with the –p option to add a persistent route: # route -p add default ip-address.

2. Use the route command with the –name option to add a persistent route by specifying a name rather than destination and gateway: # route -p add destination-address gateway-address -name name.


What is ip route command in Linux?

ip route is used to manipulate entries in the kernel routing tables. 

Route types: 

1. unicast - the route entry describes real paths to the destinations covered by the route prefix. 

2. unreachable - these destinations are unreachable. 

Packets are discarded and the ICMP message host unreachable is generated.



This article covers how to #install / #uninstall MongoDB on your Debian system. You have also learned how to manage MongoDB services.
MongoDB is an opensource, cross-platform NoSQL database server.
In MongoDB, data is stored in flexible, JSON-like documents where fields can vary from document to document.
It does not require a predefined schema, and data structure can be changed over time.

To install MongoDB on #Debian:
Perform the following steps as root or user with sudo privileges to install MongoDB on a Debian system.
1. Install the packages required for adding a new repository:

$ sudo apt install dirmngr gnupg apt-transport-https software-properties-common ca-certificates curl

2. Add the MongoDB GPG key to your system:

$ curl -fsSL https://www.mongodb.org/static/pgp/server-4.2.asc | sudo apt-key add -

3. Enable the MongoDB repository:

$ sudo add-apt-repository 'deb https://repo.mongodb.org/apt/debian buster/mongodb-org/4.2 main'

4. Packages with older versions of MongoDB are not available for Debian 10.
Update the packages list and install the mongodb-org meta-package:

$ sudo apt update
$sudo apt install mongodb-org


The following packages will be installed on the system as a part of the mongodb-org package:
mongodb-org-server - The mongod daemon and corresponding init scripts and configurations.
mongodb-org-mongos - The mongos daemon.
mongodb-org-shell - The mongo shell is an interactive JavaScript interface to MongoDB. It is used to perform administrative tasks through the command line.
mongodb-org-tools - Contains several MongoDB tools for importing and exporting data, statistics, as well as other utilities.

To Start the #MongoDB service and enable it to start on boot:

sudo systemctl enable mongod --now



This article covers different methods to install and enjoy Google Chrome on your Debian 10 system. Moreover, whenever you feel like you do not need this browser any longer, then we have even explained to you the method of removing this browser from your Debian 10 system for your convenience.


To Install Google Chrome on Debian:

1. Downloading Google Chrome. Open the terminal either by using the Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut or by clicking on the terminal icon.

2. Installing Google Chrome. Once the download is complete, install Google Chrome with apt : sudo apt install ./google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb.



This article will guide you on how you can install PostgreSQL #DBMS on your Debian 10 system. Also, we also shared with you the method with which you can remove the PostgreSQL DBMS from your #Debian 10 system.

#PostgreSQL supports transaction s, subselects, trigger s, view s, foreign key referential integrity, and sophisticated locking.


pgAdmin is the de facto GUI tool for PostgreSQL, and the first tool anyone would use for PostgreSQL. It supports all PostgreSQL operations and features while being free and open-source. With pgAdmin you can Create, view and edit on all common PostgreSQL objects.

#PgAdmin is graphical user interface administration tool for PostgreSQL. It does not include a PostgreSQL database server.


To install PostgreSQL 9.5 on #Ubuntu:

1. sudo apt-get update.

2. sudo apt-get install postgresql postgresql-contrib.

3. sudo -u postgres psql.

4. # Replace xxxxxxx with your own password ALTER USER postgres WITH ENCRYPTED PASSWORD 'xxxxxxx';

5. # Feel free to replace nano with an editor of your choice sudo nano /etc/postgresql/9.5/main/pg_hba.conf.


ANALYZE in #Postgres collects statistics about the contents of tables in the database, and stores the results in the pg_statistic system catalog. Subsequently, the query planner uses these statistics to help determine the most efficient execution plans for queries.



This article will guide you on steps to install Wine on Debian via WineHQ repository. Also you will learn how to uninstall it from your system if you no longer need it. 

For official documentation, you can visit Wine for Debian.

If you are working on Linux Mint OS, visit our post on How to Install Wine on Linux Mint 20 .


Wine stands for Wine Is Not an Emulator. While a virtual machine or emulator simulates internal Windows logic, Wine translates those Windows logic to native UNIX/POSIX-complaint logic. 

In simple and non-technical words, Wine converts internal Windows commands to commands your Linux system can natively understand.


To Check Wine Version:

Wine installation successfully completed. 

Use the following command to check the version of wine installed on your system

wine --version 


A Linux repository is a storage location from which your system retrieves and installs OS updates and applications. 

Each repository is a collection of software hosted on a remote server and intended to be used for installing and updating software packages on Linux systems.

Repositories contain thousands of programs.



This article will guide you on the different methods to conveniently install and start the MariaDB service on a Debian 10 system. Also, we dealt with how to easily remove MariaDB from your Debian 10 system. 

In MariaDB replication is faster whereas in MySQL replication is slower. 

MariaDB is Open Source whereas MySQL uses some proprietary code in its Enterprise Edition. 

MariaDB doesn't support Data Masking and Dynamic column while MySQL supports it. Comparatively MariaDB is faster than MySQL.

Since MariaDB is a fork of MySQL, the database structure and indexes of MariaDB are the same as #MySQL. 

This allows you to switch from MySQL to MariaDB without having to alter your applications since the data and data structures will not need to change. Data and table definition files are compatible.


To install #MariaDB on #Debian , follow these steps:

1. First update the apt packages index by typing: sudo apt update.

2. Once the packages list is updated, install MariaDB by running the following command: sudo apt install mariadb-server.

3. The MariaDB service will start automatically.



This article will guide you on how to assign multiple IP addresses to a single NIC in Ubuntu OS. Now you can allocate multiple IP addresses to a single NIC.

To change your IP address on #Linux, use the "ifconfig" command followed by the name of your network interface and the new IP #address to be changed on your computer. 

To assign the subnet mask, you can either add a "netmask" clause followed by the subnet mask or use the CIDR notation directly.

The ifconfig command can be used from the #command line either to assign an address to a #network interface or to configure or display the current network interface configuration information. 

The ifconfig command must be used at system startup to define the network address of each interface present on a machine.


To determine my IP address in Linux :

1. ifconfig -a.

2. ip addr (ip a).

3. hostname -I | awk '{print $1}'.

4. ip route get 1.2.

5. nmcli -p device show.


To add secondary IP address permanently on Ubuntu system, just edit /etc/network/interfaces file and add the requires IP details. 

Verify the newly added IP address. # ifconfig eth0



This article will guide you on how to configure the #NTP server on Ubuntu. You will learn how to configure the NTP client on another #Ubuntu machine and synchronize it with the NTP server. By means of this, you can easily synchronize all system clocks in a network.

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a networking protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks.

NTP is intended to synchronize all participating computers to within a few milliseconds of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).


To Configure NTP server:

1. Install NTP Server. First, install NTP package on your server using the appropriate package management tool that is available on your Linux distro.

2. Setup Restrict values in ntp. conf.

3. Allow Only Specific Clients.

4. Add Local Clock as Backup.

5. Setup NTP Log Parameters.

6. Start the NTP Serrver.


To Configure NTP client:

1. To configure your Linux system as an NTP client, you will need to install the ntp daemon (ntpd).

2. The ntpd configuration file is located at /etc/ntp.conf.

3. This file contains the list of NTP servers that will be used for time synchronization.

4. Next, restart the NTP deamon with the sudo service ntp reload command



This article will guide you on how to shut down your Debian 10 system properly using different methods.

If you run a desktop environment, there is usually an option to "log out" available from the #application menu that allows you to shutdown (or #reboot) the system. 

Alternatively you can press the key combination Ctrl+Alt+Del.

To shut down #Linux:

1. To shut down the system from a terminal session, sign in or "su" to the "root" account. 

2. Then type ``/sbin/shutdown -r now''. It may take several moments for all processes to be terminated, and then Linux will shut down.



This article will guide you on steps to install #MariaDB on the #Linux operating system. 

MariaDB offers more and better storage engines. NoSQL support, provided by Cassandra, allows you to run SQL and NoSQL in a single database system. MariaDB also supports TokuDB, which can handle big data for large organizations and corporate users.

As a columnar database, MariaDB ColumnStore stores table data in columns rather than rows. Data partitioning by columns is also called Vertical Partitioning.

MariaDB is a drop in place replacement for #MySQL, but you can also install it alongside MySQL. 

To install MariaDB on #Ubuntu 18.04, follow these steps:

1. Update packages index. sudo apt update.

2. Once the packages list is updated, install MariaDB by issuing the following command: sudo apt install mariadb-server.

3. The MariaDB service will start automatically.



This article will guide you on the steps to install #Webmin in your Linux system. Webmin comes with a very simple webserver called miniserv.pl that is capable of doing all that is necessary for Webmin to run. However, it is not as fast or memory efficient as a well-developed server such as #Apache.

To modify the default port, 10000 to 10101, open the /etc/webmin/miniserv. conf file and modify line 1 and 16. Now you can access the Webmin through url with new custom port.

To Install Webmin on #Ubuntu:

1. Log in to your Ubuntu #server.

2. Issue the command sudo nano /etc/apt/sources. list.

3. Hit [CTRL][x] and save the file.

4. Add the downloaded key with the command sudo apt-key add jcameron-key. asc.

5. Update apt with the command sudo apt-get update.

6. Install Webmin with the command sudo apt-get install webmin.



This tutorial will guide you on how to get Nginx server installed and configured on an Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS server.

Nginx is one of the most popular web servers in the world and is responsible for hosting some of the largest and highest-traffic sites on the internet. It is more resource-friendly than Apache in most cases and can be used as a web server or reverse proxy.


Nginx Configuration Files Structure

  • All configuration files are located in the /etc/nginx/ directory.
  • Nginx main configuration file is at /etc/nginx/nginx.conf.
  • It's best practice to create a separate configuration file of each domain for better maintainability.
  • New server blocks (configuration file) of each domain should be stored in /etc/nginx/sites-availabledirectory. You need to make symlink of these configuration files at /etc/nginx/sites-enabled to take in used by Nginx.
  • Activating server blocks is done by creating a symlink (a pointer) from the configuration file sites in a /etc/nginx/sites-enabled directory to the sites-enabled directory.
  • The default server web root directory is /var/www/html
  • It's best practice to to follow standard naming convention. Nginx server block files name should as domain name and must end with .conf extension. For example, your domain name is example.com then server block file name should example.com.conf
  • Nginx log files (access.log and error.log) are located in the /var/log/nginx/ directory. It's also recommended to have a different access and error log files for each server block.




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