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This article covers how to install and configure VNC on Debian Linux System. Also, you will learn how to connect it from Linux, MacOS and Windows local system and manage your Debian 9 server easily using a graphic interface.
VNC (Virtual Network Computing) is a technology for remote desktop sharing. VNC enables the visual desktop display of one computer to be remotely viewed and controlled over a network connection. It is similar to MSTSC on windows. It uses the Remote Frame Buffer protocol (RFB) to remotely control another computer.


To install VNC and XFCE on Debian, run the following commands:

$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install xfce4 xfce4-goodies gnome-icon-theme tightvncserver


To Create a VNC User on Debian:
1. Create a user named vnc by using this command.

$ adduser vnc
2. Install sudo by executing this command. We will need to add vnc user to sudo group.
$ apt-get install sudo
3. Now, Add vnc user to sudo group, it will give permission to vnc user to act like a root user and execute root command.
$ gpasswd -a vnc sudo
Adding user vnc to group sudo
4. switch to a vnc user for further operations.
$ su - vnc



This article covers how to install nodejs and npm on your Debian system with different methods. Also, you will learn how to uninstall npm from your Debian system. Node.js is a JavaScript platform for general-purpose programming that allows users to build asynchronous network applications quickly. By leveraging JavaScript on both the front and backend, Node.js can make web application development more consistent and integrated.


To Install the Official Debian Node.js Package:

1. To get Node.js from the default Debian software repository, you can use the apt package manager. First, refresh your local package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the Node.js package, and npm the Node Package Manager:

$ sudo apt install nodejs npm

3. To verify that the install was successful, run the node command with the -v flag to get the version:

$ node -v


To Remove Node.js:

1. To remove either of these versions, type the following:

$ sudo apt remove nodejs

2. To uninstall a version of Node.js that you have enabled using nvm, first determine whether or not the version you would like to remove is the current active version:

$ nvm current

3. If the version you are targeting is not the current active version, you can run:

$ nvm uninstall node_version

This command will uninstall the selected version of Node.js.

4. If the version you would like to remove is the current active version, you must first deactivate nvm to enable your changes:

$ nvm deactivate



This article covers how to change the hostname on Debian 9 system using different methods. Basically, the hostname is a label that is assigned during the initial server setup and it is used to identify and easily distinguish one server from another. 

To check your current hostname:

$ hostname

And to check your Fully Qualified Domain name (FQDN) you can run the following command instead:

$ hostname -f


How to Change your Debian hostname ?

1. To change your hostname, we can simply run the following command:

$ hostname new.hostname.com

2. So in order to change our hostname permanently, you will need to update this file. You can open it with your favorite text editor, for example:

$ nano /etc/hostname

3. Change the hostname, save the file and exit the text editor.



This article covers how to create a new SSH key pair and set up an SSH key-based authentication. You can set up same key to multiple remote hosts. Also, you will learn how to disable SSH password authentication. SSH stands for Secure Shell and works as a method to establish remote connections between computers. SSH is usually used to log in and manage a remote server.

SSH key pairs can be used to authenticate a client to a server. The client creates a key pair and then uploads the public key to any remote server it wishes to access. This is placed in a file called authorized_keys within the ~/. ssh directory in the user account's home directory on the remote server.


To Disable Password Authentication:

Disabling password authentication is a security precaution. It prevents brute-force attacks against attempting to log in to the server.

1. Start by logging into the remote server:

$ ssh user@hostname

2. Next, edit the sshd_config file in a text editor of your choice (we are using nano):

$ sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

3. Find and modify the following lines to look as follows:

PasswordAuthentication no
ChallengeResponseAuthentication no
UsePAM no

4. Write the changes, then exit the editor. Restart the SSH service by entering the following:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh



This article covers how to install mysql 8.0 and Secure MySQL on Debian 9 server. MySQL, the world's most popular open-source relational database management system is not available in the default Debian's repositories. MariaDB is the default database system in Debian 10. 

The MySQL APT repository provides a simple and convenient way to install and update MySQL products with the latest software packages using Apt. The MySQL APT repository provides MySQL packages for the following Linux distros: Debian.


How to Uninstall MySQL from Debian?

To remove MySQL, Run the following commands:

$ sudo apt-get remove --purge mysql-server mysql-client mysql-common -y
$ sudo apt-get autoremove -y
$ sudo apt-get autoclean
rm -rf /etc/mysql
sudo find / -iname 'mysql*' -exec rm -rf {} \;


How to secure MySQL ?

MySQL comes with a command we can use to perform a few security-related updates on our new install. Let's run it now:

$ mysql_secure_installation

This will ask you for the MySQL root password that you set during installation. Type it in and press ENTER. Then answer a series of yes or no prompts. 



This article covers how to install certbot client, obtain Let's Encrypt SSL certificate and configured to Nginx to use the certificates. Also you will learn how to set up a cronjob for automatic certificate renewal.


To install the Certbot software on Debian:

1. Update your package list.

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, install the dependencies for the python3-certbot-nginx package, which include the python3-acme, python3-certbot, python3-mock, python3-openssl, python3-pkg-resources, python3-pyparsing, and python3-zope.interface packages.

$ sudo apt install python3-acme python3-certbot python3-mock python3-openssl python3-pkg-resources python3-pyparsing python3-zope.interface

3. Finally, install the python3-certbot-nginx package:

$ sudo apt install python3-certbot-nginx



This article covers how to Configure up Apache Virtual Hosts on a Debian 10 server. Using Apache Virtual Hosts you can host multiple domains on a single server. 

Apache will break its functionality and components into individual units so you can customize independently. The basic unit that describes an individual site or domain is called a virtual host.


How to configure Apache Virtual Hosts on Debian ?

Apache is a free and open source web server used web server in the world, and it is commonly used in Linux servers.

To install Apache:

1. Check whether apache is already installed and running on your server. You can do this with the following command:

$ dpkg -l apache2

2. If apache is not installed, you can do this by running the following commands. First, make sure that the system repositories are up to date:

$ apt-get update

3. To install the Apache web server, execute the following:

$ apt-get install apache2

4. After the installation is complete, you should enable Apache to start automatically upon server reboot with:

$ systemctl enable apache2

5. You can also check the status of your Apache service with the following command:

$ systemctl status apache2

If you want to secure your website with an SSL certificate, you can generate and Install a free Letsencrypt SSL certificate.



This article covers how to use certbot client of Let’s Encrypt to obtain SSL certificate for you domain.

To set these up DNS records for your server, you can follow these instructions for adding domains and then these instructions for creating DNS records:

  • An A record with your_domain pointing to your server’s public IP address.
  • An A record with www.your_domain pointing to your server’s public IP address.


To install Certbot as a snap on Debian

You must first have snapd installed on your server. 

snapd is a daemon required to install, use, and manage snaps. 

Installing the snapd package will also install the snap command on your server.

1. To install snapd, update your local package index if you've not done so recently:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the snapd package:

$ sudo apt install snapd

After running this command, you'll be prompted to confirm that you want to install snapd and its dependencies.

Do so by pressing Y and then ENTER.

3. Next, use the snap command to install the core snap. This will install some dependencies on your server that are needed for any snap you install, including the Certbot snap:

$ sudo snap install core

4. Then refresh the core snap. Doing so will ensure that you have the latest versions of snapd and its dependencies installed:

$ sudo snap refresh core

Following that, you can install the certbot snap with the following command.

5. Because Certbot must be allowed to edit certain configuration files in order to correctly set up certificates, this command includes the --classic option. This confinement level allows any snaps installed under it the same access to system resources as traditional packages:

$ sudo snap install --classic certbot

6. Create a symbolic link to this file in the /usr/bin/ directory to ensure that you can run the certbot command anywhere on your system:

$ sudo ln -s /snap/bin/certbot /usr/bin/certbot



This article covers how to install PHP 7.3 on Debian 9 (Stretch) and Debian 8 (Jessie). With PHP 7.3 comes a number of bug fixes, new functionalities and features as well as a number of deprecations.


To Set Default PHP Version on Debian ?

You can set the default PHP version with the below command incase your system has multiple PHP versions. Change php7.3 with the version you want to set as the default PHP version:

$ sudo update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php7.3



This article covers how to install an Apache web server on your Debian 9 server. The Apache HTTP server is the most widely-used web server in the world. It provides many powerful features including dynamically loadable modules, robust media support, and extensive integration with other popular software.


How to Install Apache ?

1. Let's begin by updating the local package index to reflect the latest upstream changes:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then, install the apache2 package:

$ sudo apt install apache2

 After confirming the installation, apt will install Apache and all required dependencies.


The Apache profiles begin with WWW:

1. WWW: This profile opens only port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic).

2. WWW Cache: This profile opens only port 8080 (sometimes used for caching and web proxies).

3. WWW Full: This profile opens both port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic) and port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).

4. WWW Secure: This profile opens only port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).


How to Manage Apache Process ?

To stop your web server, type:

$ sudo systemctl stop apache2

To start the web server when it is stopped, type:

$ sudo systemctl start apache2

To stop and then start the service again, type:

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

If you are simply making configuration changes, Apache can often reload without dropping connections. To do this, use this command:

$ sudo systemctl reload apache2

By default, Apache is configured to start automatically when the server boots. If this is not what you want, disable this behavior by typing:

$ sudo systemctl disable apache2

To re-enable the service to start up at boot, type:

$ sudo systemctl enable apache2

Apache should now start automatically when the server boots again.



This article covers how to install LAMP on Debian server along with PHPMyAdmin to manage your database. LAMP stands for Linux OS, with Apache web server, Data store in a MySql or MariaDB database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To install Apache on Debian:

1. Run the following command:

$ apt-get install apache2

2. To restart your web server by typing the following command:

$ service apache2 restart




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