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Install Apache on CentOS 7 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Apache on your CentOS 7 system. You can now ready to start deploying your applications and use Apache as a web server.

Basically, The Apache HTTP server is the most widely-used web server in the world. It provides many powerful features including dynamically loadable modules, robust media support, and extensive integration with other popular software.


To Install Apache on CentOS:

1. Update the local Apache httpd package index to reflect the latest upstream changes:

$ sudo yum update httpd

2. Once the packages are updated, install the Apache package:

$ sudo yum install httpd

3. Enable firewalld's http service with the following command:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http

4. Configure Apache to serve content over HTTPS, you will also want to open up port 443 by enabling the https service:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=https

5. Finally, reload the firewall to put these new rules into effect:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload


Create a Sudo User on CentOS - How to do it ?

This article covers how to create a user with sudo privileges. You can now log in to your CentOS server with this user account and use sudo to run administrative commands.

Performing server administration as a non-root user is a best practice.

For security, your first task when deploying a CentOS instance is to create a non-root user with sudo access.


How to Add a New User Account on CentOS Linux System ?

1. To Create a new user account with the adduser command:

# adduser example_user

2. Set a strong password for the new user (new_user) with passwd.

# passwd new_user


Configure Apache Virtual Hosts on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Configure up Apache Virtual Hosts on a Debian 10 server. Using Apache Virtual Hosts you can host multiple domains on a single server. 

Apache will break its functionality and components into individual units so you can customize independently. The basic unit that describes an individual site or domain is called a virtual host.


How to configure Apache Virtual Hosts on Debian ?

Apache is a free and open source web server used web server in the world, and it is commonly used in Linux servers.

To install Apache:

1. Check whether apache is already installed and running on your server. You can do this with the following command:

$ dpkg -l apache2

2. If apache is not installed, you can do this by running the following commands. First, make sure that the system repositories are up to date:

$ apt-get update

3. To install the Apache web server, execute the following:

$ apt-get install apache2

4. After the installation is complete, you should enable Apache to start automatically upon server reboot with:

$ systemctl enable apache2

5. You can also check the status of your Apache service with the following command:

$ systemctl status apache2

If you want to secure your website with an SSL certificate, you can generate and Install a free Letsencrypt SSL certificate.


Secure Apache with Let's Encrypt on Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to use certbot client of Let’s Encrypt to obtain SSL certificate for you domain.

To set these up DNS records for your server, you can follow these instructions for adding domains and then these instructions for creating DNS records:

  • An A record with your_domain pointing to your server’s public IP address.
  • An A record with www.your_domain pointing to your server’s public IP address.


To install Certbot as a snap on Debian

You must first have snapd installed on your server. 

snapd is a daemon required to install, use, and manage snaps. 

Installing the snapd package will also install the snap command on your server.

1. To install snapd, update your local package index if you've not done so recently:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the snapd package:

$ sudo apt install snapd

After running this command, you'll be prompted to confirm that you want to install snapd and its dependencies.

Do so by pressing Y and then ENTER.

3. Next, use the snap command to install the core snap. This will install some dependencies on your server that are needed for any snap you install, including the Certbot snap:

$ sudo snap install core

4. Then refresh the core snap. Doing so will ensure that you have the latest versions of snapd and its dependencies installed:

$ sudo snap refresh core

Following that, you can install the certbot snap with the following command.

5. Because Certbot must be allowed to edit certain configuration files in order to correctly set up certificates, this command includes the --classic option. This confinement level allows any snaps installed under it the same access to system resources as traditional packages:

$ sudo snap install --classic certbot

6. Create a symbolic link to this file in the /usr/bin/ directory to ensure that you can run the certbot command anywhere on your system:

$ sudo ln -s /snap/bin/certbot /usr/bin/certbot


How to Compress and Extract Files Using the Tar, Zip Command on Ubuntu 20.4 Linux OS ?

This article covers how to archive and compress files using tar and zip commands with a few examples to show you how it works.

The tar command on Linux is often used to create .tar.gz or .tgz archive files, also called "tarballs".


How to Remove Files from a Tar Archive ?

Use the --delete operation to remove files from an archive.

The following example shows how to remove the file file1 from archive.tar:

$ tar --delete -f archive.tar file1


Install Go on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Go language on a Linux Mint 20 system. Also, we dealt with an easy way to remove Go language from a Linux Mint 20 system.

To Verify Go Language Installation, run the command:

$ go version 


Features of Go Programming

  • Statically type and compiled programming language.
  • Concurrency support and Garbage collection.
  • Strong library and toolset.
  • Multiprocessing and High-performance networking.
  • Known for readability and usability (Like Python).


Install Discord on Linux (Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint) - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the installation procedure of Discord on any Linux Distribution such as Linux Mint 20, Ubuntu 20.04, and Debian 10. Also, we explained a quick method of uninstalling this Discord platform from your Linux system.

You can either uninstall it from the software center or use this command in the terminal:

$ sudo apt remove discord


If you have enabled Snap support on your Linux distribution, you can use the following command to install it:

$ sudo snap install discord

If you want to remove it, you can use the snap command to uninstall it:

$ sudo snap remove discord


Install LAMP Stack on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers step by step process to install a LAMP stack on an Ubuntu 18.04 server. LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to host dynamic websites. LAMP stands for Linux OS, with Apache web server, Data store in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To Install Apache and Update the Firewall.

1. Install Apache using Ubuntu’s package manager, apt:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install apache2

2. Allow incoming HTTP and HTTPS traffic for this profile:

$ sudo ufw allow in "Apache Full"


Install MySQL on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install MySQL version 8.0 on an Ubuntu 20.04 server. By completing it, you will have a working relational database that you can use to build your next website or application.

MySQL is an open-source database management system, commonly installed as part of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. It implements the relational model and uses Structured Query Language (better known as SQL) to manage its data.


To install MySQL using the APT package repository:

1. Update the package index on your server if you've not done so recently:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the mysql-server package:

$ sudo apt install mysql-server

This will install MySQL, but will not prompt you to set a password or make any other configuration changes. 

Because this leaves your installation of MySQL insecure, we will address this next.


Find Out Which Processes are Listening on a Particular Port in Ubuntu 20.04

This article covers methods to find out the processes that are listening to particular ports on your Linux system. A port is nothing but an endpoint of communication used in computer networks.

You have physical or wireless connections at the hardware level. At software or operating system level a port act as a logical construct that acts as communication port of network service such as SSH, HTTPD and more.

TCP and UDP are the most common port. TCP is an acronym for Transmission Control Protocol. UDP is an acronym for User Datagram Protocol.


How to Find Out Which Process Is Listening Upon a Port in Linux ?

1. netstat command or ss command – a command-line tool that displays network connections, routing tables, and a number of network interface statistics.

2. fuser command – a command line tool to identify processes using files or sockets.

3. lsof command – a command line tool to list open files under Linux / UNIX to report a list of all open files and the processes that opened them.

4. /proc/$pid/ file system – Under Linux /proc includes a directory for each running process (including kernel processes) at /proc/PID, containing information about that process, notably including the processes name that opened port.


Clear RAM Cache, Buffer, and Swap Space on Linux System - How to do it ?

This article covers how to clear the cache and buffer memory of the physical memory along with clearing the swap space when needed.

Every Linux System has three options to clear cache without interrupting any processes or services.


If you want to clear Swap space, you may like to run the below command.

$ swapoff -a && swapon -a


To Clear PageCache, dentries and inodes:

$ sync; echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches


To Clear PageCache only:

$ sync; echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches


To Clear dentries and inodes:

$ sync; echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches


Add Swap Space on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how we can add and maintain swap space in the ubuntu system. Swap space can take the form of either a dedicated swap partition or a swap file. Typically, when running Ubuntu on a virtual machine, a swap partition is not present, and the only option is to create a swap file.


To Adjust the Swappiness Value:

Swappiness is a Linux kernel property that defines how often the system will use the swap space. It can have a value between 0 and 100. A low value will make the kernel to try to avoid swapping whenever possible, while a higher value will make the kernel to use the swap space more aggressively.

On Ubuntu, the default swappiness value is set to 60. You can check the current value by typing the following command:

$ cat /proc/sys/vm/swappiness


To Remove a Swap File:

1. First, deactivate the swap space:

$ sudo swapoff -v /swapfile

2. Next, remove the swap file entry /swapfile swap swap defaults 0 0 from the /etc/fstab file.

3. Finally, remove the actual swapfile file using the rm command:

$ sudo rm /swapfile


Create and Use Bash Aliases on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux System - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the procedure of creating and using bash aliases. Running long and complex commands is usually tedious and time-consuming. Aliases provide much-needed relief by providing shortcuts to those complex commands.

These shortcuts can easily be called on the terminal and yield the same result as the complex command. 

This tutorial shows how to create and add aliases permanently to your bash shell on Linux and Unix-like systems.


To Create Bash Aliases

Creating aliases in bash is very straight forward. 

The syntax is as follows:

alias alias_name="command_to_run"

An alias declaration starts with the alias keyword followed by the alias name, an equal sign and the command you want to run when you type the alias. 


Find and Kill Running Processes in Ubuntu 20.04 Linux System - How to do this ?

This article covers method to comfortably find and kill running process on a Linux system.

If you run an application, it runs some process in the background. If you want to close this application forcefully, you can kill the process associated to it.

To kill a process, you need to know the its process ID (PID). The next section tells you how to find the process ID of a program.


To Kill the process using the PID

1. Once you have the PID of the desired application, use the following command to kill the process:

$ sudo kill -9 process_id

2. If you have more than one process id, you can kill all of them together by providing all the PIDs.

$ sudo kill -9 process_id_1 process_id_2 process_id_3


Install Minecraft on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers different methods to install and launch Minecraft on Ubuntu OS. Also, you can remove Minecraft in case you need to do so.

Minecraft is a game about placing blocks and going on adventures. It's set in infinitely-generated worlds of wide open terrain – icy mountains, swampy bayous, vast pastures and much more – filled with secrets, wonders and peril!


To Install Minecraft on Ubuntu:

1. Open the Terminal application either through the system Application Launcher search bar or by using the Ctrl+Alt+T shortcut.

Then, enter the following command in order to download the file Minecraft.deb from the Mojang website:

$ wget -o ~/Minecraft.deb https://launcher.mojang.com/download/Minecraft.deb

2. The most feasible way to install software from the .deb package is through the gdebi tool. If you do not have gdebi installed on your system, you can install is through the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt install gdebi-core

3. Run the gdebi command as follows in order to install the Minecraft .deb package:

$ sudo gdebi ~/Minecraft.deb


How to Remove Minecraft from Ubuntu ?

You can completely remove Minecraft from your system along with all the configurations you might have made, through the following command:

$ sudo apt-get --purge remove minecraft launcher

You will be presented with a y/n option. Enter y and the Minecraft Launcher, and the downloaded game will be removed from your system.


Display System and Hardware Details in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to check the system or hardware details of your Ubuntu 20.04 system.

If you want to check all the above details for Debian 10, click here. While to check system or hardware details for CentOS, click here


For the command line tool, inxi is available to check:

i. Audio/sound card(s), driver, sound server.

ii. System battery info

iii. CPU output

iv. Hard Disk info

v. Graphics card, driver, display server, resolution, renderer, OpenGL version.

vi. vii. General info, including processes, uptime, memory, IRC client or shell type, inxi version.

vii. Memory (RAM) data (Require root)

viii. Network card, driver.

ix. system info, partition info, sensors output, USB data, and more.


To install inxi in Ubuntu, simply run command:

$ sudo apt-get install inxi

Then run man inxi to get a list of command options, or run inxi -F to get a brief output containing system or hardware details.


Install Visual Studio Code on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily install Visual Studio code on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. Visual Studio Code is an open-source cross-platform code editor developed by Microsoft.

It has a built-in debugging support, embedded Git control, syntax highlighting, code completion, integrated terminal, code refactoring and snippets.


To Install Visual Studio Code on Ubuntu:

1. First, update the packages index and install the dependencies by typing:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install software-properties-common apt-transport-https wget

2. Next, import the Microsoft GPG key using the following wget command :

$ wget -q https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -

And enable the Visual Studio Code repository by typing:

$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb [arch=amd64] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/vscode stable main"

3. Once the apt repository is enabled , install the latest version of Visual Studio Code with:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install code


Reset Gnome Desktop on Ubuntu 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how To Reset Gnome Desktop Settings To Default. 


To Reset Gnome Desktop in Ubuntu 20.04, Fedora, & Other Linux:

1. First install Gnome Tweaks (if you don’t have it) from your system package manager. Then launch the tool, go to menu -> Reset to Defaults.

2. Ubuntu's default Settings offers a button on header-bar to reset all keyboard shortcuts.

3. And you can reset most Gnome database to default via dconf command. Simply open terminal and run:

$ dconf reset -f /org/gnome/

4. Some changes need a restart to apply.


To install Gnome Tweaks.

Run the command below:

$ sudo apt install gnome-tweaks

After running the command you'll need to restart the session (logout/login).


Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers method to Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04. If you are still using Ubuntu version 16.04, you may want to consider updating to the latest Long Term Support release, version 18.04.


What does LTS or Long Term Support Release Mean?

A Long Term Support release or LTS release, means that Ubuntu will support the version for five years. 

If you are running a production environment, you will likely want to use a Long-Term Support version of your preferred server operating system.


What is New in Ubuntu Version 18.04:

1. Depending on when you installed Ubuntu version 16.04, the Linux kernel used would have been anywhere from version 4.4 to 4.10. Version 18.04 uses Linux kernel 4.15 at launch.

2. Linux kernel 4.5 now includes new features like CPU controller for the cgroup v2 interface, AMD secure memory encryption support, the latest MD driver with software RAID enhancements, and improved power management for systems with SATA Link Power Management.

3. The new kernel also includes some Ubuntu-specific updates, Linux security module stacking support, and the signing of POWER host and NV kernels is now supported.

18.04 does not install Python 2 default, and it updated Python version 3 to version 3.6.

4. Apache updates to version 2.4.29 and supports HTTP/2.

5. Nginx updates to version 1.14.0.

6. PHP updates from version 7.1 to 7.2.

7. The ifupdown network manager is removed on new installs and is deprecated. netplan.io is the new network configuration manager.

8. OpenSSH now refuses to use RSA keys smaller than 1024 bits. This command can report the length of a key.

ssh-keygen -l -f /path/to/key.pub

32-bit PowerPC support has been dropped.

9. The Subuquity server installer brings live sessions and fast installs of Ubuntu Desktop to server users.

10. Ubuntu 18.04 ships with LXD system container manager version 3.0. Version 3.0 of LXD allows for clustering of LXD servers, adds support of NVIDIA run-time pass-through, and lxd-p2c is a new tool that turns existing systems into LXD containers.


To Upgrade Ubuntu from 16.04 to 18.04:

1.  Create a backup of your environment.

2. Run the command below to update and upgrade the packages.

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

3. To add the Update Manager to your server add command below to your terminal.

$ sudo apt install update-manager-core

4. Now that you have created a backup installed package updates and have the upgrade manager you are ready to upgrade Ubuntu.

$ sudo do-release-upgrade

5. To check what version of Ubuntu is currently installed use the command below.

$ lsb_release -a


Install and Configure Apache On Ubuntu 18.04 | 16.04 - Step by Step Process.

This article covers how to install an Apache web server on your Ubuntu 20.04 server.

Apache or Apache HTTP server is a free and open source web server, developed and maintained by the Apache Software Foundation.

Apache allows website developers to serve their content over the web. It serves as a delivery man by delivering files requested by users when they enter a domain name in their browser's address bar.


To Install Apache 2 on Ubuntu Linux:

1. You can download the latest version of a software by first updating the local package index of Ubuntu repositories. Open the Terminal and enter the following command in order to do so:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, enter the following command as sudo in order to install Apache2 and its required dependencies:

$ sudo apt install apache2

You may be prompted with a y/n option to continue installation. Please enter Y, after which the installation procedure will begin.

3. When the installation is complete, you can check the version number and thus verify that Apache2 is indeed installed on your system by entering the following command:

$ apache2 -version


Apache Server Logs Location:

1. /var/log/apache2/access.log: By default, every request to your web server is recorded in this log file unless Apache is configured to do otherwise.

2. /var/log/apache2/error.log: By default, all errors are recorded in this file.

The LogLevel directive in the Apache configuration specifies how much detail the error logs will contain.


Install WordPress On Ubuntu 18.04 | 16.04 Servers - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers methods to install WordPress on Ubuntu Linux System. WordPress is undoubtedly one of the most popular Content Management Systems (CMS) available in the market. You can easily install WordPress on Ubuntu 18.04 because it is configured to work with Apache or NGINIX, MySql, PHP in a LAMP or a LEMP stack. 

It also features an extensive plugin framework, and theme system that allows site owners to use the simple and powerful publishing tools.


To Configure Maximum File Size Upload Setting to Allow Larger Files on Ubuntu:

By default, PHP restricts web uploads to under two megabytes.

To allow larger file uploads through the web interface, configure the upload_max_filesize setting in php.ini:

Apache: /etc/php/7.2/apache2/php.ini.
NGINX: /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini.

; Maximum allowed size for uploaded files.

; http://php.net/upload-max-filesize

upload_max_filesize = 2M


Install and Configure Memcached on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and configure the Memcached caching server on CentOS 8 system through the command-line tool.

Now, you can easily install and configure the Memcached server on your CentOS 8 system easily. 

Memcached is a free and open-source high-performance in-memory key-value data store.

Typically, it used as a caching system to speed up applications by caching various objects from the results of database calls.


To install memcached on CentOS, perform the following tasks as a user with root privileges:

1. Install memcached and its dependencies:

$ yum -y update
$ yum install -y libevent libevent-devel
$ yum install -y memcached
$ yum install -y php-pecl-memcache

2. Change the memcached configuration setting for CACHESIZE and OPTIONS:

i. Open /etc/sysconfig/memcached in a text editor.

ii. Locate the value for CACHESIZE and change it to at least 1GB. For example

CACHESIZE="1GB"

iii. Locate the value for OPTIONS and change it to localhost or 127.0.0.1

3. Save your changes to memcached and exit the text editor.

4. Restart memcached.

$ service memcached restart

5. Restart your web server.

For Apache:

$ service httpd restart


Install NetBeans on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the different methods for the installation of NetBeans on Ubuntu OS.

NetBeans is an open source integrated development environment that comes with good cross-platform support. 

You can configure this tool to support a wide array of development objectives. 

Practically, you can develop Web, Desktop and Mobile Applications without leaving this platform.

Besides this, the user can add a wide array of known languages such as PHP, C, C++, HTML, Ajax, JavaScript, JSP, Ruby on Rails  and so on.


To install Netbeans IDE on any Linux distribution using Snap.

Snap is a universal package manager and if you have enabled Snap on your distribution, you can install it using the following command:

$ sudo snap install netbeans --classic


Test your Internet Speed through Command-Line in CentOS 8 - How to do it ?

This article covers the different methods through which you can install the Speedtest utility on your CentOS 8 system. 

Also, we have also shown how to test the internet speed through the Speedtest-cli utility and how to generate URLs to share with others.


To Install Speedtest-cli on CentOS 8:

1. Open the terminal to make sure that Python is installed and working properly. Type the following command to check Python version:

$ python --version

If python is not installed on your system then first you will install python on your system. 

For this purpose, you need to run the below-mentioned command on the terminal to install python on CentOS 8.

$ sudo yum install python2

2. Download the speedtest_cli.py file using 'wget' command:

$ wget -O speedtest-cli https://raw.githubusercontent.com/sivel/speedtest-cli/master/speedtest.py

After successfully saved the downloaded file, you will type the following command on the terminal:

$ chmod +x speedtest-cli


Install PlayOnLinux on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install PlayOnLinux on Ubuntu OS using two different ways.

You can opt for any installation method (command line or GUI-based method) that is most convenient for you.

PlayOnLinux will allow you to install your Windows-based software on different virtual drives, which means that there is no interaction between the different applications you install. 

So if something doesn't work right, you know it won't affect the rest of your stuff and they can easily uninstall it by removing the virtual drive.


To install PlayOnLinux on Ubuntu:

PlayOnLinux can be found in the Ubuntu software repositories, so you can get it from Ubuntu Software Center or install it with the following command:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install playonlinux

It is also recommended to install some dependencies that may be necessary:

# sudo apt-get install winbind
# sudo apt-get install unrar-free p7zip-full


Install Redshift on Linux Mint - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the procedure of installing Redshift- the color temperature adjusting tool on a Linux system.

Also, we have shared with you the procedure of uninstalling this tool from your system if you do not want to use it any longer.

Redshift is a tool that is used to adjust the color temperature of your screen according to your surroundings.

The color temperature adapts to the time of the day. 

A different color temperature is set for the night and daytime. It applies a red hue or redness effect to your screen or graphical display. 

This helps reduce eye strain and lessen the risk of delayed sleep in case you are working in front of the screen at night. 


How does RedShift work?

In the early morning, redshift allows your eyes to gradually adapt over a period of about an hour, as the temperature transitions smoothly from night time until the day. 

The color temperature during the day should match the light from outside, typically around 5500K-6500K. The default daytime temperature is 6500K.

At night the color temperature is set to match the lamps in the room. 

This temperature is around 3000K-4000K. The default night temperature is 4500K.


To install RedShift on Ubuntu:

1. The most straightforward of installing redshift on Ubuntu 20.04 is using the apt package manager. To install Redshift, execute the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install redshift redshift-gtk


Check Disk Usage Using Duf Command-line Utility on Linux

This article covers how To View Disk Usage With Duf On Linux And Unix.

Duf is a command line utility to find disk usage in Linux and Unix-like systems.
It displays the disk usage details in a nice tabular-column and user-friendly layout.
You can even get the disk usage output in JSON format as well.

Features of duf Utility:
1. Easy to use
2. Colorful display
3. Adjust height and width as per your terminal resize movement
4. Sorting data as per our need
5. Filters and groups
6. JSON outputs and more

On DEB-based systems such as Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, download the .deb binary installation file from the releases page and install it using your system's package manager.

$ sudo apt install gdebi
$ sudo gdebi duf_0.3.1_linux_amd64.deb

On RPM-based systems such as RHEL, CentOS, Fedora, download the .rpm binary file and install it using command:

$ sudo rpm -Uvh 
duf_0.3.1_linux_amd64.rpm


To View Disk Usage With Duf On Linux And Unix:
All you have to do is just run the duf command without any options like below:

$ duf


Install Moodle on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to download, configure, and install Moodle powered by the LAMP stack on RHEL 8.

Moodle is the world’s most popular learning management system for building robust online learning sites.

How to open HTTP and HTTPS for Moodle Learning Platform in CentOS 8 ?
To open HTTP and HTTPS services in the firewall to allow traffic to the NGINX web server, run the commands below:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http 
# firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https

# firewall-cmd --reload


Install Cinnamon Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to install Cinnamon desktop on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.
Want to try out the Cinnamon Desktop Environment?

Without installing Linux Mint, you can get the desktop packages in Ubuntu via a few commands.
Cinnamon is available in Ubuntu main repositories, though the package version is however a little old.
Ensure to enable universe repository and then use this command to install Cinnamon on Ubuntu 20.04:

$ sudo apt install cinnamon


Install GNOME Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers methods to Install GNOME Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Most Ubuntu servers are run on CLI (Command-Line Interface) mode.

But in some cases, one may need to have a desktop to install some applications with GUI (Grapich User Interface) mode.

To Update Repositories and Packages on Ubuntu:
Start by updating the repositories and package lists:

# sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

Press Y and hit enter when asked if you want to continue.

To Install Gnome on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa:
1. First, make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade
$ sudo apt install tasksel

2. To install GNOME desktop vanilla version execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install gnome-session gdm3

3. To Install Full Gnome Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04:

$ sudo tasksel install ubuntu-desktop


Install Drupal on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to setup Drupal on Debian Linux System.

Drupal is a powerful CMS that allows you to design stunning websites and blogs with simple tools and drag and drop features in a matter of a few hours.
It offers flexibility in terms of customization of your site to meet your desired results.
You can easily get started with free templates before advancing to premium templates that have more features.

To Configure Apache 2.4:
1. Enable Apache's rewrite module. This module is necessary since Drupal 8 enables Clean URLs by default;

$ sudo a2enmod rewrite

2. Specify the rewrite conditions for your Drupal site’s document root in Apache's configuration file using the text editor of your choice.
If you installed and configured your Apache server using LAMP stack on Debian 10 guide, the configuration file for your site is located at /etc/apache2/sites-available/example.com.conf.
File: /etc/apache2/sites-available/example.com.conf:

<Directory /var/www/html/example.com/public_html>
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride All
        Require all granted
          RewriteEngine on
          RewriteBase /
          RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
          RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
          RewriteRule ^(.*)$ index.php?q=$1 [L,QSA]
</Directory>

3. Change the ownership of your site's document root from root to www-data. This allows you to install modules and themes, and to update Drupal, without being prompted for FTP credentials.

$ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html/example.com

4. Restart Apache so all changes are applied.

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2


Install Slack on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the different methods of installation of Slack on the Ubuntu 20.04 system in detail.
Slack is a well-known and modern communication tool used to organize various communications in channels so that teams can work together and communicate when needed.

Slack Installation on Ubuntu using Snap package:
1. Install snapd package in your system. write the appended command, and then hit enter.

$ sudo apt install snapd

2. If the latest apt is not installed in your system then try using apt-get update && apt-get upgrade to get all of the available updates.
3. You can install the slack by using affixed command. You need to type this command on the terminal then press enter.

$ sudo snap install slack --classic


Install Amazon Web Service CLI on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the AWS CLI very conveniently on your Linux Mint 20 system and use it for managing the Amazon Web Services very efficiently.
The AWS or Amazon Web Service command line interface is a command line tool for manage our Amazon web services.
AWS CLI provides direct access to the Amazon Web Services public API.
As it is a command line tool, it can also be used to create scripts to automate your Amazon web services.

To the AWS CLI on Ubuntu With APT:
1. First we update the package listing cache with the following command in the terminal (Ctrl + Alt + T):

# sudo apt-get update

2. Now we are going to install the AWS CLI using the command:

# sudo apt-get install awscli

3. We will can check if AWS CLI is working correctly with the following command:

# aws --version


Install Code::Blocks on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to conveniently install the Code::Blocks IDE on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.

After installing this IDE on your system, you can easily use it for C, C++, and FORTRAN development.

You can even uninstall it anytime you want and that too very cleanly by following the uninstallation method of the Code::Blocks IDE.

To Install Code::Blocks IDE using APT:
Code::Blocks IDE is available on Ubuntu repositories and can be installed with the APT command.
1. First update your system.

$ sudo apt update

2. To install codeblock on Ubuntu , run the following command.

$ sudo apt install codeblocks

3. When prompted to continue, just type 'Y' and press ENTER to proceed.

To Remove Code::Blocks IDE from Linux system:

1. To remove codeblocks from ubuntu, run the following command.

$ sudo apt remove codeblocks

2. To complete remove codeblock and its associated configurations, run the following two commands.

$ sudo apt purge codeblocks
$ sudo apt autoremove


Verify if a Server Supports TLS or not on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers different methods to enable you find out if your specified web server is supporting TLS or not.
By so doing, you will be able to ensure whether your information is going to stay secure while using that web server or not.
TLS is an acronym for Transport Layer Security. TLS facilitates secure communication between computers on the Internet.
In this guide, we used both openssl and nmap.

To Verify TLS Support with Openssl:
Openssl is an open source tool for implementing secure communications on the Internet. The openssl tool is available on all major Linux distributions.
If the openssl tool is not already installed on your Linux machine, you may install it as follows.
On Ubuntu/Debian based distributions:

$ sudo apt install openssl

On CentOS/Red Hat based distributions:

$ sudo yum install openssl

Now, to verify TLSv1.3 support on your server or website, run the following command.

$ sudo openssl s_client -connect domain.com:443 -tls1_3


Install Apache Solr on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers method to install Apache Solr on a Ubuntu 20.04 system. Once this search platform is installed on your Ubuntu 20.04 system, it will facilitate you with its exceptional search features.

To Access Apache Solr on Ubuntu:
You can access the Apache Solr web interface using the URL http://your-server-ip:8983/solr.
You should see the Apache Solr web interface.

To install Apache Solr 8.6 on Ubuntu 20.04:
1. You can update your system with the following command:

$ apt-get update -y
$ apt-get upgrade -y

2. Java must be installed in your system. If not installed you can install it by running the following command:

$ apt-get install default-jdk -y

3. After installing Java, you can verify the Java installation using the following command:

$ java -version

4. To get the latest version of Apache Solr is 8.6.0, You can download it with the following command:

$ wget https://archive.apache.org/dist/lucene/solr/8.6.0/solr-8.6.0.tgz

Once downloaded, extract the downloaded file with the following command:

$ tar xzf solr-8.6.0.tgz

5. Next, install the Apache Solr by executing the Solr installation script:

$ bash solr-8.6.0/bin/install_solr_service.sh solr-8.6.0.tgz

6. Apache Solr is installed and listening on port 8983.

You can verify it with the following command:

$ netstat -tunelp | grep 8983


Install Neofetch on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the installation method of the Neofetch shell script on a Ubuntu 20.04 system. After installing this script on your system, you can easily execute it to display your system's information on the terminal.
However, you can uninstall this script any time you want if you do not feel like using it anymore on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.
Neofetch is a command line system information tool which supports almost all operating systems.

It displays the system information in the terminal along side the operating system's logo.

To Install Neofetch in Ubuntu / Linux:
Execute the commands:

# sudo apt-get update
# sudo apt-get install neofetch


Install Flameshot in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the method of installing Flameshot on a Ubuntu 20.04 system.

Also, we also shared with you the method of removing this screenshot tool from your Ubuntu 20.04 system. Flameshot is a powerful yet simple to use screenshot software for Linux.

Main Features of Flameshot:

1. Customizable appearance.
2. Easy to use.
3. In-app screenshot edition.
4. DBus interface.
5. Upload to Imgur.

To Install Flameshot on Ubuntu:
Flameshot is installed on Ubuntu from apt repository by running the following command:

# sudo apt install flameshot

You can also build from source, but you need to install build tools prior to packaging flameshot.

# sudo apt install g++ build-essential qt5-default qt5-qmake qttools5-dev-tools
sudo apt install libqt5dbus5 libqt5network5 libqt5core5a libqt5widgets5 libqt5gui5 libqt5svg5-dev
sudo apt install git openssl ca-certificates
git clone https://github.com/lupoDharkael/flameshot.git
cd flameshot
mkdir build
cd build
qmake ../
sudo make
sudo make install

The preferred method is installation from the apt repository as it is easy to update package to the latest release.

To Install Flameshot on Arch Linux / Manjaro:
For Arch Linux and its derivatives like Manjaro, Antergos e.t.c. The package is available from the upstream repository.

# sudo pacman -S flameshot


To remove Flameshot from Ubuntu 20.04:
1. When you no longer want to use this screenshot tool on your Ubuntu 20.04 system, you can remove it by executing the command shown below:

$ sudo apt-get purge flameshot

2. Finally, you can also remove all those packages and dependencies that are not needed any longer by executing the following command:

$ sudo apt-get autoremove


Install Atom editor on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install atom editor on CentOS 8 using the command-line application.

Atom is a free and open-source text and source code editor for OS X, Linux, and Windows with support for plug-ins written in Node.js, and embedded Git Control, developed by GitHub

To install latest version of Atom using .rpm package on your CentOS 8 machine:
1. First, go to the Atom official website and download the Atom .rpm package:

# sudo curl -SLo atom.x86_64.rpm  https://atom.io/download/rpm

2. You can now install Atom using dnf command:

# sudo dnf localinstall atom.x86_64.rpm

3. Now that Atom is installed on your CentOS system you can launch it from the command line by typing atom or by clicking on the Atom icon (Applications -> Programming -> Atom).


Install Gradle on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the latest Gradle version on CentOS 8 system. 

Also you will learn how to set up the environment variable in the Gradle configuration file.

Gradle is an open-source build automation system.

It supports multiple programming languages such as Java, C++, and Python development. It is based on the concepts of Apache Ant and Apache Maven.


To verify if Gradle is installed properly use the gradle -v command which will display the Gradle version:

# gradle -v



Install RPM Packages on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the RPM package on the CentOS 8 system.

Now you can easily download, install, update and erase Rpm packages on your CentOS system.
While working in Linux, you may have seen downloadable files with the .rpm extension.
Rpm files are designed to be downloaded and installed independently, outside of a software repository.
RPM Package Manager (RPM) is a free and open-source package management system for installing, uninstalling and managing software packages in Linux.

How to Download RPM Installation File on Linux ?
1. To install wget in CentOS, enter the following in a terminal window:

$ sudo yum install wget

2. To install weget in Fedora, enter the following:

$ sudo dnf install wget

3. Now, you can use the wget command to download the .rpm file you want.

Enter the following:

$ wget http://some_website/sample_file.rpm


To check the .rpm file for dependencies using the following command:

# sudo rpm –qpR sample_file.rpm

The system should list all the dependencies:
i. –q – This option tells RPM to query the file
ii. –p – This option lets you specify the target package to query
iii. –R – This lists the requirements for the package


How to install a .rpm file to your Linux CentOS or Fedora system ?
You can use the yum package manager to install .rpm files.
Enter the following:

# sudo yum localinstall sample_file.rpm

The localinstall option instructions yum to look at your current working directory for the installation file.


Install Putty on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install Putty on your Ubuntu OS. Now you can use your Putty SSH client on Linux to connect to remote systems. For more help regarding Putty, visit its user manual.


PuTTY is a popular terminal emulator for Windows, but it is not only limited to Windows operating system. 

Being free and open source, it is popular among Linux users too. PuTTY supports a wide range of protocols such as serial, SSH, Telnet, rlogin, SCP, SFTP etc. 

Sysadmins generally use PuTTY as an SSH and telnet client whereas the Maker community widely uses PuTTY for interfacing with the serial ports on their hardware. 

PuTTY ships with a command line tool named "psftp", the PuTTY SFTP client, which is used to securely transfer files between computers over an SSH connection. 


To install PuTTY on Ubuntu:

1. In order to install Putty, you will need to ensure that the Universe repository is enabled on your Ubuntu system. If it is not already enabled, you can enable it by using the following command in Terminal:

$ sudo add-apt-repository universe

When prompted for the password, enter the sudo password.

2. After enabling the Universe repository, now you can install Putty on your system. Issue the following command in Terminal in order to do so:

$ sudo apt install putty

When prompted for the password, enter the sudo password.


Install Jenkins on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install Jenkins on Ubuntu OS. For further information about Jenkins, visit its official documentation.

Jenkins is an open-source automation server that can be used to easily set up continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipelines.

Continuous integration (CI) is a DevOps practice in which team members regularly commit their code changes to the version control repository, after which automated builds and tests are run. 

Continuous delivery (CD) is a series of practices where code changes are automatically built, tested, and deployed to production.


To install Jenkins on Ubuntu 20.04 as a standalone service:

1. Run the following commands as root or user with sudo privileges or root to install OpenJDK 11:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install openjdk-11-jdk

2. Once the installation is complete, verify it by checking the Java version:

# java -version

3. Import the GPG keys of the Jenkins repository using the following wget command:

# wget -q -O - https://pkg.jenkins.io/debian/jenkins.io.key | sudo apt-key add -

4. Next, add the Jenkins repository to the system with:

# sudo sh -c 'echo deb http://pkg.jenkins.io/debian-stable binary/ > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/jenkins.list'

5. Once the Jenkins repository is enabled, update the apt package list and install the latest version of Jenkins by typing:

# sudo apt update
# sudo apt install jenkins

6. Jenkins service will automatically start after the installation process is complete. You can verify it by printing the service status:

# systemctl status jenkins


Install AnyDesk On Ubuntu 20.04 / 18.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers methods to Install AnyDesk on Ubuntu 20.04/18.04 Linux.

AnyDesk is a remote server management tool which provides powerful Linux-based connectivity for smooth and seamless remote access to any computer. 

AnyDesk can be used comfortably for both individual, teams and in professional organizations offering remote support to customers.


To Install AnyDesk on Ubuntu:

1. Start by ensuring your system is updated.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt -y upgrade

2. Import AnyDesk GPG key for signing APT packages.

$ wget -qO - https://keys.anydesk.com/repos/DEB-GPG-KEY | sudo apt-key add -

3. Then add AnyDesk repository content to your Ubuntu system.

$ echo "deb http://deb.anydesk.com/ all main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/anydesk-stable.list

4. Finally update apt cache and install the latest release of AnyDesk on Ubuntu.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install anydesk

5. After installation, use the Desktop Applications launcher to start AnyDesk on Ubuntu.

$ anydesk


Install Visual Studio Code on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the VS code package on CentOS 8 using the command line application. Visual Studio Code is a free and open-source, cross-platform IDE or code editor that enables developers to develop applications and write code using a myriad of programming languages such as C, C++, Python, Go and Java to mention a few.


To Install Visual Studio Code on Debian, Ubuntu and Linux Mint:

1. Update your system by running the command.

$ sudo apt update

2. Once updated, proceed and install dependencies required by executing.

$ sudo apt install software-properties-common apt-transport-https

3. Next, using the wget command, download the repository and import Microsoft’s GPG key as shown:

$ wget -qO- https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc | gpg --dearmor > packages.microsoft.gpg
$ sudo install -o root -g root -m 644 packages.microsoft.gpg /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/
$ sudo sh -c 'echo "deb [arch=amd64 signed-by=/etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/packages.microsoft.gpg] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/vscode stable main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/vscode.list'

4. Once you’ve enabled the repository, update the system and install Visual Studio Code by running the command:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install code


Install Viber on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can install Viber on your Ubuntu system. Also, you will learn how to remove Viber from Ubuntu in case you no longer need it.

Viber is an instant messaging and video calling app that allows you to send instant messages, photos, audio, video files, make free calls, and share your location with other Viber users. Viber was first released for smartphones, then later also developed for desktop users including Windows, Linux, and macOS. 


To Install Viber via Deb Package:

1. Issue the following command in Terminal to download Viber .deb installer file.

$ wget https://download.cdn.viber.com/cdn/desktop/Linux/viber.deb

2. Issue the following command in Terminal in order to install the viber.deb package.

$ sudo apt install ./viber.deb


To Uninstall Viber from Ubuntu:

Run the below command to uninstall Viber from your Ubuntu desktop.

# sudo apt remove viber


Install ReactJS on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the method of using ReactJS on a Ubuntu 20.04 system by installing NodeJS and required dependencies on it. 

Finally, we demonstrated to you the usage of ReactJS by creating a sample application.


To install npm on Ubuntu Linux, login into your server as a sudo user and invoke the command below:

$ sudo apt install npm

Once the installation is complete, you can verify the version of npm installed using the command:

$ npm --version


To install the tool, run the following npm command:

$ sudo npm -g install create-react-app


Once installed, you can confirm the version of installed by running:

$ create-react-app --version


How to Install ReactJS on Ubuntu 20.04? 

React or Reacts is a front-end JavaScript library that is used to develop UI components. It is managed by Facebook and open-source developers.

It makes it effortless to create and maintain interactive UI specifically for single-page applications. 

Many developers are using it because of its flexibility, integrity, and its feature to bring Html directly into JS. 

Many well-known corporations such as Facebook, Uber, and Instagram used the ReactJS framework to create interfaces.


To install npm, open up the terminal and type the following command:

$ sudo apt install npm


To verify if the installation is completed successfully, check the npm version through the command:

$ npm --version


Copy and Paste Text in the Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux Terminal - Step by Step ?

This article covers how you can copy and paste text in the Linux Terminal. This saves the time that spends in typing the long commands and text.

When you enter a long command into the Terminal window that you found on the web or in a document, you can save yourself some time by easily copying and pasting the command at the prompt.


To Copy and Paste Text into the Linux Terminal:

1. To begin, highlight the text of the command you want on the webpage or in the document you found. 

2. Press Ctrl + C to copy the text.

3. Press Ctrl + Alt + T to open a Terminal window, if one is not already open. Right-click at the prompt and select "Paste" from the popup menu.

4. The text you copied is pasted at the prompt. 

5. Press Enter to execute the command.

6. You can also copy text from the Terminal window to paste into other programs. 

7. Simply highlight the text, right-click on it, and select "Copy" from the popup menu. 

You can paste this text into a text editor, word processor, and so on.


Install Blender on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to install Blender on Ubuntu Systems. Blender 3D is a professional open-source 3D graphics and animation software. It has a rich feature set like animations, visual effects, 3D modeling, and motion graphics. 

It produces great results and is used in professional film production. 


To install Blender 3D on Ubuntu:

1. We need to update our Ubuntu 20.04 system before installing Blender 3D on it. This can be done with the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Now, we can install Blender 3D on our Ubuntu 20.04 system with the following command:

$ sudo apt install blender

During the installation of this software, you will be asked to provide confirmation for this action by typing in "y" and then pressing the Enter key.


Install and Configure Fail2ban on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the installation of Fail2ban and the configuration of an sshd filter. There are so many options to configure but we focused on the basic ones. Feel free to peruse the Fail2ban man pages by running man fail2ban to discover what more you can do with it.

Fail2ban is a free, open-source and widely used intrusion prevention tool that scans log files for IP addresses that show malicious signs such as too many password failures, and much more, and it bans them (updates firewall rules to reject the IP addresses). 

By default, it ships with filters for various services including sshd.


To install  and configure Fail2ban on CentOS/RHEL 8:

1. After logging into your system, access a command-line interface, then enable the EPEL repository on your system:

# dnf install epel-release

OR

# dnf install https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm

2. Afterward, install the Fail2ban package by running the following command:

# dnf install fail2ban

3. To start and enable the fail2ban service for now and check if it is up and running using the following systemctl command:

# systemctl start fail2ban
# systemctl enable fail2ban
# systemctl status fail2ban


Manage Disk Volumes in RHEL / CentOS Linux - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Manage Disk Volumes in Linux. Disk drives management is one of the most repeated and important tasks for every System Administrator which is considered one of the critical activities. Also, you will be able to increase the disk on your system.

Linux needs at least one partition, namely for its root file system and we can't install Linux OS without partitions.

Once created, a partition must be formatted with an appropriate file system before files can be written to it.


Facts about fdisk Command?

1. fdisk stands for fixed disk or format disk is a cli utility that allow users to perform following actions on disks. 

2. It allows us to view, create, resize, delete, move and copy the partitions.

3. It understands MBR, Sun, SGI and BSD partition tables and it doesn't understand GUID Partition Table (GPT) and it is not designed for large partitions.

4. fdisk allows us to create a maximum of four primary partitions per disk. 

5. One of these may be an extended partition and it holds multiple logical partitions.


Install LAMP Stack on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the installation of the LAMP stack (i.e., Linux, Apache, MariaDB, and PHP) on RHEL 8.

LAMP stands for Linux, Apache, MariaDB/MySQL and PHP, all of which are open source.


With the yum commands below, install LAMP stack:

# Will automatically update

$ sudo yum -y update

# Will automatically install Apache/HTTPD

$ sudo yum -y install httpd


To Install MariaDB Database Server on CentOS 8/RHEL 8:

1. Enter the following command to install MariaDB on CentOS 8/RHEL 8.

# dnf install mariadb-server mariadb -y

2. After it's installed, we need to start it.

# systemctl start mariadb

3. Enable auto start at system boot time.

# systemctl enable mariadb

4. Check status:

# systemctl status mariadb


Install AWX on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install ansible AWX on Ubuntu 20.04. You have got a basic idea about managing hosts, inventories, and projects from AWX ansible.

Ansible AWX is an open source tool which provides a web-based user interface, REST API, and task engine for easy and collaborative management of Ansible Playbooks and Inventories.

AWX allows you to centrally manage Ansible playbooks, inventories, Secrets, and scheduled jobs from a web interface. 


To Install Ansible on Ubuntu:

Run the following commands,

# sudo apt update
# sudo apt install ansible


Add a User to Sudoers on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to add a user to sudoers using different methods, limit root access with sudo and remove a user from sudoers.

Sudo is a very handy tool for system administrators that allow them to provide root access to a user with granularity.


Steps to Add Sudo User on Ubuntu ?

1. Log into the system with a root user or an account with sudo privileges.

2. Open a terminal window and add a new user with the command:

# adduser newuser

The adduser command creates a new user, plus a group and home directory for that user.

You may get an error message that you have insufficient privileges. (This typically only happens for non-root users.) Get around it by entering:

# sudo adduser newuser

3. You can replace newuser with any username you wish. The system will add the new user; then prompt you to enter a password. Enter a great secure password, then retype it to confirm.


To Add User to Sudo Group:

1. In a terminal, enter the command:

# usermod -aG sudo newuser

Replace newuser with the username that you entered in Step 1.

Again, if you get an error, run the command with sudo as follows:

# sudo usermod -aG sudo newuser

The -aG option tells the system to append the user to the specified group. (The -a option is only used with G).


Install Apache OpenOffice on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install Apache OpenOffice on CentOS 8. Apache OpenOffice is a software bundle which contains various software tools like word processor, spreadsheet, database management, and so on. It is very much similar to other popular editors like Libreoffice and NeoOffice. 


Main features and tools provided by OpenOffice:

1. Writer a word processor you can use for anything from writing a quick letter to producing an entire book.

2. Calc a powerful spreadsheet with all the tools you need to calculate, analyze, and present your data in numerical reports or sizzling graphics.

3. Impress the fastest, most powerful way to create effective multimedia presentations.

4. Draw lets you produce everything from simple diagrams to dynamic 3D illustrations.

5. Base lets you manipulate databases seamlessly. Create and modify tables, forms, queries, and reports, all from within Apache OpenOffice.

6. Math lets you create mathematical equations with a graphic user interface or by directly typing your formulas into the equation editor.


Change User Password in Ubuntu Linux - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can change user password in Linux either graphically or using the command line. Both Linux and UNIX-like operating systems use the passwd command to change user password. 

This applies to any Linux distribution, including Alpine, Arch, Ubuntu, Debian, RHEL, Fedora, Oracle CentOS, SUSE/OpenSUSE and other popular Linux distros.

The passwd is used to update a user's authentication token (password) stored in /etc/shadow file. 


To Set User Password in Linux:

Type following passwd command to change your own password:

$ passwd


To see all user account try grep command or cat command as follows:

$ cat /etc/passwd
$ grep '^userNameHere' /etc/passwd
$ grep '^linuxapt' /etc/passwd


Install PyCharm on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install PyCharm on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. 

PyCharm is a cross-platform IDE that provides consistent experience on the Windows, macOS, and Linux operating systems. Also, you can also remove it any time from your Ubuntu 20.04 system by following the steps outlined in this guide. 


Main features of PyCharm IDE:

1. Syntax highlighting

2. Auto-Indentation and code formatting

3. Code completion

4. Line and block commenting

5. On-the-fly error highlighting

6. Code snippets

7. Code folding

8. Easy code navigation and search

9. Code analysis

10. Configurable language injections

11. Python refactoring

12. Documentation


To Install PyCharm in Ubuntu and other Linux using Snap:

1. Use the snap command to install the PyCharm Community Edition:

$ sudo snap install pycharm-community --classic

2. To remove PyCharm, you may use this command:

$ sudo snap remove pycharm-community


Install OpenOffice on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to perform the installation of the latest version of OpenOffice on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Once installed users can easily use this application suite to make use of the different sub-modules.

Apache OpenOffice is a free and open-source office productivity software suite similar to LibreOffice and Microsoft Office suite.


Main features of Apache OpenOffice:

1. Writer a word processor you can use for anything from writing a quick letter to producing an entire book.

2. Calc a powerful spreadsheet with all the tools you need to calculate, analyze, and present your data in numerical reports or sizzling graphics.

3. Impress the fastest, most powerful way to create effective multimedia presentations.

4. Draw lets you produce everything from simple diagrams to dynamic 3D illustrations.

5. Base lets you manipulate databases seamlessly. Create and modify tables, forms, queries, and reports, all from within Apache OpenOffice.

6. Math lets you create mathematical equations with a graphic user interface or by directly typing your formulas into the equation editor.


To Uninstall LibreOffice on Ubuntu:

1. Uninstall LibreOffice on Ubuntu by running commands below in your terminal.

$ sudo apt-get remove --purge libreoffice*

This will remove LibreOffice and its dependencies. 

2. Next is to clear out the local repository of LibreOffice packages.

$ sudo apt clean

3. Clear all LibreOffice dependencies that are orphaned – no longer required.

$ sudo apt-get autoremove


Compress PDF File in Ubuntu - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how you can compress the PDF file size in Linux and its distributions like Ubuntu. 

Although applications like LibreOffice Writer allow you to convert your business documents into portable and secure PDFs, sometimes the files they produce are too large and unwieldy. These huge files may hog network bandwidth, waste space on company storage devices or be too big to share as email attachments. 

Fortunately, Ubuntu provides a complicated, but efficient method to reduce the size of your PDFs using the standard Ghostscript library of command line utilities.


How to use Ghostscript command to compress PDF file in Linux Systems ?

You can use Ghostscript command line tool for compressing a PDF file. 

Most Linux distributions include the open source version of Ghostscript already. 

However, you can still try to install it just to make sure.

On Debian/Ubuntu based distributions, use the following command to install Ghostscript:

$ sudo apt install ghostscript

1. Start a Ubuntu terminal session and navigate to the folder containing the PDF file you want to shrink.

2. PDF is in the Documents folder, type "cd Documents" (without the quotation marks) at the terminal prompt and press "Enter."

3. Type the Ghostscript command to reduce the size of your PDF file. For example, if your file is named "mydoc.pdf" and you want the reduced version to be called "mydocsmaller.pdf," type the following command at the terminal prompt as a single line:

gs -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -dCompatibilityLevel=1.4 -dPDFSETTINGS=/screen -dNOPAUSE -dQUIET -dBATCH -sOutputFile=mydocsmaller.pdf mydoc.pdf

This command instructs the Ghostscript GS utility to take the file "mydoc.pdf" and create a version 1.4-compatible, low-resolution PDF file called "mydoc_smaller.pdf" that is optimized to be displayed on your PC screen rather than printed on paper.


Install Ruby on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the method of installing Ruby on a Ubuntu 20.04 system.

Also, if you want to remove this programming language from your Ubuntu 20.04 system, then you can also do this by the method that we mentioned in this guide.


To Update RubyGem Package Manager:

RubyGems is a Ruby Package Manager, coming with the gem command-line tool. It's automatically installed when we install Ruby on the system.

To update the RubyGem to the latest version, run the following command.

$ gem update --system


How To Install Ruby on Rails on Ubuntu ?

Here, we will install the latest version of Ruby on Rails through the RubyGem package manager.

Install Ruby on Rails using the gem command below:

$ gem install rails

Once all installation is completed, check the Ruby on Rails version:

$ rails --version


To Install and Configure PostgreSQL on Ubuntu System:

1. Install the PostgreSQL database server to the Ubuntu 20.04 using the apt command below:

$ sudo apt install postgresql postgresql-contrib libpq-dev -y

2. Once all installation is completed, start the PostgreSQL service and add it to the system boot:

$ systemctl start postgresql
$ systemctl enable postgresql


Install MongoDB on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install MongoDB on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS using either the apt package manager or by downloading and installing through the archive. For more information, visit MongoDB's official documentation.


MongoDB is an open-source and cross-platform document-oriented database system written in C++. It stores data in collections of JSON-like, flexible documents and used to create powerful websites and applications. 

Due to its scalability and high performance, it is used for building modern applications that require powerful, mission-critical and high-availability databases.


To Configure MongoDB on Ubuntu:

MongoDB default configuration file is located at /etc/mongod.conf

By default, each user will have access to all databases and perform any action. 

For production environments, it is recommended to enable the MongoDB authentication.

i. You can do it by editing the file /etc/mongod.conf:

$ nano /etc/mongod.conf

2. Add the following lines:

security:
  authorization: enabled

3. Save and close the file then restart the MongoDB service to apply the changes:

$ systemctl restart mongod


Advantages of MongoDB:

1. Absence of a schema

2. Based on the collections of various documents

3. A clear structure of every object

4. Highly scalable

5. Internal memory is used to store data, which lets us get data faster.

6. Data is stored as JSON objects.

7. MongoDB supports document-based queries


Install Postfix on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the installation of Postfix on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Also, We perform the configuration to send and receive the emails in an accurate manner.
Postfix was originally designed as a replacement for Sendmail – the traditional SMTP server on Unix. In comparison, Postfix is more secure and easier to configure.
It is compatible with Sendmail, so if you uninstall Sendmail and replace it with Postfix, your existing scripts and programs will continue to work seamlessly.

To install Postfix on Ubuntu:
Postfix is included in Ubuntu's default repositories, so you can install it with APT.
1. To begin, update your local apt package cache:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the postfix package with the following command. Note that here we pass the DEBIAN_PRIORITY=low environmental variable into this installation command. This will cause the installation process to prompt you to configure some additional options:

$ sudo DEBIAN_PRIORITY=low apt install postfix

Note: If you need to ever return to change Postfix settings, you can do so by running:

$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure postfix


Zoom Video Filters not Available in Linux ?

This article covers methods to fix Zoom Video Filters not Available in Linux.

Zoom Video Filters turned ON but no filters available

just close zoom and login when you reopen it. problem solved.

You need to sign up for a free account on Zoom to use video filters.


How to get video filters on Zoom?

Here are the steps to add video filters on Zoom:

1. Click on your profile picture which can be found in the top-right corner of the screen.

2. Click on the 'Settings' option from the dropdown menu.

3. From the Settings menu, click on the 'Video' tab which is the second option.

4. Here, you need to look for an option labelled 'Touch up my appearance'. You need to enable this feature by checking the box besides the option.


How to resolve Zoom video filters not showing ?

Several users on social media have been reporting that they are unable to view the Zoom filters on their computer. 

If you are one of the users facing this issue, you should note that you may not be able to see the filter if you are accessing the service using a web browser. 

You will need to install the latest version of Zoom desktop client on your system and sign in to view the filters.


Reset MySQL Root Password on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to reset or change your MySQL root password on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

MySQL is an open source relational database management system (RDBMS) with a client-server model for creating and managing databases based on a relational model.


To Reset the MySQL root password:

You must run the commands in the following steps as the root user. 

Therefore, you can either log in directly as the root user (which is not recommended for security reasons), or use the su or sudo commands to run the commands as the root user.

To reset the root password for MySQL, follow these steps:

1. Log in to your account using SSH.

2. Stop the MySQL server using the appropriate command for your Linux distribution:

For CentOS and Fedora, type:

$ service mysqld stop

For Debian and Ubuntu, type:

$ service mysql stop

3. Restart the MySQL server with the —skip-grant-tables option. To do this, type the following command:

$ mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables &

4. Log into MySQL using the following command:

$ mysql

5. At the mysql> prompt, reset the password. To do this, type the following command, replacing new-password with the new root password:

UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD('new-password') WHERE User='root';

6. At the mysql> prompt, type the following commands:

FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
exit;

7. Stop the MySQL server using the following command.

You will be prompted to enter the new MySQL root password before the MySQL server shuts down:

$ mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown

8. Start the MySQL server normally. To do this, type the appropriate command for your Linux distribution:

For CentOS and Fedora, type:

$ service mysqld start

For Debian and Ubuntu, type:

$ service mysql start


Install FileZilla on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install FileZilla on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. Also we mentioned the steps to remove FileZilla in case you need to so.

FileZilla is a ftp client for both windows & linux operating system. It is a powerful client for plain FTP, FTP over SSL/TLS (FTPS) and the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). 


To Install FileZilla from command line on Ubuntu / Debian:

Use the following commands.

$sudo apt-get update
$sudo apt-get install filezilla

First command synchronizes the configured repositories.

This command is used to ensure that always the latest version of the software is installed.


Install VMware Workstation Player on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install VMware Workstation on your instance of Ubuntu 20.04. With a virtual machine application like VMware, you can run another operating system inside your current operating system.


To Install VMware in Ubuntu:

1. Install required build packages

Open a terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and use the command below to install required build packages and Linux Kernel headers:

$ sudo apt install build-essential

2. Download VMware Workstation Player

Next step is to download the VMware Workstation Player from their website.

https://www.vmware.com/products/workstation-player.html

3. Install VMware Player

4. Use the command below to make the file executable:

$ chmod +x ~/Downloads/VMware-Player*

5. And then run the installation file:

$ sudo ~/Downloads/VMware-Player*

This will open an installation window.


To Uninstall VMware Player from Ubuntu:

If, for some reasons, you want to uninstall VMware Player, use the following command:

$ sudo /usr/bin/vmware-installer -u vmware-player

Press "Enter" and VMware Player will be removed from your system.


Install MySQL Version 8 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to Install MySQL Version 8 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. Now, you should now have a fully functioning MySQL server version 8 running on your Server.


To Install MySQL 8.0 On CentOS 8 / RHEL 8:

1. Install MySQL 8.0 from MySQL Dev Community

Add the official repository of MySQL to install the MySQL community server:

$ rpm -ivh https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql80-community-release-el8-1.noarch.rpm

Make sure the MySQL repository has been added and enabled by using the following command:

$ yum repolist all | grep mysql | grep enabled


To Manage MySQL server Service on Linux:

1. After the installation of MySQL, start MySQL server service using the following command:

$ systemctl start mysqld

2. The below command will Enable MySQL server at system startup:

$ systemctl enable mysqld

3. Verify that MySQL server is started using the following command:

$ systemctl status mysqld


Install FileZilla on Debian 10 - Step by Step process ?

This article covers the installation of FileZilla on Debian 10. FileZilla is a powerful open-source FTP client that comes in handy when you simply want to access your FTP server and manage files.


To install FileZilla on Debian Linux System:

1. Login to the Debian 10 system and run below apt command to update package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install FileZilla using command-line, run following apt command:

$ sudo apt install -y filezilla

3. Once FileZilla and its dependencies are installed successfully, run below command to verify the FileZilla version:

$ filezilla --version


Create SFTP User with Specified Directory Permissions in Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps to setup and new SFTP server by making the ssh configuration changes, adding new users, and assigning the required directory permissions. You can add as many users as you want or simply create a new group and make new users part of that group.

FTP is a great protocol for accessing and transferring files, but it has the shortcoming of being a clear text protocol. 

In other words, it's not secure to use over an internet connection, since your credentials and data are transmitted without encryption. 

The 'S' in SFTP stands for 'Secure' and tunnels the FTP protocol through SSH, providing the encryption needed to establish a secure connection.


To Configure SSH daemon on Ubuntu:

1. SFTP requires SSH, so if SSH server is not already installed on your system, install it with the following command:

$ sudo apt install ssh

2. Once SSH is installed, we need to make some changes to the SSHD configuration file. Use nano or your favorite text editor to open it:

$ sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

3. Scroll to the bottom of the file and add the following 5 lines at the very end and save file:

Match group sftp
ChrootDirectory /home
X11Forwarding no
AllowTcpForwarding no
ForceCommand internal-sftp

4. Restart the SSH service for these new changes to take effect:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh


Backup and Restore MySQL Databases on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to take Backups and restore a MySQL database on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.


Advantage of logical backup:

The main advantage of logical backup over physical backup is portability and flexibility. 

The data can be restored on other hardware configurations, MariaDB versions or Database Management System (DBMS), which is not possible with physical backups.

Note that physical backup must be performed when the mariadb.service is not running or all tables in the database are locked to prevent changes during the backup.


The mysqldump client is a backup utility, which can can be used to dump a database or a collection of databases for the purpose of a backup or transfer to another database server. 

The output of mysqldump typically consists of SQL statements to re-create the server table structure, populate it with data, or both. 

Alternatively, mysqldump can also generate files in other formats, including CSV or other delimited text formats, and XML.


Advantages of Physical backup:

1. Output is more compact.

2. Backup is smaller in size.

3. Backup and restore are faster.

4. Backup includes log and configuration files.


You can use one of the following MariaDB backup approaches to back up data from a MariaDB database:

1. Logical backup with mysqldump

2. Physical online backup using the Mariabackup tool

3. File system backup

4. Replication as a backup solution


To Backing up an entire database with mysqldump:

Execute the command:

# mysqldump [options] db_name > backup-file.sql


Using mysqldump to back up a set of tables from one database:

To back up a subset of tables from one database, add a list of the chosen tables at the end of the mysqldump command:

# mysqldump [options] db_name [tbl_name …​]



To restore the data while keeping the original backup files, use the following procedure:

1. Run the mariabackup command with the --copy-back option:

$ mariabackup --copy-back --target-dir=/var/mariadb/backup/

2. Fix the file permissions.

When restoring a database, Mariabackup preserves the file and directory privileges of the backup. However, Mariabackup writes the files to disk as the user and group restoring the database. 

For example, to recursively change ownership of the files to the mysql user and group:

# chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql/

3. Start the mariadb service:

# systemctl start mariadb.service


Install Apache Maven on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process ?

This article covers methods to easily install Apache Maven on the Ubuntu system. You will also learn how to uninstall Apache Maven from Ubuntu if you ever need to do so.

Apache Maven is a free and open-source project management tool primarily for Java projects. It is based on POM and also used to build and manage projects written in C#, Ruby, Scala, and others.


To Install Apache Maven on Ubuntu:

1. Apache Maven is based on Java. So Java must be installed in your server. You can install the Java using the following command:

$ apt-get install default-jdk -y

2. By default, Apache Maven is available in the Ubuntu 20.04 default repository. You can install it with the following command:

$ apt-get install maven -y

3. Once the installation is completed, you can verify the Apache Maven version with the following command:

$ mvn -version


Install LibreOffice on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers LibreOffice installation on CentOS 8 distribution. LibreOffice is a powerful and open-source office suite that can be used on Linux, Mac as well as on Windows.

It provides various features such as word documentation, spreadsheets, data processing, drawing, presentation design, Math calculation, and more.


How to uninstall Old LibreOffice or OpenOffice Versions ?

If any previously installed LibreOffice or OpenOffice versions you have, remove it using following command.

# yum remove openoffice* libreoffice* [on RedHat based Systems]
$ sudo apt-get remove openoffice* libreoffice*	[On Debian based Systems]


Install TeamViewer on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install TeamViewer on Ubuntu 20.04 via the command-line and GUI. You can also explore our related how-tos for Debian  and CentOS .

TeamViewer is a cross-platform solution that can be used for remote control, desktop sharing and file transfer between computers.


To Install TeamViewer on Ubuntu:

1. Open your terminal either by using the Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut or by clicking on the terminal icon.

Download the latest TeamViewer .deb package with the following wget command:

$ wget https://download.teamviewer.com/download/linux/teamviewer_amd64.deb

2. Install TeamViewer

Install the TeamViewer .deb package by issuing the following command as a user with sudo privileges:

$ sudo apt install ./teamviewer_amd64.deb

At the prompt Do you want to continue? [Y/n], type Y to continue the installation.


To Uninstall TeamViewer from Ubuntu System:

1. In order to uninstall TeamViewer from your system without removing any configurations you might have made, enter the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt remove teamviewer

The system will prompt you with a Y/n option in order to begin the uninstall procedure. Please enter Y and hit Enter to begin. TeamViewer will then be removed from your system.

2. If you have made any configurations, you can remove TeamViewer and all those by using the following command:

$ sudo apt purge teamviewer


Install VirtualBox on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the complete installation guide of VirtualBox on the CentOS 8 system.

Oracle VirtualBox is a virtualization software solution that allows you to create and run virtual machines on a single hardware machine.

With VirtualBox, your existing operating system stays unaffected by the virtual environment.


To Start VirtualBox on Linux:

Use the command:

$ VirtualBox

The VirtualBox manager interface will prompt you.

Alternatively, you can use the graphical interface and access the application:

Application >> System Tools >> Oracle VM VirtualBox


Check Open Ports on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux - How to do it ?

This article covers some common tools that can be used to check the open ports on a Linux system. It is important you verify which ports are listening on the server's network interfaces. You need to pay attention to open ports to detect an intrusion. 

Apart from an intrusion, for troubleshooting purposes, it may be necessary to check if a port is already in use by a different application on your servers. 

For example, you may install Apache and Nginx server on the same system. So it is necessary to know if Apache or Nginx is using TCP port # 80/443.


To check the listening ports and applications on Ubuntu Linux:

1. Open a terminal application i.e. shell prompt.

2. Run any one of the following command on Linux to see open ports:

$ sudo lsof -i -P -n | grep LISTEN
$ sudo netstat -tulpn | grep LISTEN
$ sudo ss -tulpn | grep LISTEN
$ sudo lsof -i:22 ## see a specific port such as 22 ##
$ sudo nmap -sTU -O IP-address-Here

For the latest version of Linux use the ss command. For example, ss -tulw


What is the netstat command ?

You can check the listening ports and applications with netstat as follows.

Run netstat command along with grep command to filter out port in LISTEN state:

$ netstat -tulpn | grep LISTEN

The netstat command deprecated for some time on Linux. Therefore, you need to use the ss command as follows:

$ sudo ss -tulw
$ sudo ss -tulwn
$ sudo ss -tulwn | grep LISTEN


Install Atom Editor on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process ?

This article covers the different methods to install Atom editor on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Atom is an open-source text and source code editor for Windows, Linux, and macOS, developed by GitHub. 

It is called "A hackable text editor for the 21st century" due to being a highly customizable text editor.


To Install Atom Editor using Snap:

1. First, install the Snap package manager on your system if it is not already installed.

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y snapd

2. Then, install Atom editor with the snap command.

$ sudo snap install atom --classic


Password Protect a File Using Vim on Ubuntu - Step by Step process ?

This article covers how to password protect a file using Vim on Linux.  When password protecting a file, make sure you remember it, or else you will not be able to access your file.

You can also use a password management software if you find it difficult to remember passwords. Or visit our guide on how to install Teampass password manager on Ubuntu .

Always remember to appropriately secure text files that could contain secret info such as usernames and passwords, financial account info and so on, using strong encryption and a password.


To install VIM in Linux:

Vim is available in the repositories of most major distributions. 

So, use your distribution package manager to get installed.

For Debian based systems, use apt-get or apt package manager to install vim.

$ sudo apt-get install vim

For RHEL/CentOS based systems, use yum package manager to install vim.

$ sudo yum install vim-enhanced

For Fedora system, use dnf package manager to install vim.

$ sudo dnf install vim-enhanced

For openSUSE system, use zypper package manager to install pass.

$ sudo zypper in vim

For Arch Linux based systems, use pacman package manager to install vim.

$ sudo pacman -S vim


Configure WordPress on Ubuntu Server with Apache - Step by step process to do it ?

This article covers setup WordPress — including Apache, MySQL, and PHP, on the Ubuntu Linux server. WordPress is the most popular CMS (content management system) on the internet. It allows you to easily set up flexible blogs and websites on top of a MySQL backend with PHP processing. WordPress has seen incredible adoption and is a great choice for getting a website up and running quickly. After setup, almost all administration can be done through the web frontend.


How to install PHP Extensions on Ubuntu?

1. You can download and install some of the most popular PHP extensions for use with WordPress by executing the commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install php-curl php-gd php-mbstring php-xml php-xmlrpc php-soap php-intl php-zip

2. Then restart Apache to load these new extensions in the next section. 

If you are returning here to install additional plugins, you can restart Apache now by running:

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2


To install WordPress on Ubuntu:

1. Change into a writable directory and then download the compressed release by typing:

$ cd /tmp
$ curl -O https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

2. Extract the compressed file to create the WordPress directory structure:

$ tar xzvf latest.tar.gz

3. Add a dummy .htaccess file so that this will be available for WordPress to use later.

Create the file by typing:

$ touch /tmp/wordpress/.htaccess

4. Copy over the sample configuration file to the filename that WordPress actually reads:

$ cp /tmp/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /tmp/wordpress/wp-config.php

5. Create the upgrade directory, so that WordPress won't run into permissions issues when trying to do this on its own following an update to its software:

$ mkdir /tmp/wordpress/wp-content/upgrade

6. Copy the entire contents of the directory into our document root:

$ sudo cp -a /tmp/wordpress/. /var/www/wordpress


Install Yarn on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to install Yarn on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. Yarn is a JavaScript package manager compatible with npm that helps you automate the process of installing, updating, configuring, and removing npm packages. 

It caches every download package and speeds up the installation process by parallelizing operations.


To Yarn on Ubuntu Linux:

1. Import the repository’s GPG key and add the Yarn APT repository to your system by running the following commands:

$ curl -sS https://dl.yarnpkg.com/debian/pubkey.gpg | sudo apt-key add -
$ echo "deb https://dl.yarnpkg.com/debian/ stable main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/yarn.list

2. Once the repository is enabled, update the package list, and install Yarn:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install yarn

3. If you installed Node trough nvm, skip the Node.js installation with:

$ sudo apt install --no-install-recommends yarn

4. Once completed, verify the installation by printing the Yarn version:

$ yarn --version


Download YouTube Videos on Ubuntu Linux - How to do it ?

This article covers how you can download YouTube videos on Linux using the youtube-dl utility. The youtube-dl is a handy utility with a large feature set. However, there is a lot more you can do with this utility. To explore more features, visit its official documentation . To play the downloaded videos, you can use any media players like VLC , FFmpeg , and so on.

youtube-dl is a command-line program that lets you easily download videos and audio from more than a thousand websites. 


youtube-dl is a Python based small command-line tool that allows to download videos from YouTube.com, Dailymotion, Google Video, Photobucket, Facebook, Yahoo, Metacafe, Depositfiles and few more similar sites. 

It written in pygtk and requires Python interpreter to run this program, it's not platform restricted. It should run on any Unix, Windows or in Mac OS X based systems.


To Install YouTube-DL in RHEL/CentOS and Fedora:

The youtube-dl program can be installed by enabling epel repository under your systems. Once enabled, you can install using 'yum' package manager tool:

$ yum install youtube-dl

Also, if you wish to add any third party repository, you can still install it right away using curl or wget command:

$ curl https://yt-dl.org/latest/youtube-dl -o /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

OR

$ wget https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

Your system must have curl or wget packages installed to fetch the recent version youtube-dl file. If you don't have them, you may yum to get it.

After fetching the file, you need to set a executable permission on the script to execute properly:

$ chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl


To Install YouTube-DL in Ubuntu/Linux Mint and Debian:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nilarimogard/webupd8
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install youtube-dl

Also, instead using any third party PPA, you can use curl or wget command to install latest version of youtube-dl script:

$ sudo curl https://yt-dl.org/latest/youtube-dl -o /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

OR

$ sudo wget https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

After downloading the script, set the executable permission:

$ sudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl


To Update YouTube-DL,

Youtube-dl itself can be updated to the latest version using the following command:

$ youtube-dl -U


Configure XRDP to Securely Connect Remote Linux Servers - Step by step process ?

This article covers how to install and use XRDP to securely connect to remote servers. Xrdp is an open-source implementation of the Microsoft Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) that allows you to control a remote system graphically. 

With RDP, you can log in to the remote machine and create a real desktop session the same as if you had logged in to a local machine.


Installing Xrdp on Debian:

Xrdp package is available in the standard Debian repositories. To install it, run:

$ sudo apt install xrdp 

The service will automatically start once the installation process is complete. You can verify that the Xrdp service is running by typing:

$ sudo systemctl status xrdp


How to Configure Xrdp on Linux?

The Xrdp configuration files are stored in the /etc/xrdp directory.

Whenever you make any changes to the configuration file you need to restart the Xrdp service:

$ sudo systemctl restart xrdp


Install and Use Curl Command on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to set up curl command on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS machine. curl command is a tool to download or transfer files/data from or to a server using FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, SCP, SFTP, SMB and other supported protocols on Linux or Unix-like system.


To Install cURL for Ubuntu Linux:

1. Update your Ubuntu box, run: 

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

2. Next, install cURL, execute: 

$ sudo apt install curl

3. Verify install of curl on Ubuntu by running: 

$ curl --version


Setup Git Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process ?

This article covers how to install and configure a Git server on Ubuntu. Git is basically a Version control system which allows you to keep track of your software at the source level. With Git, You can easily track changes, revert to previous stages, and branch to create alternate versions of files and directories.


To install Git on Ubuntu Server:

1. Run the following commands as sudo user:

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt install git

2. To install the git package on CentOS servers type:

$ sudo yum install git

3. Next, create a new user that will manage the Git repositories:

$ sudo useradd -r -m -U -d /home/git -s /bin/bash git

The user home directory is set to /home/git

All the repositories will be stored under this directory.


Install Go on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process to do it ?

This article covers how to install Go on your Ubuntu 20.04 machine. Now you can start programming Go language. Go is a popular programming language created by Google. 

Many modern applications such as Docker, Kubernetes, and Caddy are written in Go.


To install Go on Ubuntu:

1. Use curl or wget to download the current binary for Go from the official download page. As of this writing, the current version is 1.12.9. 

Check the download page for updates, and replace 1.12.9 with the most recent stable version if necessary:

$ curl -O https://storage.googleapis.com/golang/go1.12.9.linux-amd64.tar.gz

Verify the .tar file using sha256sum:

$ sha256sum go1.12.9.linux-amd64.tar.gz

3. Extract the tarball:

$ tar -xvf go1.12.9.linux-amd64.tar.gz

4. Adjust the permissions and move the go directory to /usr/local:

$ sudo chown -R root:root ./go
$ sudo mv go /usr/local


Install Sublime Text Editor on CentOS 8 - Step by Step process to do it ?

This article covers how to install sublime text editor on the CentOS 8 system through the terminal. Sublime text editor is quite similar to vim editor. Sublime text has a built-in Python API available in Windows, Linux, and Mac OS.


To install Sublime Text on Ubuntu:

1. Install the GPG key:

$ wget -qO - https://download.sublimetext.com/sublimehq-pub.gpg | sudo apt-key add -

2. Ensure apt is set up to work with https sources:

$ sudo apt-get install apt-transport-https

3. Select the channel to use:

i. Stable

$ echo "deb https://download.sublimetext.com/ apt/stable/" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/sublime-text.list

ii. Dev

$ echo "deb https://download.sublimetext.com/ apt/dev/" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/sublime-text.list

4. Update apt sources and install Sublime Text:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install sublime-text


To fix yum-config-manager command not found:

You need to Install yum-utils by running the command below:

$ yum install yum-utils


Install ClamAV Anti-Malware Protection on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do this ?

This article covers how to install and configure ClamAV and ClamTK to scan for malware on Ubuntu 20.04. 

There aren't many viruses made for Linux distributions and as such, most people who use such systems don't even bother using antivirus software. 

Those however who do want to be able to scan their system or other Windows-based systems that are connected to a Linux PC through a network can use ClamAV. 

ClamAV is an open-source anti-virus engine that is built to detect viruses, trojans, malware, and other threats. 

It supports multiple file formats (documents, executables, or archives), utilizes multi-thread scanner features, and receives updates for its signature database at least 3-4 times a day.


To ClamAV Antivirus on Ubuntu:

The first step is to install and get the latest signature updates. To do this on Ubuntu, you can open a terminal and insert "sudo apt-get install clamav" and press enter.

$ sudo apt install clamav

You may also build ClamAV from sources to benefit from better scanning performance.

To update the signatures, you type "sudo freshclam" on a terminal session and press enter.

$ sudo freshclam

Now we are ready to scan our system. 

To do this, you can use the "clamscan" command. 

This is a rich command that can work with many different parameters so you'd better insert "clamscan –-help" on the terminal first and see the various things that what you can do with it:

$ clamscan –-help


To Update ClamAV Signature Database:

1. Stop the ClamAV process:

$ systemctl stop clamav-freshclam

2. Manually update the ClamAV signature database:

$ freshclam

3. Restart the service to update the database in the background:

$ systemctl start clamav-freshclam


Find out Which Groups a User Belongs to in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how you can easily find out which groups a user belongs to in Ubuntu. Also we shared how to list all groups in a system, list members of a group, add and remove a user from the group. For information about adding/removing users in a system, visit our guide on how to add and remove users on Ubuntu .

Adding a user to an existing group is one of the typical tasks of a Linux administrator.

A group is a collection of users. 

The main purpose of the group is to define a set of privileges to their members within the group.


To find out if a user has sudo access is by checking if the said user is member of the sudo group. 

If you see the group 'sudo' in the output, the user is a member of the sudo group and it should have sudo access.

In order to list groups on Linux, you have to execute the "cat" command on the "/etc/group" file. 

When executing this command, you will be presented with the list of groups available on your system.


To login as Sudo on Ubuntu:

1. Open a terminal Window. Press Ctrl + Alt + T to open the terminal on Ubuntu.

2. To become root user type: sudo -i. sudo -s.

3. When promoted provide your password.

4. After successful login, the $ prompt would change to # to indicate that you logged in as root user on Ubuntu.


What is /etc/passwd file?

"/etc/passwd" is a text file containing every user information that is required to login to the Linux system. It maintains useful information about users such as username, password, user ID, group ID, user information, home directory and shell.


To find out which groups a user belongs to in Linux:

1. groups: Show All Members of a Group.

2. id: Print user and group information for the specified username.

3. lid or libuser-lid: It display user's groups or group's users.

4. getent: Get entries from Name Service Switch libraries.

5. compgen: compgen is bash built-in command and it will show all available commands for the user.

6. members: List members of a group.

7. /etc/group file: Also, we can grep the corresponding user’s groups from the /etc/group file.


What is Wheel Group in Linux?

The wheel group is a special user group used on some Unix systems, mostly BSD systems, to control access to the su or sudo command, which allows a user to masquerade as another user (usually the super user). Debian-like operating systems create a group called sudo with purpose similar to that of a wheel group.


Types of groups in Linux:

1. Primary Group - The primary group is the main group associated with the user account. Each user must be a member of a single primary group.

2. Secondary Group - The secondary or supplementary group is used to grant additional rights to the user. Each user can become a member of multiple secondary groups.


Install Plex Media Server on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by step process to get this done ?

This article covers the installation of the Plex media server on Ubuntu. Using the Plex, you can save all your favorite Tv shows, movies, videos, and photos in a single place. You can approach them from anywhere to any device. 


To install Plex Media Server on Ubuntu:

1. Download the .deb package

2. run sudo dpkg -i plexmediaserver_1.19.4.2935-79e214ead_amd64.deb (replacing the last filename with the name of the package you downloaded)

3. To setup Plex Media Server, on the same machine you installed the server on, open a browser window, and go to http://127.0.0.1:32400/web.


To Enable and start Plex media server on Ubuntu:

Execute the following command as sudo: $ sudo systemctl start plexmediaserver.service.


Setup Teampass Passwords Manager on Ubuntu 20.04 - Do it Now ?

This article covers perform the installation of TeamPass using the LAMP stack on Ubuntu. Now you can easily manage your credentials within your Organization to save credentials and manage access to every individual. 

TeamPass is a Collaborative Passwords Manager used for managing passwords and sharing them among team members.


To Download Teampass on Ubuntu:

1. Start by cloning the Teampass repository to your web server root directory as shown below;

$ git clone https://github.com/nilsteampassnet/TeamPass.git /var/www/html/teampass

2. Set the ownership of the teampass web directory to web server user (www-data)

$ chown -R www-data.www-data /var/www/html/teampass/

3. Next, edit the /etc/php/7.2/apache2/php.ini configuration file and increase the script execution time from 30 to 60 secs.

vim /etc/php/7.2/apache2/php.ini
...
;max_execution_time = 30
max_execution_time = 60
...

4. Restart Apache web server

$ systemctl restart apache2


To Finalize TeamPass installation on Ubuntu:

Final installation of Teampass can be done from the browser. 

Hence, navigate to the browser and enter the Teampass server URL, 

http://Server_IP/teampass

This will redirect you to Teampass welcome page


Install and Configure Apache Kafka on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to implement this task ?

This article covers how to install and configure Apache Kafka on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS machine. Apache Kafka is a distributed events streaming platform which has the ability to handle the high-performance data pipelines. It was originally developed by Linkedin then to be public as an open-source platform and used by many IT companies in the world.


Terms related to Apache Kafka Infrastructure:

1. Topic: A topic is a common name used to store and publish a particular stream of data. For example if you would wish to store all the data about a page being clicked, you can give the Topic a name such as "Added Customer".


2. Partition: Every topic is split up into partitions ("baskets"). When a topic is created, the number of partitions need to be specified but can be increased later as need arises. Each message gets stored into partitions with an incremental id known as its Offset value.


3. Kafka Broker: Every server with Kafka installed in it is known as a broker. It is a container holding several topics having their partitions.


4. Zookeeper: Zookeeper manages Kafka's cluster state and configurations.


Main advantages of using Apache Kafka:

1. Message Broking: In comparison to most messaging systems Kafka has better throughput, built-in partitioning, replication, and fault-tolerance which makes it a good solution for large scale message processing applications


2. Website Activity Tracking


3. Log Aggregation: Kafka abstracts away the details of files and gives a cleaner abstraction of log or event data as a stream of messages.


4. Stream Processing: capturing data in real-time from event sources; storing these event streams durably for later retrieval; and routing the event streams to different destination technologies as needed


5. Event Sourcing: This is a style of application design where state changes are logged as a time-ordered sequence of records.


6. Commit Log: Kafka can serve as a kind of external commit-log for a distributed system. The log helps replicate data between nodes and acts as a re-syncing mechanism for failed nodes to restore their data.


7. Metrics: This involves aggregating statistics from distributed applications to produce centralized feeds of operational data.


To install Apache Kafka on Ubuntu:

1. Update your fresh Ubuntu 20.04 server and get Java installed as illustrated below.

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
$ sudo apt install default-jre wget git unzip -y
$ sudo apt install default-jdk -y

2. Fetch Kafka on Ubuntu 20.04.

$ cd ~
$ wget https://downloads.apache.org/kafka/2.6.0/kafka_2.13-2.6.0.tgz
$ sudo mkdir /usr/local/kafka-server && cd /usr/local/kafka-server
$ sudo tar -xvzf ~/kafka_2.13-2.6.0.tgz --strip 1

3. Create Kafka and Zookeeper Systemd Unit Files

i. Let us begin with Zookeeper service.

$ sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/zookeeper.service
[Unit]
Description=Apache Zookeeper Server
Requires=network.target remote-fs.target
After=network.target remote-fs.target
[Service]
Type=simple
ExecStart=/usr/local/kafka-server/bin/zookeeper-server-start.sh /usr/local/kafka-server/config/zookeeper.properties
ExecStop=/usr/local/kafka-server/bin/zookeeper-server-stop.sh
Restart=on-abnormal
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target


ii. Then for Kafka service. Make sure your JAVA_HOME configs are well inputted or Kafka will not start.

$ sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/kafka.service
[Unit]
Description=Apache Kafka Server
Documentation=http://kafka.apache.org/documentation.html
Requires=zookeeper.service
After=zookeeper.service
[Service]
Type=simple
Environment="JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64"
ExecStart=/usr/local/kafka-server/bin/kafka-server-start.sh /usr/local/kafka-server/config/server.properties
ExecStop=/usr/local/kafka-server/bin/kafka-server-stop.sh
Restart=on-abnormal
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target


iii. Reload the systemd daemon to apply changes and then start the services. 

$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload
$ sudo systemctl enable --now zookeeper
$ sudo systemctl enable --now kafka
$ sudo systemctl status kafka zookeeper


4. Install Cluster Manager for Apache Kafka (CMAK) | Kafka Manager.

$ cd ~
$ git clone https://github.com/yahoo/CMAK.git


5. Configure CMAK on Ubuntu.


Install TeamViewer on CentOS 8 - Step by Step process to get it done ?

This article covers how to install TeamViewer on the CentOS system. Additionally, you will learn how to install, launch, and update TeamViewer on CentOS.

We have also covered how to uninstall TeamViewer in case you no longer need it on your system. 

For some more help regarding TeamViewer, run teamviewer help in Terminal.

TeamViewer is a Robust cross-platform solution that provides secure remote access, remote control, and remote support solution across devices. 

The data traffic between devices are encrypted which makes the TeamViewer very secure. 

This software is available for “Linux, Windows, Mac, Chrome OS” and even for mobile devices like "iOS, Android, and so on".


To Install TeamViewer on CentOS 8:

1. Enable EPEL Repo on CentOS 8

You can install EPEL repo using the below command. This command will enable the repo if it is not already installed:

$ sudo yum install https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm -y

2. Now you can proceed further to install TeamViewer on CentOS 8:

$ sudo yum install teamviewer.x86_64.rpm -y

3. Once the package is installed you can start using team viewer:

$ teamviewer


Install Arduino IDE on Debian 10 - Step by Step Process to implement it ?

This article covers different methods to install the Arduino IDE on Debian system. To get the latest version of Arduino IDE, simply go for installation via tarball and snap. If you prefer an older release of Arduino, go for installation via apt.

Arduino boards are able to read inputs – light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message – and turn it into an output – activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online. You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board. 

To do so you use the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring), and the Arduino Software (IDE), based on Processing.”


To Install Arduino IDE on Ubuntu:

1. Execute the command:

$ sudo apt install Arduino

2. You will be provided with Y/N option, press y to continue.

3. Now wait for a while until the installation of Arduino IDE is completed.


To Launch Arduino IDE:

To launch Arduino IDE application on your system, hit the super key and in the search bar that appears, type Arduino. When the Arduino IDE icon appears, click on it to launch.

You will see the default view of Arduino IDE.


Install Skype on CentOS 8 - Step by Step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to install skype on the CentOS 8 system. One is using the RPM skype repository and another one is through the snap tool. 

Running Skype on CentOS/Fedora allows you to make Skype calls, group video calls, instant messaging, phone number calls, and screen sharing.


To Install Skype on CentOS:

1. Execute the command;

$ sudo yum localinstall skypeforlinux-64.rpm

2. Press y when prompted to confirm installation.


To Launch Skype on CentOS:

After successful installation, search Skype on your Desktop Environment search bar.


Install KDE Plasma on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to install KDE Plasma on Ubuntu 20.04 system. The Plasma desktop option will be available along with the standard Ubuntu system. Also, you will learn the steps to uninstall KDE Plasma from the Ubuntu system. 

KDE is the short form for K Desktop Environment.

Plasma is the desktop environment and KDE is the umbrella project responsible for the development of Plasma desktop and a bunch of other applications.


To Install KDE desktop environment on Ubuntu:

For KDE Full - This is the complete KDE pack. It comes with the complete package and core KDE plasma desktop. 

$ sudo apt install kde-full


For KDE Standard - It includes Plasma desktop with standard set of KDE apps such as Kate (default text editor), Konqueror (default web browser), Kget (Download Manager), KMail (email client), Dolphin (File Manager) and so on. 

$ sudo apt install kde-standard


To install KDE Plasma Desktop:

Run the command - $ sudo apt install kde-plasma-desktop


Install Flask on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to implement it ?

This article covers how to install Flask on Ubuntu 20.04. Flask is a powerful web framework for any developer. Unlike Django , by default Flask doesn’t include ORM, form validation, or any other functionalities provided by third-party libraries. Flask is built with extensions in mind, which are Python packages that add functionality to a Flask application.

Flask packages are included in the official Ubuntu repositories and can be installed using the apt package manager. 

This is the simplest way to install Flask on Ubuntu 20.04, but not as flexible as installing in a virtual environment. 

Also, the version included in the repositories may lag behind the latest version of Flask.


To install Flask on Ubuntu 20.04:

1. Ubuntu 20.04 ships with Python 3.8. You can verify that Python is installed on your system by typing:

$ python3 -V

2. The recommended way to create a virtual environment is by using the venv module, which is provided by the python3-venv package. Run the following command to install the package:

$ sudo apt install python3-venv

3. Create a new directory for the Flask application and switch into it:

$ mkdir flask_app && cd flask_app

4. Run the following command inside the directory to create the virtual environment:

$ python3 -m venv venv

The command will create a directory called venv, which contains a copy of the Python binary, the Pip package manager , the standard Python library, and other supporting files. You can use any name you want for the virtual environment.

5. To start using the virtual environment, you need to activate it with the activate script:

source venv/bin/activate

6. Now that the virtual environment is activated, use the Python package manager pip to install Flask:

$ pip install Flask

7. To verify the installation, run the following command, which prints the Flask version:

$ python -m flask --version


List Installed Packages in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to perform this task ?

This article covers how you can list installed packages on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. Also, you can also filter a specific package from the list and count the number of installed packages on your system.


You can list all installed packages with apt command or apt-get command on Ubuntu Linux.

You need to use the apt or apt-get or dpkg command to list all installed packages on an Ubuntu Linux server from the bash shell prompt.


To see what packages are installed on Ubuntu Linux:

1. Open the terminal application or log in to the remote server using ssh (e.g. ssh user@sever-name).

2. Run command apt list --installed to list all installed packages on Ubuntu.

3. To display a list of packages satisfying certain criteria such as show matching apache2 packages, run apt list apache.


To List all installed packages only:

The apt command displays both installed and packages available to install:

$ apt list --installed


To list or find out if a specific package installed or not:

Run package policy as follows:

$ apt list -a pkgNameHere


Install Skype on Linux Mint 20 - How to perform this task ?

This article covers how to install Skype on Linux Mint 20 system. Skype is used to make free video and voice calls, send instant messages, and also to share files with other people on Skype.

However, if at any instance, you feel like you are getting more inclined towards some other application or Skype is not fulfilling your needs anymore, then you can easily remove it by following the removal method prescribed in this guide.


To Install Skype on Linux Mint using the Software Center:

1. Click ‘Menu’, type ‘Software Manager’ in the search box and launch it.

2. Search for ‘Skype’ in the Software Manager’s search box. You should see Skype and Skype (Flathub). These are just coming from two different sources. Click on only the “Skype” version. This is coming from the official Linux Mint’s Repository source.

3. Click “Install”, enter the Root password to complete the installation.

4. After the installation is complete, you can click on the “Launch” button or open the app from the “Applications” menu.

5. Start using Skype!


Install Skype on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to perform it ?

This article covers the different methods to install Skype on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS including both the GUI and the command line. 


To install the Skype snap, open your terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and run the following command:

$ sudo snap install skype --classic

That's it. You have installed Skype on your Ubuntu machine, and you can start using it.


How to install Skype with apt on Ubuntu ?

Skype is available from the official Microsoft Apt repositories. To install it, follow the steps below:

1. Open your terminal and download the latest Skype .deb package using the following wget command:

$ wget https://go.skype.com/skypeforlinux-64.deb

2. Once the download is complete, install Skype by running the following command as a user with sudo privileges :

$ sudo apt install ./skypeforlinux-64.deb

You will be prompted to enter your password.

3. When a new version is released, you can update the Skype package through your desktop standard Software Update tool or by running the following commands in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update

$ sudo apt upgrade


Install Apache Web Server on CentOS 8 - Step by Step process to do it ?

This article covers how to install Apache web server on CentOS 8 distribution. With Apache we server, you can host web pages over the network. Apache is available within CentOS's default software repositories, which means you can install it with the dnf package manager.


To install Apache on CentOS:

1. Execute the command below to install the Apache package:

$ sudo dnf install httpd

After confirming the installation, dnf will install Apache and all required dependencies.

2. If you also plan to configure Apache to serve content over HTTPS, you will also want to open up port 443 by enabling the https service:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=https

3. Next, reload the firewall to put these new rules into effect:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload

After the firewall reloads, you are ready to start the service and check the web server.


To check your Apache Web Server:

1. Apache does not automatically start on CentOS once the installation completes, so you will need to start the Apache process manually:

$ sudo systemctl start httpd

2. Verify that the service is running with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl status httpd

You will receive an active status when the service is running.


To manage the Apache Process on CentOS:

Now that the service is installed and running, you can now use different systemctl commands to manage the service.

1. To stop your web server, type:

$ sudo systemctl stop httpd

2. To start the web server when it is stopped, type:

$ sudo systemctl start httpd

3. To stop and then start the service again, type:

$ sudo systemctl restart httpd

4. If you are simply making configuration changes, Apache can often reload without dropping connections. To do this, use this command:

$ sudo systemctl reload httpd

5. By default, Apache is configured to start automatically when the server boots. If this is not what you want, disable this behavior by typing:

$ sudo systemctl disable httpd

6. To re-enable the service to start up at boot, type:

$ sudo systemctl enable httpd

Apache will now start automatically when the server boots again.


Install Emacs Editor in Ubuntu 20.04 - How to perform it ?

This article covers methods to install Emacs editor in the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Emacs is a text editor designed for POSIX operating systems and available on Linux, BSD, macOS, Windows, and so on.


Emacs is an open-source, cross-platform editor that is highly customizable and provides a user-friendly interface to its users. 

It Provide features like multiple editing modes, full Unicode support for scripts, text manipulation tools, and integration with numerous external tools like the shell and git clearly gives an indication of how powerful it is.


To Install Emacs on Linux:

You can check if your Linux system has emacs installed by simply running the following command:

$ emacs

If you get an error message such as "-bash: -bash:: command not found", then you need to install it.

To install the emacs packages, run the command:

$ yum install emacs

On Ubuntu, execute:

$ apt-get install emacs


To install Emacs using Snap on Ubuntu:

Execute the following command in the command line:

$ sudo snap install emacs --classic

Once this is done, you can find Emacs in your list of installed applications.


Install Pepper Flash on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install the Pepper Flash plugin for the Mozilla Firefox browser on Ubuntu 20.04. After the successful installation of this plugin, we can easily use it for enjoying feature-rich content while browsing. 

We have also shared with you the method of removing this plugin from your system whenever you feel like it at the end of this guide.


How can I install Pepper Flash Player on Ubuntu? 

How can I setup Flash Player for Chromium web browser on Ubuntu?  

Pepper Flash Player is maintained by Google and is newer than Adobe Flash Player. 

Pepper Flash Player can be used with Chromium web browser.

The Pepper Flash Player is available on the Canonical Partners Repository. 

This repository is disabled by default on Ubuntu . 

1. Enable it by running the command:

$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://archive.canonical.com/ $(lsb_release -sc) partner"

2. Then, Update your package list after enabling the repository

$ sudo apt update

3. You can then install Pepper Flash Player in your Ubuntu 18.04 Desktop.

$ sudo apt -y install pepperflashplugin-nonfree

4. To update Pepperflash, use:

$ sudo update-pepperflashplugin-nonfree --install

5. After the installation of Pepper Flash Player on Ubuntu, make sure Flash is allowed to run in:

chrome://settings/content/flash


Install Mozilla Firefox on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install the Mozilla Firefox browser on the Ubuntu system. Mozilla Firefox is the official Internet browser for Ubuntu, therefore, most Ubuntu distros have it installed by default.

If your system lacks this browser due to any reason or if you have accidentally deleted it, we will tell you how to install it on your Ubuntu.


To update Firefox on Linux:

1. Click the menu button , click. Help and select About Firefox. On the menu bar click the Firefox menu and select About Firefox.

2. The About Mozilla Firefox Firefox window opens. Firefox will check for updates and download them automatically.

3. When the download is complete, click Restart to update Firefox.


To Delete Firefox and all it's data from Ubuntu:

1. run sudo apt-get purge firefox.

2. Delete /etc/firefox/ , this is where your preferences and user-profiles are stored.

3. Delete /usr/lib/firefox/ should it still be there.

4. Delete /usr/lib/firefox-addons/ should it still be there.


Install UrBackup Server and Client on Ubuntu 20.04 - How to do it ?

This article covers how to install and setup the UrBackup server on Ubuntu 20.04. Here, you will also learn how we can add a Linux host to be backed up. 

The main reason for data backup is to save important files if a system crash or hard drive failure occurs, you will lose your data. 

Therefore, a backup solution is much important for any data critical organization.

UrBackup is a free and powerful network backup solution for personal and enterprise. It has almost all features you need from a backup software. UrBackup supports Linux, Windows and Mac OS X.


Benefits of having UrBackup Server on your network are:

1. Centralized backup management

2. Supports multiple clients

3. Supports multiple simultaneous backups

4. Easy to restore


To Install client on Debian or Ubuntu:

1. Install the dependencies UrBackup needs: WxWidgets >= 2.9.0 On Debian/Ubuntu you can do that with apt or your favourite package manager:

$ apt install build-essential "g++" libwxgtk3.0-dev "libcrypto++-dev" libz-dev

2. Download the UrBackup client source files and extract them via e.g.

$ wget https://hndl.urbackup.org/Client/2.4.11/urbackup-client-2.4.11.tar.gz

$ tar xzf urbackup-client-2.4.11.tar.gz


3. Build the UrBackup client and install it:

$ cd urbackup-client-2.4.11

./configure

make -j4

sudo make install


4. Make sure that the UrBackup client backend runs correctly:

$ sudo urbackupclientbackend -v info


5. Start the UrBackup client backend on startup by adding it e.g. to rc.local:

$ sudo chmod +x /etc/rc.local

editor /etc/rc.local

Now add /usr/local/sbin/urbackupclientbackend -d before the exit 0.


6. Start the UrBackup client frontend and setup your paths by executing:

$ urbackupclientgui

and clicking on the tray icon and add paths. You can also do that on the server.


To Install UrBackup Client on Windows:

If you have a fully functioning UrBackup Server on Ubuntu, then you can install UrBackup client on client computers. For example, you can install UrBackup client on Windows 10.

1. Download UrBackup client for Windows 10: https://hndl.urbackup.org/Client/2.4.11/UrBackup%20Client%202.4.11.exe

2. After you install the client software on Windows 10, it will automatically search and connect to the UrBackup server. 

3. You will see the client computer listed on your UrBackup web administration console.

4. There will be an UrBackup icon in your taskbar where you can do several things such as:

i. Change settings

ii. Add/remote backup path

iii. Change component to backup

iv. See the status


Install Tor Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to do it ?

This article covers how you can install the Tor browser on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux distribution. Now, you can use and do web browsing privately and in a secure way on your system. You can visit your local websites, your network service providers may block this browser.

When you use the Tor Browser, the connection to the website you are viewing is encrypted and protected from network surveillance and traffic analysis.


To Install Tor Browser Launcher on Ubuntu:

1. Add the Tor Browser Launcher PPA repository using the following command: 

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:micahflee/ppa.

2. Once the repository is enabled, update the apt package list and install the Tor Browser Launcher package by typing: 

$ sudo apt update 
$ sudo apt install torbrowser-launcher.


To uninstall Tor Kali Linux:

1. Locate your Tor Browser folder. On Linux, there is no default location, however the folder will be named "tor-browser_en-US" if you are running the English Tor Browser.

2. Delete the Tor Browser folder.

3. Empty your Trash.


To Update Tor Browser on Ubuntu ?

To help keep you secure, Tor Browser will automatically update itself when a new version is released.

Execute the following commands in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install torbrowser-launcher


Create and Run a Shell Script in CentOS 8 - Step by step process to do it ?

This article covers how to create and run a simple shell script in CentOS 8 system. With this, you can easily create and run even complex scripts and automate repetitive tasks. 

If you are using other Linux distributions, you can visit our posts on how to create and run a shell script in Ubuntu , Debian , and Linux Mint .


An SH file is a script programmed for bash, a type of Unix shell (Bourne-Again SHell). It contains instructions written in the Bash language and can be executed by typing text commands within the shell's command-line interface.


To write and execute a script:

1. Open the terminal. Go to the directory where you want to create your script.

2. Create a file with . sh extension.

3. Write the script in the file using an editor.

4. Make the script executable with command chmod +x <fileName>.

5. Run the script using ./<fileName>.


Find Files in Debian 10 - How to perform this ?

This article covers the different methods of finding files in Debian 10. 


To find a file in Debian:

Use the Locate command

1. Debian and Ubuntu sudo apt-get install locate.

2. CentOS yum install locate.

3. Prepare locate command for first use. To update the mlocate.db database before first use, run: sudo updatedb. 

To use locate, open a terminal and type locate followed by the file name you are looking for.


To locate a file in Linux:

1. find . - name thisfile.txt. If you need to know how to find a file in Linux called thisfile.

2. find /home -name *.jpg. Look for all . jpg files in the /home and directories below it.

3. find . - type f -empty. Look for an empty file inside the current directory.

4. find /home -user randomperson-mtime 6 -iname ".db".


To find packages in Debian:

You can also search for a package using the aptitude Ncurses user interface. 

1. Type 'aptitude' in the terminal and the following interface will be displayed in the window. 

2. To search for a package, press '/' and then type the package name into the search bar.


How to use grep to find a file?

The grep command searches through the file, looking for matches to the pattern specified. 

To use it type grep , then the pattern we're searching for and finally the name of the file (or files) we're searching in. 

The output is the three lines in the file that contain the letters 'not'.


To list files in Linux:

The easiest way to list files by name is simply to list them using the ls command. Listing files by name (alphanumeric order) is, after all, the default. 

You can choose the ls (no details) or ls -l (lots of details) to determine your view.


Which command have more searching options to search a file in file system in Linux?

Grep is a Linux / Unix command-line tool used to search for a string of characters in a specified file. The text search pattern is called a regular expression. 

When it finds a match, it prints the line with the result. 

The grep command is handy when searching through large log files.


grep is a command-line utility for searching plain-text data sets for lines that match a regular expression. 

Its name comes from the ed command g/re/p (globally search for a regular expression and print matching lines), which has the same effect.


To grep recursively in a directory:

To recursively search for a pattern, invoke grep with the -r option (or --recursive ). When this option is used grep will search through all files in the specified directory, skipping the symlinks that are encountered recursively.


Block or Unblock Ping Request on Debian 10 - How to perform this task ?

This article covers how you can block/unblock ping requests to your Debian system. You will learn different ways for blocking/unblocking ping requests either temporarily or permanently.


The --query-icmp-block=<type> option can be used to determine if a type is confgured to allow or deny. 

The --add-icmp-block=<type> option can be used to block a certain type. 

The --remove-icmp-block=<type> option can be used to not block a certain type. 

After adding or removing a block, reload the firewall.


To block ping requests in Linux:

1. Edit /etc/sysctl.conf. Add the following line to your /etc/sysctl.conf : net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_all=1. Then: sysctl -p.

2. Using iptables: iptables -I INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j DROP.

3. With cron. Run crontab -e as root, then add the following line: @reboot echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_all.


To block ping in iptables:

1. Add a rule that tells the iptables firewall to block ping in and out of a server by controlling the ICMP requests.

2. Remove the rule that tells the iptables firewall to allow ping in and out of a server by controlling the ICMP requests.


To enable ping on Linux server?

# iptables -D INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j REJECT D : 

This command switch is used to delete the rule. Once the ping enabled, the server should now respond to ping requests


Create and Run a Shell Script in Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step process to perform this ?

This article covers the method of creating and running a shell script in Linux Mint 20.

With this, you can write and execute complex shell scripts in Linux Mint 20 very easily.


To write and execute a script:

1. Open the terminal. Go to the directory where you want to create your script.

2. Create a file with . sh extension.

3. Write the script in the file using an editor.

4. Make the script executable with command chmod +x <fileName>.

5. Run the script using ./<fileName>.


To save a .sh file in Ubuntu:

1. Run nano hello.sh.

2. nano should open up and present an empty file for you to work in.

3. Then press Ctrl-X on your keyboard to Exit nano.

4. nano will ask you if you want to save the modified file.

5. nano will then confirm if you want to save to the file named hello.sh.


To Make a Bash Script Executable in Linux:

1) Create a new text file with a . sh extension.

2) Add #!/bin/bash to the top of it. This is necessary for the “make it executable” part.

3) Add lines that you'd normally type at the command line.

4) At the command line, run chmod u+x YourScriptFileName.sh.

5) Run it whenever you need!


Install Opera Browser on CentOS 8 - Step by step process to perform it ?

This article covers how to install the Opera browser using different ways on CentOS 8. We have also shown how you can install packages by using the wget command. Opera browser is amazing on your CentOS 8 system.


To install Opera browser on CentOS:

1. Add Opera YUM repository

Run the following commands to manually add the Opera RPM repository to your RHEL / CentOS 8 system.

$ sudo tee /etc/yum.repos.d/opera.repo <<RPMREPO

[opera]

name=Opera packages

type=rpm-md

baseurl=https://rpm.opera.com/rpm

gpgcheck=1

gpgkey=https://rpm.opera.com/rpmrepo.key

enabled=1

RPMREPO

2. Install Opera Browser on RHEL 8 / CentOS 8

Use yum package manager command to install Opera Browser on RHEL 8 / CentOS 8.

$ sudo yum -y install opera-stable

3. Wait for the installation to complete then launch the browser from the CLI:

$ opera 


Create and Run a Perl Script in Linux Mint - How to perform this task ?

This article covers how to create and execute a Perl script in Linux Mint 20. Moreover, if Perl is not installed on your system already, then we have even shared with you the method of installing it on your system and also ensuring if its interpreter exists there or not.

Perl is a programming language that can be used to perform tasks that would be difficult or cumbersome on the command line. Perl is included by default with most GNU/Linux distributions. 

PERL- Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (not an official acronym), is a stable and cross-platform language and was created by Larry Wall. 

Perl is an open source, general-purpose, interpreted language. Programs written in Perl are called Perl scripts. 

Perl supports both Procedural language and Object Oriented language and has powerful built-in support for text processing and have a collection of third-party modules. Perl language is mainly used for Web Applications, System Administration, Batch Processing, Applications which involving text processing and most command line applications. 


To run a Perl script in Unix:

1. Find the interpreter/executors path. In this case its /usr/bin/perl or /usr/bin/env perl.

2. Add it to the first line of the file as #!/usr/bin/perl .

3. Give execute permission to the file chmod +x example.pl.


Features of Perl language:

1. Perl takes the best features from other languages, such as C, awk, sed, sh, and BASIC, among others.

2. Perls database integration interface DBI supports third-party databases including Oracle, Sybase, Postgres, MySQL, and others.

3. Perl works with HTML, XML, and other mark-up languages.

4. Perl supports Unicode.

5. Perl supports both procedural and object-oriented programming.

6. Perl interfaces with external C/C++ libraries through XS or SWIG.

7. Perl is extensible.

8. The Perl interpreter can be embedded into other systems.


To install Perl in Linux:

1. Before proceeding with the installation of Perl in your Linux system, please have a check Perl is installed or not on your Linux system by running the below command:

# perl -v

2. Download the zipped source code available for Unix/Linux by running the below command:

# wget https://www.cpan.org/src/5.0/perl-5.28.1.tar.gz

3. After download the zip file runs the below commands to extract and install Perl:

# tar -xzf perl-5.28.1.tar.gz

# cd perl-5.28.1

# ./Configure -de

#make

# make test

# make install


How to write your Perl script in Linux?

You can write your Perl script in a text file and the text file should have the extension '.pl'. 

To run your Perl script run the below command.

#perl filename

Eg: #perl hello.pl


Install Opera Web Browser on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to perform it ?

This article covers how to install Opera web browser on an Ubuntu 20.04 system. Opera web browser provides its unique features and has many users all over the world.

Users can access and then use the Opera browser once they have installed it in their systems. You will also learn how to uninstall the browser from the Ubuntu 20.04 system.


To install Opera browser on Linux:

1. Add Opera browser Repository. Let's start by adding an Opera repository and keyring.

2. Install Opera Browser. At this stage to install the Opera browser on Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver is easy as executing the below command: $ sudo apt install opera-stable.

3. Start Opera Browser.


To Install Google Chrome on Debian:

1. Download Google Chrome. Open your terminal either by using the Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut or by clicking on the terminal icon.

2. Install Google Chrome. Once the download is complete, install Google Chrome by typing: $ sudo apt install ./google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb.


To start Chrome on Linux:

1. Edit ~/. bash_profile or ~/. zshrc file and add the following line alias chrome="open -a 'Google Chrome'"

2. Save and close the file.

3. Logout and relaunch Terminal.

4. Type chrome filename for opening a local file.

5. Type chrome url for opening url.


To install Google Chrome on Linux Mint:

1. Add this link to the list of repo sources "deb http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ stable main"

2. Run in terminal "sudo apt-get update"

3. Run in terminal "sudo aptitude install google-chrome-stable"


The sudo apt-get update command is used to download package information from all configured sources.

So when you run update command, it downloads the package information from the Internet. It is useful to get info on an updated version of packages or their dependencies.


To Uninstall Opera on Ubuntu:

1. In order to uninstall Opera through the command line, enter the following

$ sudo apt-get remove opera-stable

2. The repository you added will still be residing on your system. Enter the following command in order to remove it:

$ sudo apt-delete-repository "deb [arch=i386,amd64] https://deb.opera.com/opera-stable/ stable non-free


Free Up Disk Space in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - How to do this ?

This article covers different effective ways to free up some disk space on your Ubuntu system or other Linux distro. 

Although Linux does not clutter up like Windows, it may be useful to occasionally clean up Linux. Especially in systems with a smaller hard drive it can be beneficial to clean Linux. Occasionally cleaning up Linux does have to be done on a daily basis or weekly basis, 1 time per month is more than sufficient.


Terminal commands to free up some disk space on your Linux System:

There are 3 terminal commands which you can use top clean up Linux Mint. 

Each terminal will be explained about what they do and remove. 

All three commands contribute to free up disk space.

1. sudo apt-get autoclean

This terminal command deletes all .deb files from /var/cache/apt/archives. It basically cleans up the apt-get cache.

2. sudo apt-get clean

This terminal command is used to free up the disk space by cleaning up downloaded .deb files from the local repository.

3. sudo apt-get autoremove

This terminal command used to remove packages that were automatically installed to satisfy dependencies for some package and no longer needed by those packages.


Install Wine on CentOS 8 - Step by Step process to do it ?

This article covers how to install Wine on CentOS 8. With the use of this package, you can easily use the native Windows applications on CentOS 8. However, you can also remove this package from your CentOS 8 system to conserve the memory whenever you want.


How to Install Wine 4 on CentOS 8:

Install EPEL Repos on CentOS 8

Wine is not included in the default CentOS 8 repositories but however available on EPEL repos. Therefore, run the command below to install EPEL repos:

$ dnf install https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm


To run Wine on CentOS 8:

Wine command takes the following syntax.

$ wine program [arguments]

To obtain help on Wine usage;

$ wine --help

Consult man pages for Wine for more insight.

$ man wine

Before you can use Wine to run Windows applications, reboot your system to setup the Wine environment.

$ systemctl reboot


Unzip Files in Linux - How to perform it ?

This article covers how to use the unzip command on the CentOS 8 Linux system.

Also, you will learn various uses of the unzip command through which you can list ZIP archive content and extract files. You can utilize the unzip command according to your needs.


How to Create a ZIP File with the zip Command ?

To create a ZIP file, you need to tell zip the name of the archive file and which files to include in it. 

You don't need to add the ".zip" extension to the archive name, but it does no harm if you do.

To create a file called source_code.zip containing all the C source code files and header files in the current directory, you would use this command:

$ zip source_code *.c *.h


How to Unzip a ZIP File With the unzip Command ?

To extract the files from a ZIP file, use the unzip command, and provide the name of the ZIP file. 

Note that you do need to provide the ".zip" extension.

$ unzip source_code.zip


To Unzip on the Linux command line:

The simplest option that will extract the contents to current directory:

$ unzip backup.zip


To change the target directory for extracted material, use -d option followed by the desired directory:

$ unzip backup.zip -d ./restore-directory


To preview contents of zip file:

$ unzip -l backup.zip


If you don't want to unzip the whole file, then add the specific files to extract at the end:

$ unzip backup.zip file1 subdirectory/file2


The inverse of the above command. Unzip every file EXCEPT the ones specified after the -x modifier:

$ unzip backup.zip -x file1 subdirectory/file2


Unzipping a password protected file:

$ unzip -p mypassword backup.zip


Reboot Linux Mint 20 - How to do it ?

This article covers methods to reboot the Linux Mint. If you want to shut down your Linux Mint instead of rebooting, Learn How to Shutdown Linux Mint 20 .

Rebooting is the same as restarting, and close enough to powering off and then turning off your device. The purpose is to close and reopen the operating system. Resetting, on the other hand, means taking the device back to the state in which it left the factory. Resetting wipes all your personal data.


The systemctl command accepts, among many other options, halt (halts disk activity but does not cut power) reboot (halts disk activity and sends a reset signal to the motherboard) and poweroff (halts disk acitivity, and then cut power). These commands are mostly equivalent to starting the target file of the same name.


To reboot Linux:

1. To reboot the Linux system from a terminal session, sign in or "su"/"sudo" to the "root" account.

2. Then type " sudo reboot " to reboot the box.

3. Wait for some time and the Linux server will reboot itself.


To shut down Linux Mint:

Execute the following command:

sudo chmod u+s /sbin/shutdown

You will be prompted for your root password. After that, you're done and can type "exit" to exit out of the Terminal.


Linux Commands to Shutdown and Reboot the System:

1. Linux shutdown / reboot command. On Linux, like all tasks, the shutdown and restart operations can also be done from the command line.

2. "shutdown" command.

3. "reboot" command.

4. "halt" command.

5. "poweroff" command.

6. REISUB - R E I S U B key strokes.


Create and Run a Shell Script in Debian 10 -Step by step process to do it ?

This article covers how to easily create a shell script and automate repetitive jobs in #Linux. Shell scripts are just a series of commands that you add in a file and run them together.  


To write and execute a #script:

1. Open the #terminal. Go to the directory where you want to create your script.

2. Create a file with . sh extension.

3. Write the script in the file using an editor.

4. Make the script executable with command chmod +x <fileName>.

5. Run the script using ./<fileName>.


#Shell is a #UNIX term for an interface between a user and an operating system service. 

Shell provides users with an interface and accepts human-readable commands into the system and executes those commands which can run automatically and give the program's output in a shell script.


Install PostgreSQL in CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article will cover how to install and remove the PostgreSQL server and create a database in PostgreSQL on CentOS 8. Also you will learn how to add tables in the database by using the SQL query.

PostgreSQL is available from CentOS 8's default AppStream software repository, and there are multiple versions which you can install. 

You can choose between these versions by enabling the appropriate collection of packages and dependencies that align with the version you want to install, with each collection referred to as a module stream.


To List out the available streams for the postgresql module using the dnf command:

$ dnf module list postgresql


Reboot Debian 10 - Different methods to do it ?

This article covers different methods to reboot your Debian 10 system. reboot command is used restart or reboot the system.
In a Linux system administration, there comes a need to restart the server after the completion of some network and other major updates.
It can be of software or hardware that are being carried on the server.

To reboot Linux using the command line:
1. To reboot the Linux system from a terminal session, sign in or “su”/”sudo” to the “root” account.
2. Then type “ sudo reboot ” to reboot the box.
3. Wait for some time and the Linux server will reboot itself.

To restart a Linux (Ubuntu / Debian) network?
1. Use the following command to restart the server networking service. # sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart or # sudo /etc/init.d/networking stop # sudo /etc/init.d/networking start else # sudo systemctl restart networking.
2. Once this done, use the following command to check the server network status.


Install Google Chrome on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step process to do it ?

This article covers different methods to #install Google Chrome on Linux Mint. You can easily install/uninstall Google Chrome on Linux mint 20 OS. You will also learn how to set Google Chrome as the default web browser so that all your links or URLs open by default in Google Chrome.

You can install Google #Chrome onto your Linux #Mint 20 distro by using either of the following two methods:
1. Install Chrome by adding the Google Chrome repository.
2. Install Chrome using the . deb package.

To install #Google Chrome on #Linux Mint:
1. Add this link to the list of repo sources "deb http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ stable main"
2. Run in terminal "sudo apt-get update"
3. Run in terminal "sudo aptitude install google-chrome-stable"

Running sudo apt-get update (or sudo aptitude update ) updates this on your local system.
This is the step that actually retrieves information about what packages can be installed, including what updates to currently installed packages packages are available, from Internet sources.


Install Wine on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step process to do it ?

This article covers how to install Wine on Ubuntu 20.04. We used the WineHQ repositories and downloaded them directly for their installation.
Users can use it now for running all Windows-based applications.

To Install Wine from a Standard Ubuntu Repository (recommended):
We recommend that you install Wine on your system through the standard Ubuntu repository, as this way you can have a more stable version on your system.
1. Run the following command in the Terminal as a root user in order to install Wine on a 64-bit version of Ubuntu:
$ sudo apt install wine64
2. Please enter y when you are prompted with a y/n option for installation.
After that, the Wine application will be installed and ready for use.
3. For a 32-bit Ubuntu system, you can use the following command:
$ sudo apt install wine32
4. You can verify the version of Wine through the following command:
$ wine --version

To Install Wine without Internet:
To install Wine on an Ubuntu machine without internet access, you must have access to a second Ubuntu machine (or VM) with an internet connection to download the Wine .deb package and its dependencies.
On the machine with internet, add the WineHQ repository and run apt update.
Next, cache just the packages necessary for installing wine, without extracting them:
sudo apt-get clean
sudo apt-get --download-only install winehq-devel
sudo apt-get --download-only dist-upgrade

Copy all of the .deb files in /var/cache/apt/archives to a USB stick:
cp -R /var/cache/apt/archives/ /media/usb-drive/deb-pkgs/

Finally, on the machine without internet, install all of the packages from the flash drive:
cd /media/usb-drive/deb-pkgs
sudo dpkg -i *.deb


Install Google Chrome on Debian 10 - How to do it ?

This article covers different methods to install and enjoy Google Chrome on your Debian 10 system. Moreover, whenever you feel like you do not need this browser any longer, then we have even explained to you the method of removing this browser from your Debian 10 system for your convenience.


To Install Google Chrome on Debian:

1. Downloading Google Chrome. Open the terminal either by using the Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut or by clicking on the terminal icon.

2. Installing Google Chrome. Once the download is complete, install Google Chrome with apt : sudo apt install ./google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb.


Methods to Install Google Chrome on CentOS 8 ?

This article covers the different methods for the installation of Google Chrome on the CentOS 8 system using the terminal commands and graphical method. 

Once the installation of chrome is complete, now you can feel free to add chrome extensions and favorite themes from the web store of Google Chrome.


To install Google Chrome 78 on a RHEL/CentOS/Fedora Linux:

1. Open the Terminal application. Grab 64bit Google Chrome installer.

2. Type the following command to download 64 bit version of Google Chrome:

wget https://dl.google.com/linux/direct/google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64.rpm

3. Install Google Chrome and its dependencies on a CentOS/RHEL, type:

sudo yum install ./google-chrome-stable_current_*.rpm

4. Start Google Chrome from the CLI:

google-chrome &


To upgrade Google Chrome from an older version:

You can simply update it by typing the following yum command:

$ sudo yum update google-chrome-stable

OR use the following dnf command to update it on a Fedora Linux:

$ sudo dnf update google-chrome-stable


To uninstall Chrome from Ubuntu:

1. Open the Terminal: It should be present on your desktop or taskbar.

2. Type sudo apt-get purge google-chrome-stable and press Enter to uninstall the Chrome browser.

3. Type sudo apt-get autoremove and press Enter to clean up the Package Manager to ensure that there are no lingering files.


Install Wine on Linux Mint 20 - Step by step process to do it ?

This guide will show you steps to install Wine on Linux Mint 20.  Also, you will learn how to remove it once you no longer require this software on your system.

Wine is an open-source, free and easy-to-use program that enables Linux users to run Windows-based applications on Unix-like operating systems. 

Wine is a compatibility layer for installing almost all versions of Windows programs.

The APT is the tool, commonly used to install packages, remotely from the software repository. 

Basically, it's a simple command based tool that you use to install files/software. Complete command is apt-get and it's the easiest way to install files/Software packages.


To uninstall a program in Linux:

To uninstall a program, use the “apt-get” command, which is the general command for installing programs and manipulating installed programs. 

For example, the following command uninstalls gimp and deletes all the configuration files, using the “ -- purge” (there are two dashes before “purge”) command.


How do I delete apt repository?

Whenever you add a repository using "add-apt-repository" command, it will be stored in /etc/apt/sources. list file. 

To delete a software repository from Ubuntu and its derivatives, just open the /etc/apt/sources. 

List file and look for the repository entry and delete it.


Methods to Find Your Private IP Address in CentOS 8 ?

This article will guide you on the different methods to find the private IP address in CentOS 8.


Different ways to display IP addresses in Centos:

1. Using ifconfig command. The ifconfig command is the most commonly used command for displaying and modifying IP addresses on the system.

2. Using ip command.

3. Using the hostname command.

4. using nmcli command.

5. Using ip route show command.


To configure a static IP address on CentOS 7 / RHEL 7:

1. Create a file named /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 as follows:

2. DEVICE=eth0.

3. BOOTPROTO=none.

4. ONBOOT=yes.

5. PREFIX=24.

6. IPADDR=192.168.x.xxx.

7. Restart network service: systemctl restart network.


Commands will get you the private IP address of your interfaces:

i. ifconfig -a.

ii. ip addr (ip a)

iii. hostname -I | awk '{print $1}'

iv. (Fedora) Wifi-Settings→ click the setting icon next to the Wifi name that you are connected to → Ipv4 and Ipv6 both can be seen.

v. nmcli -p device show.


Remove Duplicates in LibreOffice - Step by step process to do it ?

This article will guide you on how to get rid of duplicates from either the single column or from the multiple columns in LibreOffice. Removing duplicate entries is necessary to clean up the data. With LibreOffice advanced filter tool, you can easily remove these duplicate values from your data.

You can use Libre Office to open and edit existing #MS Office documents like excel word power point etc. 

Libre Office is a free alternate to MS #office and offers same functionality. Its easy to install and use.

The #VLOOKUP function (short for Vertical LOOKUP) is a built-in Calc function that is designed to work with data that is organized into columns. 

For a specified value, the function finds (or looks up) the value in one column of data, and returns the corresponding value from another column.


To find duplicates in #LibreOffice Calc:

1. Go to the worksheet that has the duplicate entries, and select 'Data' > 'Filter' > 'Standard Filter' (it seems to automatically select the data in the sheet that it will filter, you may want to do this manually beforehand).

2. It should then filter the data, and hide any duplicate records.


To insert a date in Libreoffice #Calc:

To enter a current date as a static date, press CTRL+; (semicolon). It will insert today's date as a static value in the corresponding cell. 

Similarly to enter current time as staic value, press CTRL+SHIFT+; .


Methods to Find your Private IP Address in Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on the different methods through which you can easily figure out the private IP #address of your Debian 10 system.

The network statistics ( netstat ) command is a networking tool used for troubleshooting and configuration, that can also serve as a monitoring tool for connections over the network. Both incoming and outgoing connections, routing tables, port listening, and usage statistics are common uses for this #command.

To find out the #IP address of #Linux system, you need to use the command called ifconfig on #Unix and the ip command or hostname command on Linux. 


To get you the private IP address of your interfaces:

i. ifconfig -a.

ii. ip addr (ip a).

iii. hostname -I | awk '{print $1}'.

iv. ip route get 1.2.

v. (Fedora) Wifi-Settings - click the setting icon next to the Wifi name that you are connected to - Ipv4 and Ipv6 both can be seen.

vi. nmcli -p device show.


Different methods to Reboot Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on the different methods through which you can effectively reboot your #Ubuntu 20.04 system without any difficulty. 

To #reboot immediately, append the -r flag: $ sudo shutdown -r now. 

To power down immediately: $ sudo shutdown -P now. 

You can use the poweroff #command: $ poweroff. 

To reboot after 10 minutes: $ sudo shutdown -r 10.


To reboot Linux using the command line:

1. To reboot the Linux system from a terminal session, sign in or "su"/"sudo" to the "root" account.

2. Then type " sudo reboot " to reboot the box.

3. Wait for some time and the Linux server will reboot itself.


Display System and Hardware Details in CentOS 8 - How to do it ?

This article will guide you on different methods to retrieve information about your #Linux system and the underlying #hardware devices. These procedures will help you check the specifications of your computer machine and you can easily know either the hardware device or computer software is compatible with your working system or not.

The Linux kernel is the main component of a Linux operating system (OS) and is the core interface between a computer's hardware and its processes.


To  find system information in #Centos:

1. To know only system name, you can use uname command without any switch will print system information or uname -s #command will print the kernel name of your system. 

2. To view your network hostname, use '-n' switch with uname command as shown. 

3. To get information about kernel-version, use '-v' switch.


Display System and Hardware Details in Debian 10 - How to do it ?

This article will guide you how to display the system details in your Debian 10 system.

The uname command Displays the operating system name as well as the system node name, operating system release, operating system version, hardware name, and processor type. 

To Check os version in Linux:

1. Open the terminal application (bash shell).

2. For remote server login using the ssh: ssh user@server-name.

3. Type any one of the following command to find os name and version in Linux: cat /etc/os-release. lsb_release -a. hostnamectl.

4. Type the following command to find Linux kernel version: uname -r.


Commands to Check Hardware Information on Linux:

i. lscpu. The lscpu command reports information about the cpu and processing units.

ii. lshw - List Hardware. will give you a very comprehensive list of hardware and settings.

iii. hwinfo - Hardware Information.

iv. lspci - List PCI. will show you most of your hardware in a nice quick way.

v. lsscsi - List scsi devices.

vi. lsusb - List usb buses and device details.

vii. Inxi.

viii. lsblk - List block devices.


Install Linux, Apache, MariaDB, PHP (LAMP) Stack on Debian 10 - Step by step process to do it ?

This guide will help you on how to #install the LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MariaDB, and PHP ) in your #Debian system. 

LAMP stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP. Together, they provide a proven set of software for delivering high-performance web applications.

For a web application to work smoothly, it has to include an operating system, a web server, a database, and a programming language. 

A LAMP Stack is a set of open-source software that can be used to create websites and web applications. 

LAMP is an acronym, and these stacks typically consist of the Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system, and the PHP programming language.

To Install #LAMP stack on Ubuntu:

1. Update your system. sudo apt-get update.

2. Install Mysql. sudo apt-get install mysql-server mysql-client libmysqlclient-dev.

3. Install #Apache server.

4. Install #PHP (php7.0 latest version of PHP).

5. Install #Phpmyadmin (for #database).


Methods to Find Your Public IP address in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This guide will help you to Find Your Public IP address in #Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. 

ipconfig stands for Internet Protocol Configuration, while ifconfig stands for Interface Configuration.

The #ifconfig command is supported by Unix-based operating systems.

The ipconfig command displays all the currently connected network interfaces whether they are active or not.

The presence of a #public IP #address on your router or computer will allow you to organize your own server (VPN, FTP, WEB, etc.), remote access to your computer, video surveillance cameras, and access them from anywhere in the global network.


To Find Local / Public IP Address in #Ubuntu 20.04:

1. Open Settings and navigate to Network in left pane.

2. Click on the gear icon under connected wired network.

3. In the pop-up it shows the detailed information including your IP address.


To find my IP address and port number in Linux:

i. All you have to do is type “netstat -a” on Command Prompt and hit the Enter button. 

ii. This will populate a list of your active TCP connections. 

iii. The port numbers will be shown after the IP address and the two are separated by a colon.


Configure Static IP in Debian 10 - Step by step process to do it ?

This article will guide you on the how to set up a static IP configuration in #Debian 10. Using either the command line or #GUI method, you can easily configure the static IP address on your system.

The ifconfig utility is used to change the IP address of a network interface.

To change your #IP address on #Linux, use the “ifconfig” command followed by the name of your network interface and the new IP address to be changed on your computer. 

To assign the subnet #mask, you can either add a “netmask” clause followed by the subnet mask or use the CIDR notation directly.

To Configure static IP address on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS Server:

1. Edit the /network/interfaces file. sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces.

2. Restart the networking service (or reboot) Once you are confident the change has been made, and if you don't want to reboot you can just restart the networking service.

To Display Available Network Interfaces in Linux:

i. ip #command – It is used to show or manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels.

ii. #netstat command – It is used to display network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships.

iii. #ifconfig command – It is used to display or configure a network interface.


Install MongoDB ( NoSQL ) on Linux (Ubuntu 20.04) - Step by step process ?

This article will guide you on how to add MongoDB’s official #repository and install the latest stable release of MongoDB #NoSQL in the #Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. 

Also, you will learn how to completely uninstall from the system in case you no longer need it.

MongoDB stores data in db folder within data folder. But, since this data folder is not created automatically, you have to create it manually. 

Remember that data directory should be created in the root (/).

To get stats about #MongoDB server, type the command db. stats() in MongoDB client. 

This will show the database name, number of collection and documents in the database.

In MongoDB, data is stored as documents. 

These documents are stored in MongoDB in JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) format. 

#JSON documents support embedded fields, so related data and lists of data can be stored with the document instead of an external table.


Methods to Log Out of Linux Mint 20 ?

This article will guide you on methods to logout from the Linux #Mint. Based on your convenience, you can use either the keyboard shortcut or the system menu to logout from your session. When you use a terminal or if you log in to an #Ubuntu system via #SSH, you open a shell session. If you want to logout from your session, you simply exit the #shell. This is why the exit command is equivalent to log out command in Linux.

To switch users in #Linux:

The su command lets you switch the current user to any other user. 

If you need to run a command as a different (non-root) user, use the –l [username] option to specify the user account. 

Additionally, su can also be used to change to a different shell interpreter on a go.


Methods to Log out of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on different methods to log out of your #Ubuntu 20.04 system very conveniently. By logging out of a current user session, we essentially attempt to stop all the running #applications. 

It means that when we will log into the same user account again, we will have to start everything from scratch.

Steps to Log Out from Ubuntu #Linux:

1. To log out from Ubuntu desktop #session, go to the top right corner and click to bring the system tray. 

2. You should see Power Off / Log Out option. 

3. Click on it and it will show the Log Out option. 

4. When you click on the Log Out button, it will open a dialogue box and ask for your conformation.

You can Use #logout to log out of the #terminal. Or alternatively we can use ctrl + d to log out of the terminal session.


Methods to log out of CentOS 8 ?

This article will guide you on different methods to log out of the #CentOS 8 #Linux system. Therefore, If you want to close the current user session then, Logging out of the system is the best choice. 

The main difference between these tools is that kill terminates processes based on Process ID number (PID), while the killall and pkill commands terminate running processes based on their names and other attributes.

To exit CentOS 7:

i. Simply use 'Ctrl-C' to kill terminal commands in linux. 

ii. Ctrl-D should be used to terminate nl correctly. 

iii. Ctrl-C is just a general way to kill #applications.


How to uninstall programs from Linux Mint ?

This article will guide you on methods to remove or #uninstall a program in #Linux #Mint 20. 

To uninstall a program, use the "apt-get" command, which is the general command for installing programs and manipulating installed programs.

If you want to remove a package, use the apt in the format; sudo apt remove [package name]. If you want to remove a package without confirming add –y between apt and remove words.

To uninstall an RPM package:

1. Execute the following command to discover the name of the installed package: rpm -qa | grep Micro_Focus. This returns PackageName , the #RPM name of your Micro Focus product which is used to identify the install package.

2. Execute the following command to uninstall the product: rpm -e [ PackageName ]


To clean up broken #packages in #Ubuntu:

i. Find your package in /var/lib/dpkg/info , for example using: ls -l /var/lib/dpkg/info | grep <package>

ii. Move the package folder to another location.

iii. Run the following command: sudo dpkg --remove --force-remove-reinstreq <package>


Ways to Shutdown CentOS 8

This article will guide you on different ways to shut down CentOS system. Using either of the above-discussed command line or GUI way, you can easily shutdown your #CentOS system.

To shut down the system from a terminal session, sign in or "su" to the "root" account. Then type ``/sbin/shutdown -r now''. 

It may take several moments for all processes to be terminated, and then Linux will shut down.

In #Unix and #Linux, the shutdown command can be used to turn off or reboot a computer. Only the superuser can shut the system down. 

One commonly issued form of this command is shutdown -h now , which will shut down a system immediately. 

Another one is shutdown -r now to reboot.


Ways to Find Your IP address in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

This article will guide you on how to check your private IP address in #Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. 

ifconfig command is used to display or configure a network interface.

To use command prompt (CMD) to find my #IP #address:

1. Open the command prompt: if you have a Start menu in your Windows system, open it and type cmd into the search bar.

2. Type ipconfig into the command prompt (or the Run box).

3. Find your IP address within the text that pops up.

You can also use the following commands will get you the private IP address of your interfaces:

i. ifconfig -a.

ii. ip addr (ip a)

iii. hostname -I | awk '{print $1}'

iv. nmcli -p device show.


Step by step process to install and use Steam on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how to #install and get started with Steam on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Steam on Linux made it easier for various hardcore gamers to switch to #Linux from Windows or #Mac for professional reasons.

Ubuntu is the best OS for developers because of the various libraries, examples, and tutorials. These features of ubuntu help considerably with AI, ML, and DL, unlike any other OS. 

Furthermore, Ubuntu also provides reasonable support for the latest versions of free open source software and platforms.

To Install #Steam from Ubuntu package #repository:

1. Confirm that the multiverse Ubuntu repository is enabled: $ sudo add-apt-repository multiverse $ sudo apt update.

2. Install Steam package: $ sudo apt install steam.

Use your desktop menu to start Steam or alternatively execute the following command: $ steam.


To play steam on #Linux:

i. To get started, click the Steam menu at the top-left of the main Steam window, and select 'Settings' from the dropdown. 

ii. Then click 'Steam Play' on the left side, make sure the the box that says 'Enable Steam Play for supported titles' is checked, and check the box for 'Enable Steam Play for all other titles'.


Different methods to check memory usage in Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on methods to check the #memory usage in #Debian 10. You can easily visualize from the way these methods have been explained that they are so simple and easy to carry out. 

Therefore, you can find out the available and used memory in Debian 10 at any time you want without any hassle.

Swap space in Linux is used when the amount of physical memory (#RAM) is full. If the system needs more memory resources and the RAM is full, inactive pages in memory are moved to the swap space.

To kill a process in Linux:

1. View Running #Linux #Processes.

2. Locate the Process to #Kill. Locate a Process with ps Command. Finding the PID with pgrep or pidof.

3. Use Kill Command Options to Terminate a Process. killall Command. pkill Command.

4. Key Takeaways on Terminating a Linux Process.


Some Useful VLC Media Player Shortcut Keys

This article will guide you on #shortcuts you can use in VLC media player which can control this application very conveniently. Doing this will not only increase your productivity but will also save your time in locating and using the GUI based controls.

To Edit #VLC Media Player Shortcuts (Hotkeys):

1. In the Menu Bar click on Tools and then “Preferences” [CTRL + P is the shortcut].

2. On the left of the preferences option go to “Hotkeys”.

3. To edit a shortcut double click on one of those Action or Hotkey.

4. A “Hotkey Change” option is displayed.

5. If the shortcut is already used up then a warning is displayed.


Different methods to uninstall programs from CentOS 8 ?

This article will guide you on methods to uninstall a #package using #Yum. You need to just type the package name with root privileges. Moreover, we have also seen how to remove a single package, multiple, and group by using the Yum package manager.

apt remove just removes the binaries of a package. 

It leaves residue configuration files. apt purge removes everything related to a package including the configuration files.

To uninstall a program in #Linux Mint terminal:

1. Uninstall software in Linux mint from the main menu.

2. Confirm that you want to #remove the package.

3. Open the Software Manager.

4. Search for a program to remove using the software manager.

5. Remove software in Linux #Mint using the software manager.

6. Open Synaptic package manager.


Process to install and configure Nagios on Linux ?

This article will guide you on how to install and configure the #Nagios #monitoring solution on Linux. We have also explained how to setup remote hosts for monitoring. Now you can easily monitor the health of #Linux #hosts and the services running on them.

Nagios is an open source monitoring system for computer systems. It was designed to run on the Linux operating system and can monitor devices running Linux, Windows and Unix operating systems (OSes).

Nagios provides complete monitoring of applications and application state – including Windows applications, Linux applications, UNIX applications, and Web applications.

To  install Nagios Plugins and NRPE daemon on the Remote Linux Host:

1. Install Required Dependencies.

2. Create Nagios User.

3. Install the Nagios Plugins.

4. Extract Nagios Plugins.

5. Compile and Install Nagios Plugins.

6. Install Xinetd.


Methods to shutdown Debian 10 from the command line and GUI ?

This article will guide you on how to shut down your Debian 10 system properly using different methods.

If you run a desktop environment, there is usually an option to "log out" available from the #application menu that allows you to shutdown (or #reboot) the system. 

Alternatively you can press the key combination Ctrl+Alt+Del.

To shut down #Linux:

1. To shut down the system from a terminal session, sign in or "su" to the "root" account. 

2. Then type ``/sbin/shutdown -r now''. It may take several moments for all processes to be terminated, and then Linux will shut down.


Step by Step process to install and configure Zabbix monitoring server on Ubuntu ?

This article will guide you on how to install and configure the Zabbix server on #Linux. You have also learned how to install and configure the Zabbix agent on the Zabbix server and the client #machines. Now you can easily keep track of the servers and monitor their health.

Zabbix server is the central process of #Zabbix software. The server performs the polling and trapping of data, it calculates triggers, sends notifications to users.

The server can itself remotely check networked services (such as web servers and mail servers) using simple service checks.

You can now start the Zabbix server and agent by running the commands:

sudo systemctl start zabbix-server.

sudo systemctl start zabbix-agent.


Methods to check memory usage in CentOS 8 ?

This article will guide you on how to check the #memory #usage on the #CentOS 8 system. Moreover, we have executed different commands such as cat, free, #vmstat, top and htop that are used to display the memory information. 

sudo apt-get clean clears out the local #repository of retrieved package files.It removes everything but the lock file from /var/cache/apt/archives/ and /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/. Another possibility to see what happens when we use the command sudo apt-get clean is to simulate the execution with the -s -option.

Using these commands, you can easily get information about your system RAM, and CPU.

Commands to check memory usage on Linux:

1. free command. The free command is the most simple and easy to use command to check memory usage on linux.

2. /proc/meminfo. The next way to check memory usage is to read the /proc/meminfo file. 3. vmstat. The vmstat command with the s option, lays out the memory usage statistics much like the proc command.

5. top command.

5. htop.


Methods to check memory usage in Linux Mint 20 ?

This article will guide you on different methods system administrators can use to check #memory #usage in #Linux #Mint 20. One of these methods was based on GUI and is intended for the users who prefer to work with a catchy interface. 

The other three methods are #CLI based since most of the tasks in the Linux based operating systems is performed via the command-line interface.

The simplest way is to fill /tmp, assuming it is using tmpfs which is the default. Run df -k /tmp to make sure it is. Keep in mind that without giving the program a maximum amount of memory it'll allocate until it exhausts the amount it can (may be limited by ulimit, amount of memory, or size of address space).

Commands to Check Memory Use in Linux:

1. cat Command to Show Linux Memory Information.

2. free Command to Display the Amount of Physical and Swap Memory.

3. vmstat Command to Report Virtual Memory Statistics.

4. top Command to Check Memory Use.

5. htop Command to Find Memory Load of Each Process.


Methods to uninstall programs from Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on how to uninstall programs from Debian 10. The first method can be used if you prefer #GUI over #CLI. The second method can be used if you only intend to delete a program without its configuration files. The third mthod can be used if you intend to delete a program along with all of its configuration files. Finally, the fourth mthod can be used if you want to get rid of all the unused packages and dependencies altogether.

Whenever you add a repository using "add-apt-repository" command, it will be stored in /etc/apt/sources. list file. 

To delete a software repository from Ubuntu and its derivatives, just open the /etc/apt/sources. list file and look for the repository entry and delete it.

Running sudo apt-get update (or sudo aptitude update ) updates this on your local system. This is the step that actually retrieves information about what packages can be installed, including what updates to currently installed packages packages are available, from Internet sources.

To Uninstall Programs on #Debian:

1. Go to the Installed tab. 

2. It will list all the installed #applications in your system. 

3. From the list, search for the application you want to #uninstall and click the Remove button in front of it. 

4. When you click the Remove button, the following message will appear for you to confirm the decision.


Steps by step process to install VLC media player on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on different installation methods for the VLC. We have also seen how we can uninstall this streaming #software from the system when it is not needed.

VLC Media Player is one of the most well known and arguably best media players available for any platform, including Windows. #VLC can also help you convert video files from one format to another, save YouTube videos for offline playback, and record your own videos using your webcam.

Using #Linux #Terminal to Install VLC in #Ubuntu:

1. Click on Show Applications.

2. Search for and launch Terminal.

3. Type the command: sudo snap install VLC .

4. Provide the sudo password for authentication.

VLC will be downloaded and installed automatically.


Step by step process to Install the latest MySQL on Debian 10 ?

This article will guide you on how to #install #MySQL server on Debian 10 #Linux system. Also we looked into how to secure the installation and connect with the MySQL shell. Using the Validate password #plugin you can make a more secure database MySQL password #authentication.

MySQL is an #RDBMS tostore, retrieve, modify and administrate a database usingSQL.

The mysql #command:

1. -h followed by the server host name (server.linuxapt.com).

2. -u followed by the account user name (use your MySQL username).

3. -p which tells mysql to prompt for a password.

4. database the name of the database (use your database name).


17 examples of using Grep command in Linux

This article will guide you on the basic syntax and usage of the #grep #command in #Linux. We also went through some command-line options to expand its usefulness. The easiest of the two #commands is to use grep's -w option. This will find only lines that contain your target word as a complete word. 

Run the command "grep -w hub" against your target file and you will only see lines that contain the word "hub" as a complete word.

1. grep searches one or more input #files for lines that match a given pattern and writes each matching line to standard output. 

2. If no files are specified, grep reads from the standard input, which is usually the output of another command.


Steps to install the latest Zoom on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on different methods to #install zoom on #Ubuntu 20.04 system. 

To launch it, navigate to the #Ubuntu #Applications menu. Alternatively, you can start it from the Command-line by executing the 'zoom' command. The #Zoom application Window will open. You should see the 'Sign In' and 'Join Meeting' buttons.


Methods to uninstall programs from Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on different methods to uninstall a #program from your Ubuntu 20.04 #system. You can #unininstall a package via a graphical #software manager and also through the command line. 

You can safely use sudo apt-get remove --purge application or sudo apt-get remove applications. When you use the purge flag, it simply removes all config files too.

To remove packages from Ubuntu system:

1. Click on the Ubuntu Software icon in the Activities toolbar; this will open the Ubuntu Software manager through which you can search for, install and uninstall software from your computer. 

2. From the list of #applications, look up for the one you want to uninstall and then click the Remove button against it.