×

This article covers how to install and configure the latest Tor browser version on LinuxMint 20 system. In fact, now using the tor browser, you can browse privately and securely and visit all websites blocked by your ISP providers.


How to install Tor on Ubuntu 21.04 ?

1. We access the terminal in Ubuntu 21.04 and install Tor with the following command:

$ sudo apt install tor 

2. Install the browser itself with the following command:

$ sudo apt install torbrowser-launcher 


How to Remove Tor browser from Debian / Ubuntu / Linux Mint ?

If you are not happy with the Tor browser (installed via APT), you can remove it using the command below:

$ sudo apt purge torbrowser-launcher

If you installed it using Flatpak via software center, you can easily uninstall it from there. If you installed it from terminal, type in the following command:

$ flatpak uninstall com.github.micahflee.torbrowser-launcher



This article covers an easy procedure to install rkhunter, configure, scan the system and view log to identify actual backdoor, rootkits, and local exploits. In fact, Rkhunter (Rootkit Hunter) is an open-source Unix/Linux based scanner tool for Linux systems released under GPL that scans backdoors, rootkits, and local exploits on your systems. It scans hidden files, wrong permissions set on binaries, suspicious strings in the kernel, and so on. 

To scan the entire Linux  file system, run the Rkhunter command as a root user:

$ rkhunter --check



This article covers the practical use cases of the Linux IP command. IP stands for Internet Protocol. IP command is used to show or manipulate routing, devices, and tunnels. It is similar to ifconfig command but it is much more powerful with more functions and facilities attached to it. It can perform several other tasks like configuring and modifying the default and static routing, setting up tunnel over IP, listing IP addresses and property information, modifying the status of the interface, assigning, deleting and setting up IP addresses and routes.


Linux system commands:

  • arp — Manipulate the system ARP cache.
  • ifconfig — View or modify the configuration of network interfaces.
  • netstat — Print information about network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships.
  • route — Display and manipulate the IP routing table.
  • tcpdump — Capture raw network traffic.



This article covers the different ways you can use the "sed" command in Linux Mint 20. Sed command or Stream Editor is very powerful utility offered by Linux/Unix systems. It is mainly used for text substitution , find & replace but it can also perform other text manipulations like insertion, deletion, search etc. 



Help desk management software solutions help organizations and companies streamline their query management procedures and related tasks. The help desk team instead of answering calls throughout the day, install and implement these solutions that create, track, and manages the query tickets. Thereby offering a prompt solution and response to both the questioner and responder. The Help Desk software solutions discussed in the article are OTRS, osTicket, GLPi, Mantis Bug Tracker, Sinergia, AdefHelpDesk, and Liberum.



This article covers how to install and use Logwatch on Ubuntu Linux System. Logwatch is a system log analyzer and send that report to email. It generates a summarized log report which contains sshd - authentication failures, sudo - sessions opened, vsftp failures, postfix, failed logins, disk space and more. To find more information, visit the Logwatch man page.

Logwatch can be installed simply from the Ubuntu repository. First update the system.

$ sudo apt-get update

To install Logwatch, execute the command:

$ apt-get install logwatch



This article covers how you can install and get started with the Cockpit web-administration tool for monitoring system statistics, metrics, and overall health. The cockpit is accessed through a web browser and its dashboard gives you a peek of your server's health alongside other system statistics such as network usage, disk space, and utilization, current users, system uptime, running processes, and system logs.




This article covers how to install and get started with the Glances monitoring tool on Ubuntu. 

To view more help, you can use the glances –help command.

By default, Glances is included in the Ubuntu default repository. You can install it with the following command:

$ apt-get install glances -y

After installing Glances, verify the installed version of Glances using the following command:

$ glances --version


Glances monitors and display the information about:

  • RAM, Swap, and free memory usage.
  • Average CPU load of the system.
  • Total active and sleeping processes.
  • Disk I/O.
  • Display file system space.
  • Display current date and time.



This article covers Zoom client's installation procedure. You can now proceed and start or join meetings with the security and reliability that Zoom provides.



This article covers how to install the KONG API Gateway on Ubuntu 20.04. These Gateways provides services like Authentication, rate-limiting, analysis, logging etc., to your API endpoints.

To Start kong API, run the following commands:

$ kong migrations up #runs the database migrations
$ sudo kong start
$ curl -i http://localhost:8001

To Stop and see status of kong API, run the following commands:

$ sudo kong stop #stop kong
$ sudo kong health #kong status



This article covers how to install ROS Noetic on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. ROS (Robot Operating System) is an open-source project that provides a framework and tools for robotics applications. It helps to design complex software without knowing how certain hardware works.



This article covers how you can either use the direct download or the snap method to install Eclipse IDE on your Ubuntu system. Eclipse is a really powerful IDE that supports many programming languages. It provides numerous plugins and extensions for enhancing the functionality of your Eclipse such as source code version control (git, svn), class diagram generator, GUI builder.


How to install JRE (Java Runtime Environment) on your Ubuntu machine ?

In order to install JRE (Java Runtime Environment) on your Ubuntu machine, run the commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install openjdk-14-jre

To verify that Java was successfully installed, let's run:

$ java --version



This article covers how to use the chpasswd command in Linux.



This article covers how to easily install TeamViewer on AlmaLinux 8. With TeamViewer you can control computer systems running Linux, Windows and Mac OS remotely as if you were sitting right in front of that system. It also provides a spontaneous support to unattended computers such as servers.



This article covers how to use the df command in Linux. You can use the df command when you need to know how much space is available on a particular file system or to see an overview of mounted files systems.

If you want to display all the file system, use -a option:

df -a


Options for df command includes:

  • -a, –all : includes pseudo, duplicate and inaccessible file systems.
  • -B, –block-size=SIZE : scales sizes by SIZE before printing them.
  • -h, –human-readable : print sizes in power of 1024.
  • -H, –si: print sizes in power of 1000.
  • -i, –inodes : list inode information instead of block usage.
  • -l, –local : limit listing to local file systems.
  • -P, –portability : use POSIX output format.
  • –sync : invoke sync before getting usage info.
  • –total : elide all entries insignificant to available space, and produce grand total.
  • -t, –type=TYPE : limit listing to file systems of type TYPE.
  • -T, –print-type : print file system type.



This article covers how to install Siege benchmarking tool on Ubuntu Linux System using two methods: using the APT and the tar.gz package. Siege allows you to test a web server with n number of users t number of times. Siege offers three modes of operation: Regression, internet simulation, and brute force.

Once the Siege is installed, you can verify the installed version of Siege using the following command:

$ siege --version



This article covers how to install and use Adobe acrobat reader to view PDF files on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.



This article covers method to set up OpenVPN on Ubuntu 20.04. OpenVPN is a full featured, open-source Transport Layer Security (TLS) VPN solution that accommodates a wide range of configurations. OpenVPN is an open-source, fast, popular program for creating a VPN (Virtual Private Network). It uses both the TCP and UDP transmission protocols, and VPN tunnels are secured with OpenVPN protocol with SSL/TLS authentication, certificates, credentials, and optionally MAC address lock as well as multi-factor authentication.

Here, you will set up OpenVPN on an Ubuntu 20.04 server, and then configure it to be accessible from a client machine.

To confirm that the OpenVPN service is up and running by checking its status using the following systemctl command:

$ sudo systemctl status openvpn



This article covers how to update firmware on Ubuntu using fwupd. Fwupd aims to make firmware update on Linux systems automatic, safe, and reliable. It is mainly used to update UEFI firmware. There are many companies that already support native firmware updates such as Dell, Lenovo, HP, Intel, and System76. 


To Install fwupd on Ubuntu, run the following command:

$ sudo apt install fwupd

To download and apply all updates for your system use the update option:

$ fwupdmgr update



This article covers how to Install uTorrent on a Linux Mint 20 system. The µTorrent is designed to use minimal computer resources while offering functionality comparable to larger BitTorrent clients such as Vuze or BitComet and also it provides performance, stability, and support for older hardware and versions of the operating system.

uTorrent server will start on port 8080 on the local system.

Open a web browser and connect to your system on port 8080 as below URL:

http://localhost:8080/gui/
Username: admin
Password: <keep it empty>



This article covers different methods of checking if SSH is running on your Linux Mint 20 system or not. Enabling SSH on Ubuntu is one of the tasks to do after the fresh installation of OS and helps you to connect your system remotely and perform tasks securely.


How to Allow SSH in Firewall ?

You may need to allow SSH incoming connections in firewall. So, use the below command to create a rule in UFW to allow SSH connections from external machines.

$ sudo ufw allow ssh
$ sudo ufw enable
$ sudo ufw reload


How to Disable SSH on Ubuntu / Linux Mint / Debian ?

For any reason you want to disable SSH on your system, you can just stop the SSH service by running the below command:

$ sudo systemctl stop ssh

Also, you need to disable the SSH service so that it doesn't start on system reboot:

$ sudo systemctl disable ssh



This article covers how to start, stop and restart the httpd service on CentOS 8 system with the help of the systemctl command. Using this utility, you can easily control any systemd and server-wide service on your system. 

Linux provides fine-grained control over system services through systemd, using the systemctl command. Services can be turned on, turned off, restarted, reloaded, or even enabled or disabled at boot. If you are running Debian 7, CentOS 7, or Ubuntu 15.04 (or later), your system likely uses systemd.



This article covers how to quickly install the Siege tool on your Linux system and use it to test any specific web server. Siege is an open-source multi-threaded regression test and benchmark utility with a primary focus on load testing and benchmarking. It can stress test a single URL with a user-defined number of simulated users or read many URLs into memory and stress them simultaneously. The program reports the total number of hits recorded, bytes transferred, response time, concurrency, and return status.


To Install Siege Benchmarking Tool on Ubuntu / Debian,

1. Check and update your Ubuntu 20.04 operating system:

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y

2. Install Siege execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install siege -y

3. Confirm the siege version to make sure it's installed and to compare it to the current version from Siege's official website:

$ siege --version



This article covers the Installation process of NodeJS on Rocky Linux. Nodejs is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine and is designed to build scalable network applications.



This article covers how to install the Logwatch utility on your Linux server. With Logwatch, you will be able to keep an eye on your server logs and hence, you can quickly figure out any possible issues.

You can easily customize Logwatch to your preference by modifying the parameters in the /etc/logwatch/conf path. It also provides something extra in the way of pre-written PERL scripts for making log parsing easier.

All the default settings are defined in the /usr/share/logwatch/default.conf/logwatch.conf file. The recommended practice is to leave this file intact and instead create your own configuration file at the /etc/logwatch/conf/ path by copying the original config file and then define your custom settings.


Logwatch comes with a tiered approach and there are 3 main locations where configuration details are defined:

  • /usr/share/logwatch/default.conf/*
  • /etc/logwatch/conf/dist.conf/*
  • /etc/logwatch/conf/*


To install Logwatch on your server.

On Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt-get install logwatch

On Debian:

$ apt-get install logwatch



This article covers how you can enjoy your TV shows and Movies using Netflix on Ubuntu 20.04. You can simply install Google Chrome and start watching Netflix without any additional tools and requirements.



This article covers how you can install Dropbox on the CentOS system and sync your local files and folders with Dropbox cloud storage. Dropbox is a useful file-sharing and syncing service that lets you sync files between different machines over the Internet for free. It's very useful for backing up your important documents, pictures, MP3 files, video files, and other data.



This article covers an analysis of the best working and free inventory management solutions for the Linux paradigm users. The list includes Delivrd, NEXTAR, Skyware Inventory, PartKeepr, and Square. Inventory management solution is required across the globe, by almost every other use for their businesses or for simply managing their items. Inventory management solutions make it easier for one to manage and keep track of their goods along with monitoring purchases and sales records. Excel files have long served the purpose, but with the advent of these efficiently working inventory management systems, it would not be wrong to say that inventory management has overall revolutionized.



This article covers the school management software tools that are free, open-source, and are compatible with the leading operating systems. School management software solutions are the demand and need of every education system, i.e., from schools, colleges, universities, or any other institute, all the platforms require a management tool capable of keeping track of different administration activities. Though there is a variety of some very efficient and capable school management systems, such as Fedena, OpenSIS, SchoolTime, and many others, however, none of these are free and open-source both at the same time. Currently, very few school management tools come under the free and open-source software license and provide competitive school management features as well. Gibbon, SchoolTool, RosarioSIS, and TS School, all ensure efficient and competitive school management features and at the same time provide free and open-source software services to its users.



This article covers how to install Grafana on Ubuntu OS using two methods: using the APT repository and the .deb package. Grafana is multi-platform open-source analytics and interactive visualization web application that integrates with complex data from sources like Prometheus, InfluxDB, Graphite, and ElasticSearch. It provides charts, graphs, and alerts for the web when connected to supported data sources. It is expandable through a plug-in system.


Features of Grafana:

  • Data Visualization: Allows for fast and flexible visualization with many options and settings.
  • Dynamic Dashboards: Provides the ability to create dynamic and reusable panels with templated variables.
  • Metrics Exploration: Explore your data with ad-hoc queries and dynamic drill-down by splitting the view and comparing different time ranges and sources.
  • Data Logs: Provides tremendous opportunities to use data metrics in a log with labels and filters saved, which can be studied, viewed, and broadcasted.
  • Extensive Alert Capabilities: Visually define alert rules for your most important metrics. Grafana will continuously evaluate and send notifications to systems such as Slack, PagerDuty, VictorOps, and OpsGenie.
  • Mixed Data Sources: Mix different data sources on the same graph and for each query.



This article covers different use cases of using the usermod command. The usermod command in Linux is used to manage user properties at command line. The syntax of the usermod command is following:

$ usermod [option] [argument] username



This article covers how to use the pkill command in Linux. pkill is basicity a wrapper around the pgrep program that only prints a list of matching processes.

The syntax for the pkill command is as follows:

$ pkill [OPTIONS] <PATTERN>

The matching <PATTERN> is specified using extended regular expressions.

For more information about pkill command, visit the pkill man page or type man pkill in your terminal.


Other Linux commands:

  • ps — Report the status of a process or processes.
  • killall — Kill processes by name.
  • kill — Send a signal to a process, affecting its behavior or killing it.



This article covers the process of removing modules by using rmmod from the Linux kernel. In fact, rmmod is a simple program which removes (unloads) a module from the Linux kernel. In most cases, you will want to use modprobe with the -r option instead, as it is more robust and handles dependencies for you.


Important Linux System Commands:

  • depmod — Generate a list of kernel module dependencies and associated map files.
  • insmod — Insert a module into the Linux kernel.
  • lsmod — Show the status of Linux kernel modules.
  • modinfo — Show information about a Linux kernel module.
  • modprobe — Add and remove modules from the Linux kernel.



This article covers the best PDF Viewers you can install on your Ubuntu / Debian Linux system. 

PDF viewer list on Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa Linux:

  • Evince PDF Viewer.
  • Okular PDF Viewer.
  • Atril PDF Viewer.
  • Adobe Reader PDF Viewer.
  • Zathura PDF viewer.
  • GNU gv PDF Viewer.


Okular is a default PDF viewer on Ubuntu 20.04 KDE Plasma Desktop. To install Okular PDF Viewer, simply run the command:

$ sudo apt install okular



This article covers different methods to Rename Files and Directories Using Linux Terminal. We can rename files and directories with rename and mv commands in the Linux Terminal. The mv command can only rename one file at a time, but the rename command can rename multiple files simultaneously.


How to Rename Files and Directories Using the mv Command ?

The mv command can rename files and directories. It is also used to move files and directories from one location to another.

Syntax of mv Command:

$ mv [OPTIONS] source destination

The source can be one or more files or directories, and the destination is always a single file or directory.



This article covers the process of migrating to AlmaLinux from CentOS 8. AlmaLinux OS is a new RHEL fork from the team at CloudLinux. It is meant to be a free Linux Operating System, developed in close co-operation with the community, and for the community. As of this article update, the release of AlmaLinux available is not stable fit for production use. AlmaLinux OS is now stable and can be used in Production environments.


To Migrate from CentOS 8 To AlmaLinux 8.4.

1. Download the almalinux-deploy.sh script:

$ curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/AlmaLinux/almalinux-deploy/master/almalinux-deploy.sh

2. Give the script execution bits:

$ chmod +x almalinux-deploy.sh

3. Then run the script with the commands below:

$ sudo bash ./almalinux-deploy.sh



This article covers how to view / preserve or delete terminal history on Ubuntu Linux System. Terminal history can be a benefit in case you want to revisit/recall the past commands. But it can be a security risk because they can show system tools, configurations, and settings. 

The history mechanism in Ubuntu keeps track of terminal commands you executed.

To view your command line history, Open the Ubuntu terminal and Type :

$ history

This will display the list of previous bash commands you executed in the terminal.


To delete your Ubuntu terminal history, Type:

$ history -c

This will clear your Ubuntu terminal history. Also, you need to know that command line history is user independent, means every user has their own separate history. When you execute history -c command, it will only clear terminal history of the current user.



This article covers different methods to modify Ubuntu Desktop Background as well as updating your background by using the command prompt. When you first install and run Ubuntu Linux the first thing you see when you log in is the default desktop. It has the Ubuntu brown color scheme and panels at the top and bottom of the screen. There are two predominant desktop environments available with Linux - the GNOME desktop and the KDE desktop. Which is the best desktop is matter of preference and heated disagreement in the Linux community. Both are excellent, feature rich desktops.


How to Change the desktop background in Ubuntu ?

To change the image used for your backgrounds:

1. Open the Activities overview and start typing Background.

2. Click Background to open the panel. The currently selected wallpaper is shown at the top.

3. There are two ways to change the image used for your backgrounds:

i. Click one of the background images which are shipped with the system.

Some wallpapers change throughout the day. These wallpapers have a small clock icon in the bottom-right corner.

ii. Click Add Picture… to use one of your own photos. By default, the Pictures folder will be opened, since most photo management applications store photos there.

4. The settings are applied immediately.

For another way to set one of your own photos as the background, right-click on the image file in Files and select Set as Wallpaper, or open the image file in Image Viewer, click the menu button in the titlebar and select Set as Wallpaper.

5. Switch to an empty workspace to view your entire desktop.



This article covers how to easily migrate to Rocky Linux 8.4 from CentOS 8. Rocky Linux is a community enterprise operating system designed to be 100% compatible with RedHat Enterprise Linux. Rocky Linux dev team has created a migration script called migrate2rocky to easily convert an existing CentOS 8 system to Rocky Linux 8.


To Upgrade the current CentOS 8 Linux system to latest available version, run the command:

$ sudo dnf --refresh upgrade

After update is completed, Reboot your system:

$ sudo reboot



This article covers how to install LAMP stack on Rocky Linux 8.4. You can now proceed to test or host your website and applications. A LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


How to Install  and configure Apache Web Server ?

1. First, we will start by installing the Apache web server. To complete the installation, use the following command:

$ yum install httpd httpd-tools

2. Once the installation is complete, enable Apache (to start automatically upon system boot), start the web server and verify the status using the commands below:

$ systemctl enable httpd
$ systemctl start httpd
$ systemctl status httpd

3. To make your pages available to public, you will have to edit your firewall rules to allow HTTP and HTTPS requests on your web server by using the following commands:

$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http 
$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https 
$ firewall-cmd --reload
4. Verify that the web server is running and accessible by accessing your server’s IP address:
$ echo "Hello there, Apache webserver is now running" > /var/www/html/index.html

5. And restart tht Web Server to reflect the changes made:

$ systemctl restart httpd

From your browser,

http://IP_address


How to Install PHP on CentOS ?

1. To install PHP on your RHEL 8 use the command below:

$ yum install -y php-mysqlnd php-dom php-simplexml php-xml php-xmlreader php-curl php-exif php-ftp php-gd php-iconv  php-json php-mbstring php-posix php-sockets php-tokenizer

2. Now restart your web server so that Apache knows that it will be serving PHP requests as well:

$ systemctl restart httpd



This article covers the different ways you can easily find out the interface link speed of any specific interface in Linux Mint 20. IP command is similar to ifconfig, which is used for assigning Static IP Address, Route & Default Gateway, and so on.

Also the ethtool command is used to query or control network driver and hardware settings:

# ethtool eth0



This article covers how to get the geographical information of a Linux server via the command line. IP addresses provide an easy way to track the location of the server in the world by using two useful APIs provided by ipinfo.io and ipvigilante.com to get the city, state, and country connected with a server.

To get the IP address geographic location of the server, we need to install curl command line downloader and jq command-line tool to process the JSON data from the geolocation APIs:

$ sudo apt install curl jq		#Ubuntu/Debian
$ sudo yum install curl jq #CentOS/RHEL
$ sudo dnf install curl jq #Fedora 22+
$ sudo zypper install curl jq #openSUSE

To get the server's public IP address, use the following curl command to make an API request to ipinfo.io in your terminal:

$ curl https://ipinfo.io/ip



This article covers the best methods to organize your directories in your Linux Mint system. Keeping an organized file system brings merit not only to system administrators, but regular users can also benefit from it.

To rename a directory on Linux, use the "mv" command and specify the directory to be renamed as well as the destination for your directory. To rename this directory, you would use the "mv" command and specify the two directory names.



This article covers the installation methods( Yum package manager or via direct download method), you can easily install Apache Maven on CentOS. Apache Maven is basically a software project management and comprehension tool. 


How to check Apache Maven on Linux?

Use the following command to check the version of installed Maven on your system:

$ mvn -version



This article covers different loop formats available in Bash Scripting. Bash For loop is a statement that lets you iterate specific set of statements over series of words in a string, elements in a sequence, or elements in an array.


The syntax of the for loop is:

for VARIABLE in PARAM1 PARAM2 PARAM3
do
  // scope of for loop
done



This article covers how to install the "bashtop" utility on your Linux Mint 20 system. Bashtop is a command-line based resource monitor written in bash, which depicts usage and statistics for the CPU processor(s), RAM, hard disks, network sources, and other running processes. It also contains a customizable menu and a fully responsive terminal user interface. 

Now, you will be able to use this utility for monitoring the resource usage statistics on your system. 


To Run or start Bashtop application, run one of the following commands.

# bashtop
# bpytop



This article covers the process of installing Brackets on a Linux Mint 20 system. Once this code editor is installed on your system, you can conveniently use it for professional-level frontend development. 

Brackets is a modern open-source code editor for HTML, CSS and JavaScript that’s built-in HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It has two great features: quick edit and live preview. It was created for front end developers and designers and has a very attractive interface. Brackets is developed by Adobe and is focused on web designers and front-end developers.


To Install Brackets Code Editor on Ubuntu:

1. make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install Brackets Code Editor.

$ sudo snap install brackets --classic



This article covers method to permanently disable SELinux on CentOS 7. SELinux, also known as Security-Enhanced Linux, is a security feature embedded in the Linux kernel. SELinux leverages Mandatory Access controls (MAC) to confine users to certain rules and policies and prevents them from performing unauthorized tasks on the Linux system as specified by the IT administrator

To Check SELinux status, simply run the command:

# sestatus



This article covers how to use the tcpdump command for troubleshooting and analyzing the network on your Linux system. tcpdump is the world's premier network analysis tool—combining both power and simplicity into a single command-line interface.

Basically, tcpdump is a valuable tool for anyone looking to get into networking or information security.

The raw way it interfaces with traffic, combined with the precision it offers in inspecting packets make it the best possible tool for learning TCP/IP.

Protocol Analyzers like Wireshark are great, but if you want to truly master packet-fu, you must become one with tcpdump first.



This article covers PostgreSQL 13 installation on Rocky Linux 8.4. Basically, PostgreSQL is the world's most advanced open source database system. And with the release of PostgreSQL 13 there are significant improvements to the indexing and lookup system that benefit large databases, and faster response times for queries that use aggregates or partitions.


How to Enable and Start PostgreSQL Service ?

To enable and start the PostgreSQL database service so that it can start automatically with system boot:

$ sudo systemctl start postgresql-13
$ sudo systemctl enable postgresql-13

To confirm everything is working fine, check the status of PostgreSQL service:

$ sudo systemctl status postgresql-13



This article covers how to install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Gitea is a self-facilitated open-source git worker written in Go. It is a fork of Gogs . Gitea incorporates a store record supervisor, venture issue following, clients administrations, notices, implicit wiki, and considerably more. 

To Install Git on Linux, run the commands: 

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

To Confirm Git Installation, execute the command: 

$ git --version



This article covers different methods for checking the battery status on CentOS 8. The battery status and ACPI https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Configuration_and_Power_Interface information is stored in /proc and /sys directory. Using "upower" command or "acpi" command you can get this information.

upower is a command line tool which provides an interface to enumerate power sources on the system. Execute below command in the terminal.

The upower command will show detailed information about the battery:

$ upower -i /org/freedesktop/UPower/devices/battery_BAT1



This article covers eBook software applications which are free and open-source. EBook reader applications have seen a rise in recent times. Many people have acquired the means to feed their book-reading habits via kindle, mobiles, or desktops to take their minds off from their busy work schedules and daily routines. In the rapidly advancing world, taking time to go to book shops, buying books, and then taking further time out from the packed schedules to read the books is not an option for many. Therefore, eBooks have been widely adopted by many across the globe. 

You can easily open and read eBook in a variety of formats in these software. The most commonly supported eBook formats in these software include EPUB, Mobipocket, LIT, PDF, HTML, RTF, Plain Text, Comic books, etc. These software provide all essential tools which are required to enhance the overall eBook reading experience. These tools basically include search text, page navigations, go to, zoom in/ out, single page and dual page view modes, rotate, fullscreen view, scrolling options, night view mode, etc. Additionally, you can also view Table of Content and Bookmarks in these software to navigate to specific chapter or section in an eBook.



This article covers how to install and configure VNC Server on Ubuntu 20.04. Virtual Network Computing, or VNC, is a connection system that allows you to use your keyboard and mouse to interact with a graphical desktop environment on a remote server. It makes managing files, software, and settings on a remote server easier for users who are not yet comfortable with the command line.

After connecting to your server with SSH, update your list of packages:

$ sudo apt update

Now install Xfce along with the xfce4-goodies package, which contains a few enhancements for the desktop environment:

$ sudo apt install xfce4 xfce4-goodies

Once that installation completes, install the TightVNC server:

$ sudo apt install tightvncserver



This article covers how to install Swift on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Swift is a programming language developed from C and objective-C which uses variables to store and refer to values. Constants are used throughout.



This article covers the basics of service management in Linux Mint 20. Linux provides fine-grained control over system services through systemd, using the systemctl command. Services can be turned on, turned off, restarted, reloaded, or even enabled or disabled at boot.

The basic syntax for using the systemctl command is:

$ systemctl [<em>command</em>] [<em>service_name</em>]

Typically, you'll need to run this as a superuser with each command starting with sudo.


How to Restart a Service ?

To stop and restart the service in Linux, use the command:

$ sudo systemctl restart <em>SERVICE_NAME</em>

After this point, your service should be up and running again. You can verify the state with the status command.



This article covers how to add and remove users in the sudo group to manage the sudo privileges of the users. sudo is a command-line program that allows trusted users to execute commands as root or another user.



This article covers how to install VeraCrypt on CentOS 8. VeraCrypt is free open-source disk encryption software for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. In case an attacker forces you to reveal the password, VeraCrypt provides plausible deniability. In contrast, to file encryption, data encryption performed by VeraCrypt is real-time (on-the-fly), automatic, transparent, needs very little memory and does not involve temporary unencrypted files.


Features of VeraCrypt:

  • Creates a virtual encrypted disk within a file and mounts it as a real disk. 
  • Encrypts an entire partition or storage device such as USB flash drive or hard drive. 
  • Encryption is automatic, real-time(on-the-fly) and transparent. 
  • Parallelization and pipelining allow data to be read and written as fast as if the drive was not encrypted. 
  • Encryption can be hardware-accelerated on modern processors. 



This article covers how to Install JFrog Artifactory on Ubuntu. JFrog Artifactory is the world’s most advanced repository manager designed to integrate with the majority of continuous integration and delivery tools. With JFrog Artifactory, delivering an end to end automated solution with artifacts tracking from development to production becomes a reality.

Jfrog provides you with an interactive, responsive user interface. It has more features than other artifactory management tools. For more information please visit the official site of JFrog. https://jfrog.com/open-source



This article covers the best, free, open-source, and cross-platform compatible photo editing tools. Editing pictures with a simple, intuitive, straightforward, and yet feature-packed tool is a dream-come-true scenario for the professional photo editors or the newbies out there. 



This article covers how to install DockerSlim in the Linux system and how it can be used to optimize and secure Docker containers. DockerSlim has an interactive shell that you can use to slim and secure your containers.

You can open DockerSlim shell by typing docker-slim on you terminal.


The basic commands for dockerslim include:

  • Build – Analyzes, profiles and optimizes your container image then generates the supported security profiles.
  • xray – Used to perform a static analysis of a container image, you can use this command if you want to see what makes the container fat.
  • lint – Used to analyse container instructions in a DockerFile.
  • profile – Used to perform an analysis of the container image without generating an optimized image.



This article covers different methods to add or delete the user in your Linux Mint system. For adding new users in system there are two commands available in your system, useradd and adduser. adduser command is the enhanced version of the useradd command. adduser command uses useradd command in the backend.



This article covers how you can install and uninstall the Emacs editor via different ways. Emacs is a free, open source, extensible and customizable text editor. It is multiplatform and we will find it available for Gnu / Linux, Windows and Mac.



This article covers methods of hardening SSH servers that help to avoid different security risks. With the advancements in technology, many business processes we carry out today heavily relies on the internet, online tools and connected devices. That is why taking the necessary precautions to ensure the network security has utmost importance. If an organization fails to secure their network, they are open to cyber attacks which can result in data breaches, losing digital assets, losing business and even going out of business.


How to secure SSH ?

If you want to make sure that your SSH server is impenetrable and secure, you should follow the steps below:

  • Set a custom SSH port. By default, SSH is set to be listening on port 22. Unfortunately, almost all cyber attackers know that. That is why changing it to something random like Port 821 offers an additional layer of security by obscurity.
  • Employ TCP wrappers. TCP Wrappers offer a host-based ACL protection that will allow you to sort out and filter who is able to access the SSH server.
  • Disable root login. Another default setting of the SSH server is that it allows root login on Unix and Linux operating systems. Since this feature can easily be exploited by the cyber attackers, we advise you to disable it.
  • Disable empty passwords. Again, in Unix and Linux operating systems, SSH server allows the users to create empty passwords which practically mean keeping the door open for intruders. Make sure that no user opts for an empty password by disabling the option.
  • Block SSH brute force attacks. In order to do so, you can opt for manually going through the system logs, detect the intruders and block them by using the firewall. Another (and much easier) method is using tools like Fail2ban, SSHGuard and such.



This article covers different methods to install the emacs editor on CentOS 8 system. Emacs is one of the oldest and most versatile text editors available for Linux and UNIX-based systems. It's been around for a long time (more than twenty years for GNU emacs) and is well known for its powerful and rich editing features. Emacs is also more than just a text editor; it can be customized and extended with different "modes", enabling it to be used like an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for programming languages like Java, C or Python.


To Install Emacs via EPEL repository, Run the following command:

$ sudo dnf update
$ sudo dnf install epel-release
$ sudo dnf install emacs



This article covers the best Open source calendars for Windows as well as Linux. There are many other high functioning and acclaimed Calendar applications such as GNOME Evolution that is most famous and offers many advanced features and set of tools, however, the platform is not available for any other paradigm except Linux. Similarly, Osmo is another great calendar application that offers enhanced capabilities but does not come for Windows or macOS.



This article covers the best music players for Linux.

RhythmBox, Clementine, Banshee, Audacious, DeaDBeeF, Amarok, and qmmp occupy our list of the best music players for Linux and its distributions and Windows platforms. Some players also support macOS, iOS, and Android, however, are mostly used and appreciated by Linux and Windows users.



This article covers the best Linux games which are free, open-source, and cross-platform compatible. The best games includes 0 A.D., Xonotic, Battle of Wesnoth, Astromenace, SuperTuxKart, Minetest, and Red Eclipse.



This article covers the top ten best radio players which works in Linux. They enable users to store and mark different radio channels along with categorizing their music. The listed radio players are Gradio, Radio Tray, Tuner, Shortwave, Goodvibes, StreamTuner2, Tauon Music Box, QMPlay2, Olivia, and Rhythmbox. All the listed players are most acclaimed and best rated by many Linux users and reviewers around the globe and therefore, we believe, are the most capable and efficient radio players.



This article covers the process of Mounting and unmounting a drive or an ISO image in Linux. After creating disk partitions and formatting them properly, you may want to mount or unmount your drives.

On Linux, mounting drives is done via mountpoints on the virtual filesystem, allowing system users to navigate the filesystem as well as create and delete files on them.


How to List Mounted File Systems and Linux Drives ?

To display all currently attached file systems we will type:

$ mount

By default, the output will include all of the file systems including the virtual ones such as cgroup, sysfs, and others. Each line contains information about the device name, the directory to which the device is mounted, the filesystem type and the mount options.


How to install NFS client on Ubuntu and Debian ?

NFS stands for Network File System. To mount an NFS share you'll need to have the NFS client package installed on your Linux system.

1. To install NFS client on Ubuntu and Debian, type:

$ sudo apt install nfs-common

2. To install NFS client on CentOS and Fedora:

$ sudo yum install nfs-utils



This article covers how to Create Multiboot USB from Linux Using Ventoy. A bootable USB is commonly used as an operating system installer. To create bootable USB download appropriate .iso,.dmg or .img file and then copy/unpack to a USB.

Commonly, at a time one ISO image is used in a USB and have to reformat drive each time to boot another Operating system. This will end up with many bootable USB drives to keep.

The idea is to get the USB drive ready for multibooting. Then you can copy the ISO images of the operating systems that you want in the first partition. Ventoy will then search for them and list them in alphabetical order on the GRUB menu.



This article covers methods to remove locked files and processes from Ubuntu Linux system to allow you use the APT package manager for other operations. 

The dpkg service locks itself so that two processes don’t update the content simultaneously. The service is locked to avoid potential corruptions in the system. However, it also means that the user cannot, for example, run a simple apt command.

In Ubuntu, you may sometimes encounter an error when attempting to run an apt command:

Could not get lock /var/lib/dpkg/lock – open (11: Resource temporarily unavailable)
E: Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/), is another process using it?

This message lets you know that dpkg, the Debian Package Manager service, is unavailable.

Use the options in this guide to resolve the Ubuntu "Could not get lock…" error.



This article covers the installation and basic configuration of Elasticsearch on the CentOS system. For how to use Elasticsearch, visit the Quick start guide available on its website. Elasticsearch is an open source search and analytics engine that allows you to store, search, and analyze big volumes of data in real time. Elasticsearch powers millions of Applications that rely on intensive search operations such as e-commerce platforms and big data applications. 

Elasticsearch supports RESTful operations. This means that you can use HTTP methods (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, etc.) in combination with an HTTP URI (/collection/entry) to manipulate your data. The intuitive RESTful approach is both developer and user friendly, which is one of the reasons for Elasticsearch's popularity.



This article covers how to run your own shell script as a systemd service. Basically, Systemd is a software application that provides an array of system components for Linux operating systems. It is the first service to initialize the boot sequence. This always runs with pid 1. This also helps use to manage system and application service on our Linux operating system.


How to Enable New Service in Linux?

1. To reload the systemctl daemon to read new file, execute:

$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload 

2. To enable the service to start on system boot, also start the service using the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl enable shellscript.service 
$ sudo systemctl start shellscript.service 

3. To verify the script is up and running as a systemd service:

$ sudo systemctl status shellscript.service



This article covers the best free and open-source calculators available for Linux and its distribution operating systems. Each discussed calculator software has been reviewed best and most acclaimed by reviewers and Linux users around the globe. The enlisted calculators offer more than any other everyday calculator and enable students, staff, employees, and workers in different areas across the globe to perform mathematical and graphical calculations on the go. The discussed paradigms are all free and can be accessed readily by the users. 

Also, the active community of the paradigm constantly adds to the already enhanced and advanced list of features of the diverse calculator software thereby improving the overall user experience every day.



This article covers the best clock applications that work most efficiently on the Linux platforms and their distributions and are absolutely free, open-source, and reliable.

Alarms are one of the most required utilities in these times. It would not be wrong to say that if there are no alarms, suddenly there will be a giant halt to productivity. Many information technology firms and software solutions developers have proposed high-functioning clock platforms that not only offer a sleek, simple, and easy clock utility but also offer amazing and most efficient alarm features along with a list of other vast features enhancing overall user experience. 



This article covers How to Install kdevelop in Ubuntu Linux System. KDevelop is a robust IDE that includes useful extensions, and also several high-quality features. KDevelop is a great option of IDE for Linux distributions due because of its stability and security.

To Install kdevelop software package in Ubuntu, run the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install kdevelop



This article covers a few basic examples of the touch command. For more information use 'man touch' to view the manual page. In fact, the touch command is a standard command used in UNIX/Linux operating system which is used to create, change and modify timestamps of a file.


Touch Command Options

  • -a to change the access time only.
  • -c if the file does not exist, do not create it.
  • -d to update the access and modification times.
  • -m to change the modification time only.
  • -r to use the access and modification times of file.
  • -t creates a file using a specified time.



This article covers how to monitor socket connection using ss command. ss command is a tool that is used for displaying network socket related information on a Linux system. The tool displays more detailed information that the netstat command which is used for displaying active socket connections.

The basic ss command without any options simply lists all the connections regardless of the state they are in:

$ ss



This article covers how to Run Jenkins Server in Docker Container with Systemd. Jenkins is an opensource automation server that is designed to help software developers build, test and deploy applications and thereby streamline the continuous integration and delivery process. 

To create a system group for Jenkins, run the command:

$ sudo groupadd --system jenkins

Then create Jenkins system user:

$ sudo useradd -s /sbin/nologin --system -g jenkins jenkins

And finally add Jenkins user to docker group as shown:

$ sudo usermod -aG docker jenkins

To confirm that Jenkins user is added to the docker group, run the id command as shown:

$ id jenkins



This article covers how you can build a comfortable workspace by customizing the look and feel of the Linux Mint terminal. Much of how we interact with computers is through text. To display text on the screen, fonts are used which define the appearance of the characters. Different fonts can be used for different purposes. Linux Mint defines five standard uses for fonts that can be configured independently.



This article covers different ways of keeping SSH sessions alive and preventing them from needlessly timing out. These are handy tips that you can use especially when there are no associated risks with someone taking over your SSH session when you are away. SSH sessions will timeout and the client will automatically be disconnected from the server after being idle or inactive for a while. 


To Avoid SSH timeout from the server:

1. Edit SSHd configuration file using your favorite editor,

$ sudo vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

2. Set these options as the followings:

TCPKeepAlive no 
ClientAliveInterval 30
ClientAliveCountMax 240

Here, the server will not send the TCP alive packet to check if the client's connection is working, yet will still send the encrypted alive message every 30 seconds. It will only disconnect after at least 2 hours of inactivity. 



This article covers how to change the ssh port on Ubuntu Linux server. You can easily change the SSH Port for Your Linux server. For better security, consider using SSH passwordless authentication with SSH public/private key pair.

The ssh port defined in sshd_config file. This file located in /etc/ssh/sshd_config location.

To open the new port run the following commands on Fedora/CentOS/RHEL/Oracle Linux using FirewallD:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-port=2222/tcp
$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload


How to Restart the sshd service ?

Type the following command on a CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux:

$ sudo service sshd restart

OR if you are using CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux with systemd:

$ sudo systemctl restart sshd

OR if you are using Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux:

$ sudo service ssh restart

OR if you are using Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux with systemd:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh

Or if you are using FreeBSD Unix, enter:

$ sudo service sshd restart



This article covers method to Install bluefish editor on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Bluefish is a text editor. It is used to write code in various programming languages like: C, C++, JAVA, Python, HTML etc.

It is cross-platform, lightweight and easy to learn. It provides many features of IDE to support development and designing of applications.


To Install Bluefish on Ubuntu:

1. Add PPA (Personal Package Archive)

Use the following command to add PPA in our system:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:klaus-vormweg/bluefish  

2. Update Repository

Use this command to update our local repository:

$ apt-get update  

3. Install Bluefish

After updating, now, use this command to install bluefish:

$ sudo apt-get install bluefish

4. Run Bluefish

Now, we can run bluefish either by using terminal or from the application manager.

Execute this command to open bluefish editor:

$ bluefish  



This article covers different methods of installation of brave browser software on Ubuntu. 


Main features of Brave web browser:

  • Search – Choose default search engine – Google, Bing, Yahoo, DuckDuckGo e.t.c.
  • Fast Browsing – According to its creators, Brave loads pages three times as fast out of the box with nothing to install, learn or manage.
  • Easy to switch to Brave – It's easy to import your settings from your old browser. You can do it during the welcome tour or later through the menus.
  • Support your favorite sites with Brave Rewards – with Brave Rewards activated, you can support the content creators you love at the amount that works for you.
  • Privacy and Security – Brave fights malware and prevents tracking, keeping your information safe and secure. Clearing of browsing data and a built-in password manager.
  • Form autofill which saves you time when working with forms.
  • Extensions/Plugins – Brave Desktop now supports most of the Chrome extensions in the chrome web store.



This article covers the three different methodologies of installing Thunderbird in Ubuntu. Thunderbird is available for various distributions like macOS, Linux, Microsoft Windows etc. thereby making it a cross platform application.

To Install Thunderbird through apt:

1. First update Ubuntu repository,

$ sudo apt update

2. Now, to install Thunderbird issue the following in terminal,

$ sudo apt install thunderbird

3. Lastly, Thunderbird can accessed either through System's main Menu or from terminal (Run "thunderbird" in terminal to run the application).



This article covers Both wget and curl which are the free and open-source command-line utilities used for the non-interactive downloading of files. Remember, although both the utilities can download files from the web; they do differ a lot in terms of functionalities.

url can be used to transfer data over a number of protocols. It supports many protocols including HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, TFTP, TELNET, SCP, etc. using Curl, you can download any remote files. It supports pause and resumes functions as well.

To Install curl,

Launch command line application in Ubuntu that is Terminal by pressing the Ctrl+Alt+T key combinations. Then enter the below command to install curl with sudo:

$ sudo apt install curl



This article covers how to change the font type, size, and color of a Debian Terminal and give a new look and feel to your Terminal text and background. If you spend a lot of time working in Terminal on your Linux system, you probably may not be comfortable with its default font size. Too small font size sometimes can give a burden to your eyes. However, the Terminal application in Linux gives you the flexibility to customize its look and feel to suit your style and need.



This article covers the different methods to check your battery health monthly to keep its charging cycle and usage optimized. For this purpose, you can use the "acpi" command.

The acpi command shows battery status and other ACPI information in your Linux distribution.

You might need to install acpi command in some Linux distributions.

On Arch Linux and its derivatives:

$ sudo pacman -S acpi

To install acpi on Debian, Ubuntu and its derivatives:

$ sudo apt-get install acpi

On RHEL, CentOS, Fedora:

$ sudo yum install acpi

Or,

$ sudo dnf install acpi

Once acpi installed, run the following command:

$ acpi -V



This article covers the whereis command which is useful for Locating the binaries and manual pages for various commands. Sometimes, while working on the command line, we just need to quickly find out the location of the binary file for a command.  


Linux whereis command syntax

The whereis command lets users locate binary, source, and manual page files for a command. Following is its syntax:

$ whereis [options] [-BMS directory... -f] name...



This article covers the different methods of Installing Django on Ubuntu 20.04. With it, you can easily perform creation of Django applications, superuser creation, and removal of Django. 

Django is a full-featured Python web framework for developing dynamic websites and applications. Using Django, you can quickly create Python web applications and rely on the framework to do a good deal of the heavy lifting.


How to install Django from Ubuntu repositories ?

1. First, update your local package index with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, check which version of Python you have installed. 18.04 ships with Python 3.6 by default, which you can verify by typing:

$ python3 -V



This article covers the different methods to install Emacs on Debian OS. Emacs is a widely used open-source text editor for Linux. It exists for many years now and can be used for basic word processing, code editing, and scripting, etc.


How to Install Emacs editor on Debian ?

1. To start the installation process, login with root and update the package repository with the following command.

$ apt-get update

2. Next, run the following command on the terminal and wait for the operation to complete. This can take several minutes. When you are asked for confirmation, press Y from your keyboard.

$ apt-get install emacs



This article covers how you can create a simple playbook file and execute it. Basically, Ansible is an Infrastructure as Code tool that allows you to use a single central location (Ansible control node) to monitor and control a large number of remote servers (hosts).

Therefore, we can use Ansible to set up a number of tasks that the remote hosts can perform, including creating new files and directories.


Components of Ansible playbook file:

  • hosts: Defines on which remote hosts from your Ansible inventory file you want to execute the task. All means that every host receives the command, but you can also enter the name of a host category or one individual host.
  • tasks: Announces that the remote host needs to perform a task.
  • name: Lets you define a name for the task. The name is for your reference only and has no influence on the task itself.
  • file: Engages Ansible's file module to create a new file.
  • path: Defines the path for the new file on the remote host’s hard drive.
  • state: Similar to the touch command in the Ubuntu terminal, entering touch creates an empty file in the location you chose.



This article covers how to optimize any type of JPEG and PNG images to save some precious disk space on your computer. Sometimes we need to optimize our images so they can take up less disk space and load faster in our websites. A very nice and easy-to-use tool for everyone that can help us optimize our image files for the web by removing EXIF, other metadata and unnecessary comments is Trimage. This image optimizing program is inspired by ImageOptim which is another open-source program used to optimize image files in machines that run Mac Os X.


To install Trimage in Debian and Ubuntu just execute the following command.

$ sudo apt-get install trimage



This article covers the best photo editors for Linux users. If you are using a Linux operation system and looking for an efficient Linux photo editor that is not better than Lightroom or Photoshop, you may face some problems. With these software, you can perform basic and professional adjustments, retouch and organize your images, make color and lighting correction, manipulate size, converse or share the files.


Top Best Linux Photo Editors



This article covers steps to install and setup McAfee ENS Threat Prevention Standalone setup on a Linux system. McAfee is one of the best and most useful Antivirus product which is being used in the market. 



This article covers how to install elasticsearch in the stable version of Ubuntu 20.04. Now you can use the hosted elasticsearch server for doing searches.

If your application generates a huge amount of data and the search procedures are slow, then using elasticsearch will be best.



This article covers how to Install putty on CentOS 8. With putty, you can easily connect your Linux system to a remote system. Putty is a free and open source ssh & telnet client. Putty is available for Windows, Linux, Unix and macOS. Using putty, we can access the remote servers and switches over ssh protocol. It can also be used to take serial console of remote systems.


How to perform Putty Installation on CentOS / RHEL / Fedora ?

Putty package is available in the default CentOS and RHEL repositories. So, to install putty run:

$ sudo yum install putty -y

Or

$ sudo dnfs install putty -y



This article covers methods to install Nmap on your CentOS machine. Nmap is a handy utility for network scanning and security auditing. Nmap contains variety of options for scanning remote hosts. Have a look at the 15 Mostly Used Nmap Commands for Scanning Remote Hosts.



How to Install Nmap on Debian / Ubuntu ?

1. Install Nmap on Ubuntu by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install nmap

2. The system prompts you to confirm the installation by typing y.

3. After the installation is finished, verify the installed version of Nmap by entering:

$ nmap –version



This article covers how to install Go on CentOS 8. Go language was designed to resolve the common criticisms of other languages while maintaining their positive characteristics and most widely used for writing servers these days.


Run the below command to see the version of the Go language:

$ go version



This article covers how to install the AnyDesk application on CentOS 8 system using the command-line approach. Once you've installed AnyDesk on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8, you’ll be able to access your Linux system from Windows, Mac, and other Linux based systems. You'll enjoy its simple and user-friendly set up and administration tools which enables you to easily manage remote system.



This article covers the installation of Apache NetBeans on the CentOS system. Here, you will learn the entire procedure for the installation of NetBeans that includes downloading, installation, and launching of NetBeans. At the end, you also learned to uninstall Apache NetBeans if you ever have to do that.

Apache NetBeans is a very powerful Integrated Development Environment (IDE) tool that enables you as a Developer create Desktop, Web and Mobile Applications from its modular framework. It supports Java, PHP, HTML, JavaScript, C, C++, Ajax, JSP, Ruby on Rails and other programming languages using extensions.



This article covers how to use the Linux stat command. Basically, The stat command gives important information about filesystems. stat command is a useful utility for viewing file or file system status. It retrieves information such as file type; access rights in octal and human-readable; SELinux security context string; time of file birth, last access, last data modification, last status change in both human-readable and in seconds since Epoch, and much more. Also, It has an option to specify a custom format instead of the default, for displaying information.



This article covers how to install the Wireshark network analyzer tool on CentOS 8 system. Once Wireshark installed on your system, you can capture incoming and outgoing data packets over the network. Wireshark is free & Open source network packet analyzer that is used for network analysis, troubleshooting, etc. Wireshark is a cross-platform software that is available for various Linux/UNIX distributions, Mac-OS, Solaris, BSD & Windows, etc. It uses GTK to implement user interface & captures packets using PCAP. For additional help or useful information, we recommend you to check the official Wireshark website.


To Install package called Whireshark using the dnf command. For a GUI Wireshark application execute:

# dnf install wireshark

To install Wireshark command line tool only execute:

# dnf install wireshark-cli



Features of Wireshark includes:

  • Live packet capture & offline analysis.
  • A number of display filters.
  • Support for hundreds of protocol.
  • Rich VOIP analysis.
  • Read/write feature various file formats.
  • Live data can be read from ethernet port, Bluetooth, USB, Token rings tec.



This article covers the installation of Gradle on the Ubuntu system using different ways. Gradle is a free and open-source build tool primarily used for Java projects. Gradle helps you to automate, build and deliver software efficiently. Gradle uses Groovy object-oriented programming language instead of XML to define the project configurations. Gradle also supports many popular IDE platforms, such as Android Studio, Eclipse, IDEA, and NetBeans.


How to Install Java on Linux ?

Gradle needs Java to be installed on your system. You can install the latest version of Java by running the following command:

$ apt-get install default-jdk -y 

After installing Java, you can verify the Java with the following command:

$ java -version



This article covers how you can monitor the temperature of your CPU cores, hard drive and other components attached to the motherboard.

When your PC is overheating, consider disassembling your PC and blowing it with a blower to get rid of all the dust which might be blocking the ventilation vents.

Also, ensure your laptop is placed on a hard surface and not on a cushy surface such as on a bed where the vents can easily get blocked.

Lastly, enable power saving mode and close any unnecessary applications.



This article covers both the symbolic and numeric mode of the chmod command. Control who can access files, search directories, and run scripts using the Linux's chmod command. This command helps modifies Linux file permissions.

In Linux, who can do what to a file or directory is controlled through sets of permissions. There are three sets of permissions. One set for the owner of the file, another set for the members of the file's group, and a final set for everyone else.


To change directory permissions in Linux, use the following:

  • chmod +rwx filename to add permissions.
  • chmod -rwx directoryname to remove permissions.
  • chmod +x filename to allow executable permissions.
  • chmod -wx filename to take out write and executable permissions.



We can use the -l (long format) option to have ls list the file permissions for files and directories.

$ ls -l


chmod Numerical Shorthand:

  • 0: (000) No permission.
  • 1: (001) Execute permission.
  • 2: (010) Write permission.
  • 3: (011) Write and execute permissions.
  • 4: (100) Read permission.
  • 5: (101) Read and execute permissions.
  • 6: (110) Read and write permissions.
  • 7: (111) Read, write, and execute permissions.



This article covers some useful Linux commands to help you get started with working efficiently with Linux system. When operating a Linux OS, you need to use a shell — an interface that gives you access to the operating system’s services. Most Linux distributions use a graphic user interface (GUI) as their shell, mainly to provide ease of use for their users.

That being said, it's recommended to use a command-line interface (CLI) because it’s more powerful and effective. Tasks that require a multi-step process through GUI can be done in a matter of seconds by typing commands into the CLI.


How to use the cd command in Linux ?

To navigate through the Linux files and directories, use the cd command. It requires either the full path or the name of the directory, depending on the current working directory that you're in.

There are some shortcuts to help you navigate quickly:

  • cd .. (with two dots) to move one directory up.
  • cd to go straight to the home folder.
  • cd- (with a hyphen) to move to your previous directory.


How does the ls command works ?

The ls command is used to view the contents of a directory. By default, this command will display the contents of your current working directory.

There are variations you can use with the ls command:

  • ls -R will list all the files in the sub-directories as well.
  • ls -a will show the hidden files.
  • ls -al will list the files and directories with detailed information like the permissions, size, owner, etc.



This article covers the best method to send processes to the background in your Linux system. This is helpful, if you have started a command on terminal and that command is taking to much time. Now you want to move that in background, so that you can continue with other tasks.


To list all jobs running in background use jobs command. It will show all running commands with their job id:

$ jobs


How to Place a Running Foreground Process into the Background in Linux ?

A foreground process is the a process. In order to place a foreground process into the background, we must first put the process to sleep, and then place it in the background.

Execute the command to run your process.

Press CTRL+Z to put the process into sleep.

Run the bg command to wake the process and run it in the background.



This article covers how to change own and another user account passwords. It's recommended that to change your password frequently and use a unique password for each account for security purpose. Basically, you will learn how to change a password on any Linux distribution, including Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOs.

To change a password on behalf of a user, first sign on or "su" to the "root" account. Then type, ``passwd user'' (where user is the username for the password you are changing). The system will prompt you to enter a password. Passwords do not echo to the screen when you enter them.

You can also change your own password, by typing ``passwd'' (without specifying a username). You will be prompted to enter your old password for verification, and then a new password.


How to Change a Password in Linux?

To change the password in Linux you need to open the terminal and type the following command:

$ sudo passwd

After executing the command, you will be asked to enter the new password twice. 



This article covers how to list users in Linux system and also differentiate difference between normal user and system user. Linux OS is unique because of its multi-user characteristic allowing multiple users on one system, at the same time. However, tracking all users is essential. The /etc/passwd file contains one line for each Linux user account, with seven fields delimited by colons. This is a text file. You can easily list users under Linux using the cat command or other commands such as grep command / egrep command and more. With this same approach, you can use the Linux commands to list all users on all Linux operating system, including Ubuntu, Debian, RHEL, Arch, Fedora, CentOS, and other distros.


To list all users on Linux, use the cat command as follows:

$ cat /etc/passwd



This article covers how to get CentOS version using different methods. There are several ways on how to check what version of CentOS is running on your system. The simplest way to check for the CentOS version number is to execute the cat /etc/centos-release command. Identifying the accurate CentOS version may be required to help you or your support team to troubleshoot your CentOS system.


Different commands to check CentOS version:

  • $ rpm -q centos-release - CentOS version valid for CentOS 6 and higher. Causes to reveal major, minor and asynchronous CentOS version.
  • $ lsb_release -d - Requires redhat-lsb package to be installed before execution.
  • $ rpm -E %{rhel} - RPM macro to reveal a major CentOS version.
  • $ rpm --eval %{centos_ver} - RPM macro to display a major version of CentOS.
  • $ cat /etc/centos-release - Linux cat command to output content of the /etc/centos-release .to query CentOS version. Works with CentOS 6 and higher.



This article covers most used Nginx commands. You can learn more about Nginx command line at Nginx documentation.

Nginx is one of the most popular web servers in the world. So whether you're currently using it or not, chances are, if you're a web developer chances are you'll likely come in contact with it at some point. 

Also, Nginx is well known for its simple configuration, and low resource consumption due to its high performance, it is being used to power several high-traffic sites on the web, such as GitHub, SoundCloud, Dropbox, Netflix, WordPress and many others.


To start the Nginx service, run the following command. Note that this process may fail if the configuration syntax is not OK:

$ sudo systemctl start nginx #systemd

OR

$ sudo service nginx start   #sysvinit


To enable Nginx auto-start at boot time, run the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable nginx #systemd

OR

$ sudo service nginx enable   #sysv init


How to Show Nginx Command Help ?

To get an easy reference guide of all Nginx commands and options, use following command.

$ systemctl -h nginx



This article covers how to use the Linux cat command. Cat(concatenate) command is very frequently used in Linux. It reads data from the file and gives their content as output. It helps us to create, view, concatenate files.

If you want to add a bit of new text to an existing text file, you use the cat command to do it directly from the command line (instead of opening it in a text editor).

Type the cat command followed by the double output redirection symbol ( >> ) and the name of the file you want to add text to.



This article covers how to Install Kdenlive video editor on a Linux Mint 20 system. Now you can use it very conveniently for producing professional quality edited videos. Kdenlive is a free and opensource video editing software, it is built on Qt and  KDE Framework libraries, and MLT Framework is used for video processing in Kdenlive and this is part of the official KDE project.


How to Install Kdenlive 20.04 in Ubuntu 20.04 / LinuxMint /Elementary OS ?

1. Add the official PPA

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:kdenlive/kdenlive-stable

2. Update the apt repository

$ sudo apt update

3. Install Kdenlive 20.04

$ sudo apt install kdenlive



This article covers how you can install Zoom on CentOS machine using two different methods i.e via RPM and via snap. The Zoom Client can be installed on Windows, Mac, Linux, iOS, Android, and H.323/SIP room systems.


How to Install Zoom Client on CentOS 8 / Fedora 33/32/31/30 ?

An RPM package is provided on the Downloads page for installation on CentOS / RHEL and Fedora System.

1. Download the latest release of Zoom Client:

$ sudo yum -y install wget
$ wget https://zoom.us/client/latest/zoom_x86_64.rpm

2. Then install Zoom Client on CentOS 8 Linux with yum command:

$ sudo yum localinstall zoom_x86_64.rpm

Hit the y key to start the installation.

The dependencies required and Zoom Client will be installed on CentOS 8.

3. You can check the version of Zoom Client installed on CentOS 8 / Fedora Desktop with the rpm command:

$ rpm -qi zoom 



This article covers how to install the Strimio Radio on your Linux Mint 20 system. Strimio is a free streaming service that allows you to access and enjoy thousands of live streams from all around the world. It is a cloud-based app equipped with many useful features available on several platforms, including Linux, Windows, and macOS.


To install Strimio on Linux:

Run the following command in your terminal:

$ sudo snap install strimio-desktop



This article covers the screen recording tools that are the best performing and yield the most optimal outcomes for Linux users. Cross-platform compatible screen recorders are discussed as well such as OBS Studio and Freeseer whereas Kazam, recordMyDesktop, and Simple Screen Recorder are especially and specifically designed to enhance the user experience of Linux users. Still, each discussed screen recording tool is most acclaimed and best-reviewed by Linux users and hence ensures a seamless user experience.

Screen recording is a need for every paradigm, from businesses to school management to chefs cooking meals in the restaurants and kitchens, everyone requires or wants to create tutorials. To create these tutorials, screen recording tools often pose different challenges and issues.

All of these open-source software tools for Linux let you record video of what's happening on your screen, and some let you live-stream it to YouTube or Facebook Live as well.



This article covers the best Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) that despite providing a coding environment, also provide assistance and support along with speed and efficiency to enhance the software developers’ overall coding experience. PhpStorm, Eclipse, BlueFish, VSCode, and Sublime Text – all IDEs are part of our list of top-performing IDEs. Each IDE is cross-platform compatible thereby enabling software developers across all the platforms, i.e. Windows, macOS, and Linux, and making development easy, efficient and equal for all.

Basically, Developing software solutions is a need and demand of many users, companies, and enterprises across the globe. In this advanced world of information technology, it has almost become impossible to expect advancements and improvements or even sustenance without relying on a software solution.



This article covers the top and best functioning time tracking tools capable of tracking, managing, and providing insights such as reporting, on different tasks the users or employees have spent their time on. Project Hamster, actiTime, TimeCamp, Hubstaff, and Kimai, all are the most acclaimed time tracking software by many reviewers and Linux users across the globe. Each of the discussed tools offers seamless time tracking and reporting functionalities that enable companies or freelancers to manage their time, budgets, and accounting processes and operations.

Linux users are though less in number than the other platforms, still holds a significant market, and most of the servers, mainframe computers, and supercomputers are based on Linux.



This article covers the best functioning and currently available screenshot tools enabling Linux users across the globe. There are many screenshot tools, however, not all come with the open-source functionality that despite enabling the user to modify and adjust the tool according to their needs and requirements, also help to enhance and improving the performance and feature set of the too, thereby enabling every user of the tool. 

Therefore, the discussed tools are free and open-source which offer unlimited access to features and functionalities and ever enhancing the platform’s functionalities and performance.

To capture the entire desktop, simply press the PrtScr button. Captured images are saved in the 'Pictures' folder. Another easy way of capturing screenshots is using the SHIFT + PrtScr keyboard combination. This reveals a crosshair pointer that you can drag to grab the area that you wish to capture.



This article covers how to install Brave browser on a Linux Mint 20 system. Brave is a free to use and open-source web browser developed by Brave Software, Inc. Its source code is based on the Chromium browser. Brave is designed to block ads and website trackers by default and guarantee privacy.


How to Launch Brave Web Browser on Linux Mint 20 ?

After installation you can use the terminal or Desktop Environment Launcher to start brave web browser on Linux Mint 20 Desktop machine:

$ brave-browser



This article covers how to install the Curl command-line tool on CentOS 8 system. Through the curl command, users can download and upload files over the network. curl is a powerful command-line tool for transferring data from or to a remote server. With curl you can download or upload data using various network protocols, such as HTTP, HTTPS, SCP , SFTP , and FTP .


How to Install curl on CentOS ?

Curl package is available in the standard CentOS 8 repositories. 

To install it run the following command:

$ sudo dnf install curl

Once the installation is complete, verify it by typing curl in your terminal:

$ curl



This article covers how to install Vivaldi browser and concluded with its uninstallation method from a Linux system. Vivaldi is a next generation open source web browser that runs on Windows, Linux, macOS and on mobile devices. It comes with unique features and is created to be fast and secure browser that blocks ads and trackers. 

To Launch and Use Vivaldi Browser on Linux Mint 20:

Start the browser from terminal:

$ vivaldi


How to Install Vivaldi Web Browser on Linux Mint / Kali Linux ?

1. Start by importing the GPG key used for verification during installation.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt -y install wget gnupg2 software-properties-common
$ wget -qO- https://repo.vivaldi.com/archive/linux_signing_key.pub | sudo apt-key add -

2. Then run the commands below to add the repository to your system.

echo 'deb https://repo.vivaldi.com/archive/deb/ stable main' | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/vivaldi.list

3. A final step is the installation of Vivaldi Web Browser on Linux Mint / Kali Linux.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install vivaldi-stable

Hit the y key in your keyboard to start installation.



This article covers how to install Microsoft Teams on CentOS machine using different methods. You can either install Microsoft Teams by downloading and installing its RPM package from the official website or you can install the snap package. Microsoft Teams is a communication platform used for Chat, Calling, Meetings, and Collaboration. Generally, it is used by companies and individuals working on projects. Microsoft Teams is available for macOS, Windows, and Linux operating systems available now.


How to Install Microsoft Teams Linux on CentOS 8 ?

By default, Microsoft Teams Linux package is not available in the CentOS 8 default repository. You will need to download the RPM package for it. 

1. You can download it with the following command:

$ cd /tmp
$ wget https://packages.microsoft.com/yumrepos/ms-teams/teams-1.3.00.5153-1.x86_64.rpm

2. Once the package is downloaded, install the downloaded package with the following command:

$ dnf install teams-1.3.00.5153-1.x86_64.rpm


How to Remove Microsoft Teams from CentOS ?

1. To remove Microsoft Teams Linux from the CentOS 8, run the following command:

$ dnf remove teams

2. To remove Microsoft Teams Linux from the Ubuntu 18.04, run the following command:

$ dpkg -r teams



This article covers how to install Arduino IDE on CentOS machine either via the direct download method or the snap method. Also, you will learn how to uninstall Arduino. Arduino IDE stands for the "Arduino Integrated Development Environment". Arduino is used to create electronic devices that communicate with their environment using actuators and sensors. Arduino IDE contains an editor that is used for writing and uploading programs to the Arduino board. Before starting to create projects through Arduino, the user needs to set up an IDE for the programmable board.


How to Launch Arduino IDE on CentOS Linux System ?

Now, you will launch the Arduino IDE from the desktop. Click on 'Activities' and select show application form where you will launch Ardunio IDE to double click on the application icon.

You can also launch using the search bar, click on the 'Activities' where you can see a search bar. You will type 'Arduino' in the search bar.



This article covers how to install Android Studio using different methods. Also, you will learn how to remove Android Studio in case you don't need it anymore. Android Studio is the most widely used software for android mobile application development. Android Studio is developed by Google and it can run on different operating environments like Windows, macOS, and Linux. Most of the current popular android applications are developed on Android Studio. This tool has various built-in features that provide a stable and fast environment for developing applications.


How to Install Android Studio through snap ?

You can install the android studio using snap on your Ubuntu system using the following command:

$ sudo snap install android-studio --classic

You can also install android studio using the below-mentioned command:

$ sudo snap remove android-studio



This article covers how to check OS version using different methods. You can get more information of Ubuntu releases at official site of the Ubuntu Releases.

If you are using Ubuntu 16.04 then you can Upgrade using this guide Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.

Ubuntu is a free, open-source Linux-based operating system, which has a long list of release versions. Finding out which Ubuntu version is running on your system can be important when troubleshooting issues or searching for installation guides.


To check the Ubuntu version, use the following command in terminal:

$ lsb_release -a

This will display you some details about your distribution including Ubuntu version:

Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description: Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
Release: 20.04
Codename: focal



This article covers how to Remove Files and Directories Using Linux Command.

The procedure to remove all files from a directory:

  • Open the terminal application.
  • To delete everything in a directory run: rm /path/to/dir/* .
  • To remove all sub-directories and files: rm -r /path/to/dir/* .



This article covers how to use of shutdown command in Linux with different arguments. Learn more by visit the shutdown man page.

On Unix-like operating systems, the shutdown command shuts down or reboots the system.

The shutdown command brings the system down in a secure way. All logged-in users are notified that the system is going down, and login operations are blocked. It is possible to shut the system down immediately, or after a specified delay.

All processes are first notified that the system is going down by the signal SIGTERM. This gives programs like vi time to save the file being edited, mail and news processing programs a chance to exit cleanly, etc.


Good Linux commands:

  • halt — Stop the computer.
  • poweroff — Stop the computer.
  • reboot — Stop the computer.
  • wall — Send a message to all logged-in users.



This article covers different wget command for different operations along with options. Wget is a command line utility in linux to download files from the internet. It provides many features such as downloading multiple files, resuming stopped downloads, limiting the bandwidth, downloading in the background and can be used for taking mirrors of the site. Wget supports HTTP, HTTPS and FTP protocol to connect server and download files.

You can learn more about Wget visit the GNU wget Manual page.


How to Install wget on Ubuntu | Debian ?

If your operating system is Ubuntu, or another Debian-based Linux distribution which uses APT for package management, you can install wget with apt-get:

$ sudo apt-get install wget



This article covers how to install Skype on your CentOS 7 desktop system. Running Skype on CentOS/Fedora allows you to make Skype calls, group video calls, instant messaging, phone number calls, and screen sharing.


How to Install Skype on CentOS | Fedora ?

The easiest and quickest way to install Skype on Fedora 34/33/32/31/30 is by using the RPM package. 


1. Download the package using wget command:

$ wget https://repo.skype.com/latest/skypeforlinux-64.rpm

2. Install Skype by running the commands:

### On CentOS and Red Hat systems ###
$ sudo yum localinstall skypeforlinux-64.rpm
### On Fedora 22+ systems ###
$ sudo dnf localinstall skypeforlinux-64.rpm

3. Use the following command to launch Skype from the command line and accept terms and conditions for the first time.

$ skypeforlinux



This article covers how to change timezone in Ubuntu 18.04. If you have set up your Ubuntu system to fetch Automatic Time Zone, it will sync your system through the internet so that it will have the time zone of your closest location.

Most modern distributions such as Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, Arch, CentOS v.7.x+, and other Unix-based systems use the timedatectl utility. This command allows you to control and edit time and date settings using the command line.


To display the current time and date information use the command:

$ timedatectl

You can set your Ubuntu system to synchronize to the NIST atomic clock:

$ timedatectl set-ntp yes

If you need to turn off NTP synchronizing to be able to adjust the time and date manually, use:

$ timedatectl set-ntp no



This article covers how to create a new SSH key pair and set up an SSH key-based authentication. You can set up same key to multiple remote hosts on CentOS system. Also, you will learn how to disable SSH password authentication.

SSH, or secure shell, is an encrypted protocol used to administer and communicate with servers. When working with a CentOS server, chances are, you will spend most of your time in a terminal session connected to your server through SSH.

SSH keys are typically configured in an authorized_keys file in . ssh subdirectory in the user's home directory. Typically a system administrator would first create a key using ssh-keygen and then install it as an authorized key on a server using the ssh-copy-id tool.

The public key should be stored in the ~/. ssh/authorized_keys file on the server.


To Create the RSA Key Pair:

1. Execute the command below to create a key pair on the client machine (usually your computer):

$ ssh-keygen

2. Press ENTER to save the key pair into the .ssh/ subdirectory in your home directory, or specify an alternate path.


Best Practices to improve SSH Key Security:

  • Discover all SSH Keys and Bring Under Active Management.
  • Ensure SSH Keys Are Associated With a Single Individual.
  • Enforce Minimal Levels of User Rights Through PoLP.
  • Stay Attentive to SSH Key Rotation.
  • Eliminate Hardcoded SSH Keys.
  • Audit All Privileged Session Activity.



This article covers how to change the hostname on Ubuntu 18.04 system using multiple methods. HostName is also referred to as the computer name of your system. It is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication in the computer network. Hostname helps you to access local web pages and other authorized data on your system.

The host name or computer name is usually at system startup in /etc/hostname file.


How to change the computer name on Ubuntu Linux ?

1. Type the following command to edit /etc/hostname using nano or vi text editor:

$ sudo nano /etc/hostname

Delete the old name and setup new name.

2. Next Edit the /etc/hosts file:

$ sudo nano /etc/hosts

Replace any occurrence of the existing computer name with your new one.

3. Reboot the system to changes take effect:

$ sudo reboot



This article covers how to change the hostname on Debian 9 system using different methods. Basically, the hostname is a label that is assigned during the initial server setup and it is used to identify and easily distinguish one server from another. 

To check your current hostname:

$ hostname

And to check your Fully Qualified Domain name (FQDN) you can run the following command instead:

$ hostname -f


How to Change your Debian hostname ?

1. To change your hostname, we can simply run the following command:

$ hostname new.hostname.com

2. So in order to change our hostname permanently, you will need to update this file. You can open it with your favorite text editor, for example:

$ nano /etc/hostname

3. Change the hostname, save the file and exit the text editor.



This article covers the best method of installing the Rhythmbox audio playing application on a Linux Mint 20 system. Rhythmbox is a free and open-source audio player that plays and helps organize digital audio files. the features of Rhythmbox like Music playback, gapless playback, music importing, audio CD burning and SoundCloud support. 


How to remove Rhythmbox from Ubuntu?

You can also remove it by downgrading the player via command window at the same time:

$ sudo apt-get install ppa-purge
$ sudo ppa-purge ppa:ubuntuhandbook1/apps

If it fails to remove, you can also remove it from the Software and Update utility on Ubuntu.


Main Features of Rhythmbox:

  • Fixed Critical Errors and Internal Bugs.
  • Fixed Rhythmbox crashed during import.
  • Command option added.
  • Very good layout and design.
  • Play queue UI improvements feature added.
  • Added Expand playing icon in the entry view
  • Fixed hangs for a special file type.
  • Fixed Open settings Crash for this app.
  • Fixed Keyboard navigation tab when searching an entry widget.



This article covers some useful SCP commands to copy files/folders between hosts in the network. Linux administrator should be familiar with CLI environment. Since GUI mode in Linux servers is not a common to be installed. SSH may the most popular protocol to enable Linux administrator to manage the servers via remote in secure way. Built-in with SSH command there is SCP command. SCP is used to copy file(s) between servers in secure way.



SCP Basic syntax:

scp [options] username1@source_host:/location1/file1 username2@destination_host:/location2/file2

Some common scp command options include:

  • –P – Specify server SSH port.
  • –p – Preserve the timestamp for modification and access (note the lower-case).
  • –q – Quiet mode, don’t display progress or messages (will still show errors).
  • –C – Compress the data during transmission.
  • –r – Recursive – include subdirectories and their contents.



This article covers how to query various DNS records. The dig command in Linux is used to gather DNS information. It stands for Domain Information Groper, and it collects data about Domain Name Servers. The dig command is helpful for diagnosing DNS problems, but is also used to display DNS information.

By default, dig sends the DNS query to name servers listed in the resolver(/etc/resolv.conf) unless it is asked to query a specific name server.


How to Install Dig on Linux ?

1. On Debian and Ubuntu, run:

$ apt-get install dnsutils

2. On CentOS 7, run the command:

$ yum install bind-utils

3. Once installed, check the version, to make sure the setup was completed successfully:

$ dig -v


Dig Syntax

In its simplest form, the syntax of the dig utility will look like this:

dig [server] [name] [type]


i. [server] – the IP address or hostname of the name server to query.

If the server argument is the hostname then dig will resolve the hostname before proceeding with querying the name server.

It is optional and if you don't provide a server argument then dig uses the name server listed in /etc/resolv.conf.

ii. [name] – the name of the resource record that is to be looked up.

iii. [type] – the type of query requested by dig. For example, it can be an A record, MX record, SOA record or any other types.

By default dig performs a lookup for an A record if no type argument is specified.



This article covers software programming languages which are the top-rated languages being used by the quality assurance engineers for designing and developing the most efficient and reliable test automation software. Python, Java, C#, JavaScript and Ruby, all are well-acclaimed programming languages to deliver and support test automation for software applications developed in any of the platforms.

Automation testing is one of the booming demands of all organizations across the globe. Many quality assurance engineers face a key challenge in setting up an environment capable of most seamlessly testing the developed software against the documented test cases and requirements. Verifying and validating all the test case scenarios is a tedious task to perform thereby giving rise to the need for automation testing. Automation testing significantly enhances and improves the software testing processes.



This article covers the leading gaming distros for Linux. Pop!_OS tops our list of the best gaming distros available in the market for Linux operating system users. Ubuntu, being an efficient and overall optimal operating system that ensures execution of any task, comes second on our list. Whereas GamerOS, Fedora Games Spin, and Manjaro Gaming Edition follow the suit. The here listed paradigms are found and proven to be the best gaming distros for Linux by many reviewers and users. From Pop!_OS to Manjaro Gaming Edition, any adopted distro is ensured of providing an efficient, seamless, and enhanced gaming experience to the Linux gamers. 

However, many other distros too lead the market such as Drauger OS, Lakka, etc. Still, the distros listed in this guide have proven to outperform their peers numerous times and thereby are listed here as the top five best Linux Distros for Gaming.



This article covers how to install and configure the Unbound name resolution server in Ubuntu with basic configuration. Unbound is basically a recursive-only caching DNS server which can perform DNSSEC validation of results. Unbound is the best alternative for setting up a caching nameserver on your LAN or personal machine.


To install Unbound from official Repository, run the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install unbound -y



This article covers how to enable a dark theme on a Linux Mint 20 system.


How to change themes in Linux Mint ?

1. Search for themes in the Menu and open the Themes applet (Theme Applet provides an easy way of installing and changing themes).

2. At the applet there's a "Add/Remove" button.

3. To install one, all it's needed to do is click on yours preferred one and wait for it to download. After that, the theme will be available at the "Desktop" option on the first page of the applet.

4. Now, double click on one of the installed themes to start using it.



This article covers how to install Apache Cassandra on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Apache Cassandra is an open-source non-relational database that delivers high performance, linear scalability, and continuous availability. All these features make Cassandra an ideal platform for mission-critical data.

To learn more about Apache Cassandra, visit its official documentation site.


How to install Java on Ubuntu ?

1. To check whether Java is installed, run the command:

$ java -version

2. To install OpenJDK, execute the following apt command:

$ sudo apt install openjdk-8-jdk

3. Once again, confirm that Java is installed by running the command:

$ java -version


How to Install Apache Cassandra in Ubuntu ?

1. First, install the apt-transport-https package to allow access of repositories via the https protocol:

$ sudo apt install apt-transport-https

2. Next, Import the GPG key using following wget command as shown:

$ wget -q -O - https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS | sudo apt-key add -

3. Then add Apache Cassandra's repository to the system’s sources list file as shown:

$ sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/debian 311x main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/cassandra.list'

4. Before installing Apache Cassandra, you need to update the package list first:

$ sudo apt update

5. Then install the NoSQL database using the command:

$ sudo apt install cassandra

6. Usually, Apache Cassandra starts automatically. To confirm its status, run the following command:

$ sudo systemctl status cassandra

7. Additionally, you can verify the stats of your node by running the command:

$ sudo nodetool status



This article covers how to change timezone in CentOS 7. A time zone is basically a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for constitutional, business and cultural purposes.

To get detailed information your CentOS server's date, time, and timezone you use the timedatectl command:

$ timedatectl

To Delete the current /etc/localtime file or symlink:

$ sudo rm -rf /etc/localtime



This article covers how to change SSH port on your Linux system. SSH (Secure shell) is a cryptographic network protocol used to connect to a remote server securely and it transfer the data in encrypted form between the host and the client.

The default TCP port for SSH is 22, and by changing this default port to the other, it can prevent automated bots and malicious users from being brutally forced into the server.

Before changing the default SSH port number, can check the current port with the below command:

# netstat -ntlp | grep ssh


To change the SSH port:

1. Open the main SSH daemon configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config:

# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

2. Now search line begins with Port 22 and add hashtag (#) in front of that line. 

3. Then add a new Port line below with the custom port.

Note: Replace the sample port number with the custom port number that needs to be set.

4. Save and exit.


How to Restart the SSH daemon for the changes to take effect ?

Run the below commands to restart the SSH daemon and verify that the port changed:

# systemctl restart sshd
# netstat -ntlp | grep ssh



This article covers how to create a new SSH key pair and set up an SSH key-based authentication. You can set up same key to multiple remote hosts. Also, you will learn how to disable SSH password authentication. SSH stands for Secure Shell and works as a method to establish remote connections between computers. SSH is usually used to log in and manage a remote server.

SSH key pairs can be used to authenticate a client to a server. The client creates a key pair and then uploads the public key to any remote server it wishes to access. This is placed in a file called authorized_keys within the ~/. ssh directory in the user account's home directory on the remote server.


To Disable Password Authentication:

Disabling password authentication is a security precaution. It prevents brute-force attacks against attempting to log in to the server.

1. Start by logging into the remote server:

$ ssh user@hostname

2. Next, edit the sshd_config file in a text editor of your choice (we are using nano):

$ sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

3. Find and modify the following lines to look as follows:

PasswordAuthentication no
ChallengeResponseAuthentication no
UsePAM no

4. Write the changes, then exit the editor. Restart the SSH service by entering the following:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh



This article covers how to enable and disable root user account in Ubuntu system. Considered the most privileged account on a Unix system, root can perform any tasks needed for system administration.

Navigating a specific folder, killing any process or deleting a directory, root is so powerful that it has to be managed properly.


In order to change the root password, you have to use the "passwd" and specify the root account:

$ sudo passwd root

After changing your password, the account will be automatically unlocked.

In order to switch to the root account, you can use the well-known "su" command without any arguments (the default account is root):

$ su - 


To restart your SSH server for the modifications to be taken into account:

$ sudo systemctl restart sshd



This article covers how to install Git on your Debian server and how to Setting up Git. With versioning tools such as Git, you can track changes, revert to previous stages, and branch to create alternate versions of files and directories.


How to Install Git with Default Packages on Debian?

1. First, use the apt package management tools to update your local package index. 

After updating the system, you can download and install Git:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

2. You can confirm that you have installed Git correctly by running the following command:

git --version



This article covers the installation method of Scribus on a Linux system. Scribus is used to create PDF files, e-books, newsletter, magazines and posters etc. It can also be used to edit the existing PDF file.

Scribus is available in the default package repositories of Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Debian and Arch Linux. So, to install it run the following command:

$ sudo apt upade && sudo apt install -y scribus    // Ubuntu, Linux Mint & Debian
$ sudo pacman -S scribus   // Arch Linux & Manjaro Linux



This article covers how to install Java Run-time Environment (JRE) and the Java Developer Kit (JDK) on Ubuntu 20.04. Java is one of the most popular programming languages. It is used for developing anything from lightweight mobile to desktop applications.

Oracle's licensing agreement for Java doesn’t allow automatic installation through package managers. To install the Oracle JDK, which is the official version distributed by Oracle, you must create an Oracle account and manually download the JDK to add a new package repository for the version you'd like to use. 


To install the Default JRE/JDK 

1. To install this version, first update the package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, check if Java is already installed:

$ java -version

If Java is not currently installed, you’ll see the following output:

Output
Command 'java' not found, but can be installed with:
apt install default-jre
apt install openjdk-11-jre-headless
apt install openjdk-8-jre-headless

3. Execute the following command to install the default Java Runtime Environment (JRE), which will install the JRE from OpenJDK 11:

$ sudo apt install default-jre

The JRE will allow you to run almost all Java software.

4. Verify the installation with:

java -version



This article covers how to install Certbot, to get let's encrypt certificates. SSL/TLS encryption is an integral part of the network infrastructure. Any web and mail server allows you to enable data encryption.

To begin, you must have a domain name. Its DNS A-record must contain the public address of your server. If the firewall is enabled, open access for HTTP and HTTPS traffic:

$ sudo ufw allow 80
$ sudo ufw allow 443


To Install the "Let's Encrypt" package on Ubuntu:

1. Run the command below to install Let's Encrypt.

$ sudo apt install letsencrypt

2. Check the "certbot.timer" utility for automatic certificate renewal.

$ sudo systemctl status certbot.timer



This article covers how to easily print out the uptime on any Linux distribution such as Debian and Ubuntu. You will learn how to easily perform an audit of your system's uptime. It's an important command for system administrators to know how long the system has been running. Uptime tool helps troubleshooting issues related to power and scheduling.


On any UNIX-like system, the uptime command will come pre-installed. That applies to Ubuntu as well. Verify the existence of the tool by running these commands:

$  which uptime
$ uptime --version


To check the system uptime, run the following command:

$ uptime



This article covers how to install Virt-Viewer on a Linux Mint 20 system. virt-viewer is a minimal tool for displaying the graphical console of a virtual machine. The console is accessed using the VNC or SPICE protocol. The viewer can connect to remote hosts to lookup the console information and then also connect to the remote console using the same network transport.


Functions of Virt Viewer: 

  • Connect to KVM virtual machines remotely via the SPICE remote desktop protocol.
  • Automatically adjust display resolution of the KVM virtual machines.
  • Use multiple monitors for the KVM virtual machines.
  • Passthrough USB devices from your computer to the KVM virtual machines.
  • Share folders from your computer to the KVM virtual machines.


To install Virt Viewer on Linux:

1. First, update the APT package repository cache with the following command:

$ sudo apt update

2. To install Virt Viewer on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, run the following command:

$ sudo apt install virt-viewer --no-install-recommends --no-install-suggests

Then, confirm the installation, press Y and then press <Enter>.



This article covers how You can play Tetris on your Linux Mint 20 system's terminal. A veritable stack of Tetris clones are available on Linux and other platforms. Never played Tetris? 

The concept of Tetris is: 

1. Rotate and reposition blocks as they fall to create horizontal rows (lines) which disappear and score you points when made. 

2. The more points you score the faster the blocks fall. 

3. When the stack gets too high the game is over.


To install Tint on Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Peppermint OS and other related distros run this command:

$ sudo apt install tint

To play the game run:

$ tint

Enter a number from 1-9 to pick a level (1 being easiest, 9 being hardest).



This article covers how to Install and configure Nginx on your CentOS 7 server. Now you can deploy your applications and use Nginx as a web or proxy server. 

Nginx is a high performance web server software. It is a much more flexible and lightweight program than Apache HTTP Server.


To Install Nginx Web Server on CentOS 8:

1. Install the nginx package with:

$ sudo dnf install nginx

When prompted, enter y to confirm that you want to install nginx. After that, dnf will install Nginx and any required dependencies to your server.

2. After the installation is finished, run the following commands to enable and start the server:

$ sudo systemctl enable nginx
$ sudo systemctl start nginx

This will make Nginx start at system boot.


To configure Firewall Rules on CentOS for Nginx:

1. Run the following command to permanently enable HTTP connections on port 80:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http

2. To verify that the http firewall service was added correctly, you can run:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --list-all

3. To apply the changes, you'll need to reload the firewall service:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload



This article covers step by step process to Install and Configure phpMyAdmin with Apache on Debian 9 system. The phpMyAdmin utility is a graphical database management tool. By installing phpMyAdmin, you no longer need to use a default command-line interface to manage your databases.


To install wget:

1. Access your terminal window, and update your software package lists using the following command:

$ sudo apt update

2. The wget utility allows you to download files directly from the terminal window. Enter the following command to install the wget tool:

$ sudo apt install wget -y


To install Apache on Debian:

1. Open a terminal window, and install Apache by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt install apache2 -y

2. Enter the following command to make sure the Apache service is running:

$ systemctl status apache2

In the output, you should see a green status that says active (running).


To Install PHP on Debian 10:

1. Install core PHP packages and Apache and MySQL plugins with the following command:

$ sudo apt install php php-cgi php-mysqli php-pear php-mbstring php-gettext libapache2-mod-php php-common php-phpseclib php-mysql -y

2. Once the installation process is complete, verify that PHP has been installed:

$ php --version

The system displays the current version of PHP, along with the date of the release.



This article covers how to successfully install Apache on your Ubuntu 18.04 server. The Apache HTTP server is the most widely-used web server in the world. It provides many powerful features, including dynamically loadable modules, robust media support, and extensive integration with other popular software.


To install Apache on Ubuntu:

1. Update your local package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install the apache2 package:

$ sudo apt install apache2



This article covers how to install Apache on your CentOS 7 system. You can now ready to start deploying your applications and use Apache as a web server.

Basically, The Apache HTTP server is the most widely-used web server in the world. It provides many powerful features including dynamically loadable modules, robust media support, and extensive integration with other popular software.


To Install Apache on CentOS:

1. Update the local Apache httpd package index to reflect the latest upstream changes:

$ sudo yum update httpd

2. Once the packages are updated, install the Apache package:

$ sudo yum install httpd

3. Enable firewalld's http service with the following command:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http

4. Configure Apache to serve content over HTTPS, you will also want to open up port 443 by enabling the https service:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=https

5. Finally, reload the firewall to put these new rules into effect:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload



This article covers how to create a user with sudo privileges. You can now log in to your CentOS server with this user account and use sudo to run administrative commands.

Performing server administration as a non-root user is a best practice.

For security, your first task when deploying a CentOS instance is to create a non-root user with sudo access.


How to Add a New User Account on CentOS Linux System ?

1. To Create a new user account with the adduser command:

# adduser example_user

2. Set a strong password for the new user (new_user) with passwd.

# passwd new_user



This article covers how to archive and compress files using tar and zip commands with a few examples to show you how it works.

The tar command on Linux is often used to create .tar.gz or .tgz archive files, also called "tarballs".


How to Remove Files from a Tar Archive ?

Use the --delete operation to remove files from an archive.

The following example shows how to remove the file file1 from archive.tar:

$ tar --delete -f archive.tar file1



This article covers the installation procedure of Go language on a Linux Mint 20 system. Also, we dealt with an easy way to remove Go language from a Linux Mint 20 system.

To Verify Go Language Installation, run the command:

$ go version 


Features of Go Programming

  • Statically type and compiled programming language.
  • Concurrency support and Garbage collection.
  • Strong library and toolset.
  • Multiprocessing and High-performance networking.
  • Known for readability and usability (Like Python).



This article covers how to install WordPress on Ubuntu 20.04 with Nginx HTTP Server and Let's Encrypt wildcard SSL Certificates. WordPress is a free, open-source, and most popular content management system that allows you to create a blog on the Internet.


You can install nginx, MariaDB, PHP and all the required PHP extensions with the following command:

$ apt-get install nginx mariadb-server php php-curl php-mysql php-gd php-intl php-mbstring php-soap php-xml php-xmlrpc php-zip php-fpm -y

Once the LEMP server is installed, start the Nginx and MariaDB service with the following command:

$ systemctl start nginx
$ systemctl start mariadb


Nginx's inbuilt features includes:

  • Nginx is built to work on low memory usage.
  • It can support extremely high concurrency.
  • Is Ipv6 enabled.
  • Supports reverse proxy with efficient caching.
  • Provides an inbuilt load balancer.
  • Supports WebSockets.
  • Optimized handling of index files, static files and provides auto indexing.
  • Is accompanied with FastCGI for efficient caching.



This article covers the installation procedure of Discord on any Linux Distribution such as Linux Mint 20, Ubuntu 20.04, and Debian 10. Also, we explained a quick method of uninstalling this Discord platform from your Linux system.

You can either uninstall it from the software center or use this command in the terminal:

$ sudo apt remove discord


If you have enabled Snap support on your Linux distribution, you can use the following command to install it:

$ sudo snap install discord

If you want to remove it, you can use the snap command to uninstall it:

$ sudo snap remove discord