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This article covers how to get the geographical information of a Linux server via the command line. IP addresses provide an easy way to track the location of the server in the world by using two useful APIs provided by ipinfo.io and ipvigilante.com to get the city, state, and country connected with a server.

To get the IP address geographic location of the server, we need to install curl command line downloader and jq command-line tool to process the JSON data from the geolocation APIs:

$ sudo apt install curl jq		#Ubuntu/Debian
$ sudo yum install curl jq #CentOS/RHEL
$ sudo dnf install curl jq #Fedora 22+
$ sudo zypper install curl jq #openSUSE

To get the server's public IP address, use the following curl command to make an API request to ipinfo.io in your terminal:

$ curl https://ipinfo.io/ip



This article covers how to add and remove users in the sudo group to manage the sudo privileges of the users. sudo is a command-line program that allows trusted users to execute commands as root or another user.



This article covers an overview of conditional statements in bash scripts. Bash expression is the combination of operators, features, or values used to form a bash conditional statement. Conditional expression could be binary or unary expression which involves numeric, string or any commands whose return status is zero when success.

Bash if conditionals can have different forms. The most basic if statement takes the following form:

if TEST-COMMAND
then
  STATEMENTS
fi



This article covers the different methods to install GIMP on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Also, we have also elaborated on how to launch and remove GIMP from the system. With GIMP, you can perform almost any image editing task, from the simplest task to the most complex image manipulation technique.  Gimp can be used for photo retouching, image composition, and image authoring.


How to remove GIMP on Debian / Ubuntu ?

To completely remove the GIMP package from your system, run the following command:

$ sudo apt purge gimp
$ sudo apt clean

Next, remove the ~/.gimp directory in your home directory to get rid of the profile settings.



This article covers the process of Mounting and unmounting a drive or an ISO image in Linux. After creating disk partitions and formatting them properly, you may want to mount or unmount your drives.

On Linux, mounting drives is done via mountpoints on the virtual filesystem, allowing system users to navigate the filesystem as well as create and delete files on them.


How to List Mounted File Systems and Linux Drives ?

To display all currently attached file systems we will type:

$ mount

By default, the output will include all of the file systems including the virtual ones such as cgroup, sysfs, and others. Each line contains information about the device name, the directory to which the device is mounted, the filesystem type and the mount options.


How to install NFS client on Ubuntu and Debian ?

NFS stands for Network File System. To mount an NFS share you'll need to have the NFS client package installed on your Linux system.

1. To install NFS client on Ubuntu and Debian, type:

$ sudo apt install nfs-common

2. To install NFS client on CentOS and Fedora:

$ sudo yum install nfs-utils



This article covers the best clock applications that work most efficiently on the Linux platforms and their distributions and are absolutely free, open-source, and reliable.

Alarms are one of the most required utilities in these times. It would not be wrong to say that if there are no alarms, suddenly there will be a giant halt to productivity. Many information technology firms and software solutions developers have proposed high-functioning clock platforms that not only offer a sleek, simple, and easy clock utility but also offer amazing and most efficient alarm features along with a list of other vast features enhancing overall user experience. 



This article covers how you can build a comfortable workspace by customizing the look and feel of the Linux Mint terminal. Much of how we interact with computers is through text. To display text on the screen, fonts are used which define the appearance of the characters. Different fonts can be used for different purposes. Linux Mint defines five standard uses for fonts that can be configured independently.



This article covers the three different methodologies of installing Thunderbird in Ubuntu. Thunderbird is available for various distributions like macOS, Linux, Microsoft Windows etc. thereby making it a cross platform application.

To Install Thunderbird through apt:

1. First update Ubuntu repository,

$ sudo apt update

2. Now, to install Thunderbird issue the following in terminal,

$ sudo apt install thunderbird

3. Lastly, Thunderbird can accessed either through System's main Menu or from terminal (Run "thunderbird" in terminal to run the application).



This article covers Both wget and curl which are the free and open-source command-line utilities used for the non-interactive downloading of files. Remember, although both the utilities can download files from the web; they do differ a lot in terms of functionalities.

url can be used to transfer data over a number of protocols. It supports many protocols including HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, TFTP, TELNET, SCP, etc. using Curl, you can download any remote files. It supports pause and resumes functions as well.

To Install curl,

Launch command line application in Ubuntu that is Terminal by pressing the Ctrl+Alt+T key combinations. Then enter the below command to install curl with sudo:

$ sudo apt install curl



This article covers how to change the font type, size, and color of a Debian Terminal and give a new look and feel to your Terminal text and background. If you spend a lot of time working in Terminal on your Linux system, you probably may not be comfortable with its default font size. Too small font size sometimes can give a burden to your eyes. However, the Terminal application in Linux gives you the flexibility to customize its look and feel to suit your style and need.



This article covers how to install notepadqq on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. Notepad is a similar copy of the most popular editor notepad++. Basically, Notepadqq is a text editor that is designed by developers for the developers. It supports more than 100 languages and useful to note down daily tasks.


How to Install Notepadqq on Debian / Ubuntu?

1. Add Repository

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:notepadqq-team/notepadqq  

2. Update Repository

$ sudo apt-get update  

3. Install Notepadqq

$ sudo apt-get install notepadqq  

4. After installation, we can access it either via terminal by typing notepadqq or by searching from the application manager. Run Notepadqq:

$ notepadqq 



This article covers the installation of Apache NetBeans on the CentOS system. Here, you will learn the entire procedure for the installation of NetBeans that includes downloading, installation, and launching of NetBeans. At the end, you also learned to uninstall Apache NetBeans if you ever have to do that.

Apache NetBeans is a very powerful Integrated Development Environment (IDE) tool that enables you as a Developer create Desktop, Web and Mobile Applications from its modular framework. It supports Java, PHP, HTML, JavaScript, C, C++, Ajax, JSP, Ruby on Rails and other programming languages using extensions.



This article covers how to use the Linux stat command. Basically, The stat command gives important information about filesystems. stat command is a useful utility for viewing file or file system status. It retrieves information such as file type; access rights in octal and human-readable; SELinux security context string; time of file birth, last access, last data modification, last status change in both human-readable and in seconds since Epoch, and much more. Also, It has an option to specify a custom format instead of the default, for displaying information.



This article covers how to install vim, followed by some basics on using vim and then uninstalling it. Vim (Vi IMproved) is a text editor that is upwards compatible to Vi. It can be used to edit all kinds of plain text. It is especially useful for editing config files and programs written in shell, python, perl, c/c++ and more. 

Among the various text editors in the world of Linux, Vim (or Vi IMproved) stands out for its versatility and for the functions it offers. In fact, Vim is able to speed up code writing, providing some shortcuts to perform all the operations of modification, deletion or replacement of the text. 

Vim Text Editor also allows you to install different plugins through which transforming this simple text editor into a real IDE for programming in different languages.


How to Install vim using apt on Linux ?

1. Open terminal application. You can also press CTRL+ALT+T keyboard shortcut.

2. Update package database by typing the sudo apt update command.

3. Search for vim packages run: sudo apt search vim.

4. Install vim on Ubuntu Linux, type: sudo apt install vim.

5. Verify vim installation by typing the vim --version command.



This article covers some useful Linux commands to help you get started with working efficiently with Linux system. When operating a Linux OS, you need to use a shell — an interface that gives you access to the operating system’s services. Most Linux distributions use a graphic user interface (GUI) as their shell, mainly to provide ease of use for their users.

That being said, it's recommended to use a command-line interface (CLI) because it’s more powerful and effective. Tasks that require a multi-step process through GUI can be done in a matter of seconds by typing commands into the CLI.


How to use the cd command in Linux ?

To navigate through the Linux files and directories, use the cd command. It requires either the full path or the name of the directory, depending on the current working directory that you're in.

There are some shortcuts to help you navigate quickly:

  • cd .. (with two dots) to move one directory up.
  • cd to go straight to the home folder.
  • cd- (with a hyphen) to move to your previous directory.


How does the ls command works ?

The ls command is used to view the contents of a directory. By default, this command will display the contents of your current working directory.

There are variations you can use with the ls command:

  • ls -R will list all the files in the sub-directories as well.
  • ls -a will show the hidden files.
  • ls -al will list the files and directories with detailed information like the permissions, size, owner, etc.



This article covers how to change own and another user account passwords. It's recommended that to change your password frequently and use a unique password for each account for security purpose. Basically, you will learn how to change a password on any Linux distribution, including Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOs.

To change a password on behalf of a user, first sign on or "su" to the "root" account. Then type, ``passwd user'' (where user is the username for the password you are changing). The system will prompt you to enter a password. Passwords do not echo to the screen when you enter them.

You can also change your own password, by typing ``passwd'' (without specifying a username). You will be prompted to enter your old password for verification, and then a new password.


How to Change a Password in Linux?

To change the password in Linux you need to open the terminal and type the following command:

$ sudo passwd

After executing the command, you will be asked to enter the new password twice. 



This article covers how to list users in Linux system and also differentiate difference between normal user and system user. Linux OS is unique because of its multi-user characteristic allowing multiple users on one system, at the same time. However, tracking all users is essential. The /etc/passwd file contains one line for each Linux user account, with seven fields delimited by colons. This is a text file. You can easily list users under Linux using the cat command or other commands such as grep command / egrep command and more. With this same approach, you can use the Linux commands to list all users on all Linux operating system, including Ubuntu, Debian, RHEL, Arch, Fedora, CentOS, and other distros.


To list all users on Linux, use the cat command as follows:

$ cat /etc/passwd



This article covers how to get CentOS version using different methods. There are several ways on how to check what version of CentOS is running on your system. The simplest way to check for the CentOS version number is to execute the cat /etc/centos-release command. Identifying the accurate CentOS version may be required to help you or your support team to troubleshoot your CentOS system.


Different commands to check CentOS version:

  • $ rpm -q centos-release - CentOS version valid for CentOS 6 and higher. Causes to reveal major, minor and asynchronous CentOS version.
  • $ lsb_release -d - Requires redhat-lsb package to be installed before execution.
  • $ rpm -E %{rhel} - RPM macro to reveal a major CentOS version.
  • $ rpm --eval %{centos_ver} - RPM macro to display a major version of CentOS.
  • $ cat /etc/centos-release - Linux cat command to output content of the /etc/centos-release .to query CentOS version. Works with CentOS 6 and higher.



This article covers most used Nginx commands. You can learn more about Nginx command line at Nginx documentation.

Nginx is one of the most popular web servers in the world. So whether you're currently using it or not, chances are, if you're a web developer chances are you'll likely come in contact with it at some point. 

Also, Nginx is well known for its simple configuration, and low resource consumption due to its high performance, it is being used to power several high-traffic sites on the web, such as GitHub, SoundCloud, Dropbox, Netflix, WordPress and many others.


To start the Nginx service, run the following command. Note that this process may fail if the configuration syntax is not OK:

$ sudo systemctl start nginx #systemd

OR

$ sudo service nginx start   #sysvinit


To enable Nginx auto-start at boot time, run the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable nginx #systemd

OR

$ sudo service nginx enable   #sysv init


How to Show Nginx Command Help ?

To get an easy reference guide of all Nginx commands and options, use following command.

$ systemctl -h nginx



This article covers how to use the Linux cat command. Cat(concatenate) command is very frequently used in Linux. It reads data from the file and gives their content as output. It helps us to create, view, concatenate files.

If you want to add a bit of new text to an existing text file, you use the cat command to do it directly from the command line (instead of opening it in a text editor).

Type the cat command followed by the double output redirection symbol ( >> ) and the name of the file you want to add text to.



This article covers how you can install Zoom on CentOS machine using two different methods i.e via RPM and via snap. The Zoom Client can be installed on Windows, Mac, Linux, iOS, Android, and H.323/SIP room systems.


How to Install Zoom Client on CentOS 8 / Fedora 33/32/31/30 ?

An RPM package is provided on the Downloads page for installation on CentOS / RHEL and Fedora System.

1. Download the latest release of Zoom Client:

$ sudo yum -y install wget
$ wget https://zoom.us/client/latest/zoom_x86_64.rpm

2. Then install Zoom Client on CentOS 8 Linux with yum command:

$ sudo yum localinstall zoom_x86_64.rpm

Hit the y key to start the installation.

The dependencies required and Zoom Client will be installed on CentOS 8.

3. You can check the version of Zoom Client installed on CentOS 8 / Fedora Desktop with the rpm command:

$ rpm -qi zoom 



This article covers how to use screen commands in ubuntu 20.04. Screen or GNU Screen is a terminal multiplexer. In other words, it means that you can start a screen session and then open any number of windows (virtual terminals) inside that session. Processes running in Screen will continue to run when their window is not visible even if you get disconnected.


How to Install Linux GNU Screen on Ubuntu ?

1. Check if it is installed on your system by typing:

$ screen --version

2. If you don't have screen installed on your system, you can easily install it using the package manager of your distro.

Install Linux Screen on Ubuntu and Debian:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install screen

3. To Install Linux Screen on CentOS and Fedora:

$ sudo yum install screen

4. To start a screen session, simply type screen in your console:

$ screen


Most common commands for managing Linux Screen Windows:

  • Ctrl+a c Create a new window (with shell).
  • Ctrl+a " List all windows.
  • Ctrl+a 0 Switch to window 0 (by number).
  • Ctrl+a A Rename the current window.
  • Ctrl+a S Split current region horizontally into two regions.
  • Ctrl+a | Split current region vertically into two regions.
  • Ctrl+a tab Switch the input focus to the next region.
  • Ctrl+a Ctrl+a Toggle between the current and previous windows
  • Ctrl+a Q Close all regions but the current one.
  • Ctrl+a X Close the current region.



This article covers how to install the Curl command-line tool on CentOS 8 system. Through the curl command, users can download and upload files over the network. curl is a powerful command-line tool for transferring data from or to a remote server. With curl you can download or upload data using various network protocols, such as HTTP, HTTPS, SCP , SFTP , and FTP .


How to Install curl on CentOS ?

Curl package is available in the standard CentOS 8 repositories. 

To install it run the following command:

$ sudo dnf install curl

Once the installation is complete, verify it by typing curl in your terminal:

$ curl



This article covers how to install Microsoft Teams on CentOS machine using different methods. You can either install Microsoft Teams by downloading and installing its RPM package from the official website or you can install the snap package. Microsoft Teams is a communication platform used for Chat, Calling, Meetings, and Collaboration. Generally, it is used by companies and individuals working on projects. Microsoft Teams is available for macOS, Windows, and Linux operating systems available now.


How to Install Microsoft Teams Linux on CentOS 8 ?

By default, Microsoft Teams Linux package is not available in the CentOS 8 default repository. You will need to download the RPM package for it. 

1. You can download it with the following command:

$ cd /tmp
$ wget https://packages.microsoft.com/yumrepos/ms-teams/teams-1.3.00.5153-1.x86_64.rpm

2. Once the package is downloaded, install the downloaded package with the following command:

$ dnf install teams-1.3.00.5153-1.x86_64.rpm


How to Remove Microsoft Teams from CentOS ?

1. To remove Microsoft Teams Linux from the CentOS 8, run the following command:

$ dnf remove teams

2. To remove Microsoft Teams Linux from the Ubuntu 18.04, run the following command:

$ dpkg -r teams



This article covers how to install Arduino IDE on CentOS machine either via the direct download method or the snap method. Also, you will learn how to uninstall Arduino. Arduino IDE stands for the "Arduino Integrated Development Environment". Arduino is used to create electronic devices that communicate with their environment using actuators and sensors. Arduino IDE contains an editor that is used for writing and uploading programs to the Arduino board. Before starting to create projects through Arduino, the user needs to set up an IDE for the programmable board.


How to Launch Arduino IDE on CentOS Linux System ?

Now, you will launch the Arduino IDE from the desktop. Click on 'Activities' and select show application form where you will launch Ardunio IDE to double click on the application icon.

You can also launch using the search bar, click on the 'Activities' where you can see a search bar. You will type 'Arduino' in the search bar.



This article covers how to install Android Studio using different methods. Also, you will learn how to remove Android Studio in case you don't need it anymore. Android Studio is the most widely used software for android mobile application development. Android Studio is developed by Google and it can run on different operating environments like Windows, macOS, and Linux. Most of the current popular android applications are developed on Android Studio. This tool has various built-in features that provide a stable and fast environment for developing applications.


How to Install Android Studio through snap ?

You can install the android studio using snap on your Ubuntu system using the following command:

$ sudo snap install android-studio --classic

You can also install android studio using the below-mentioned command:

$ sudo snap remove android-studio



This article covers how to check OS version using different methods. You can get more information of Ubuntu releases at official site of the Ubuntu Releases.

If you are using Ubuntu 16.04 then you can Upgrade using this guide Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.

Ubuntu is a free, open-source Linux-based operating system, which has a long list of release versions. Finding out which Ubuntu version is running on your system can be important when troubleshooting issues or searching for installation guides.


To check the Ubuntu version, use the following command in terminal:

$ lsb_release -a

This will display you some details about your distribution including Ubuntu version:

Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description: Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
Release: 20.04
Codename: focal



This article covers how to Remove Files and Directories Using Linux Command.

The procedure to remove all files from a directory:

  • Open the terminal application.
  • To delete everything in a directory run: rm /path/to/dir/* .
  • To remove all sub-directories and files: rm -r /path/to/dir/* .



This article covers how to use of shutdown command in Linux with different arguments. Learn more by visit the shutdown man page.

On Unix-like operating systems, the shutdown command shuts down or reboots the system.

The shutdown command brings the system down in a secure way. All logged-in users are notified that the system is going down, and login operations are blocked. It is possible to shut the system down immediately, or after a specified delay.

All processes are first notified that the system is going down by the signal SIGTERM. This gives programs like vi time to save the file being edited, mail and news processing programs a chance to exit cleanly, etc.


Good Linux commands:

  • halt — Stop the computer.
  • poweroff — Stop the computer.
  • reboot — Stop the computer.
  • wall — Send a message to all logged-in users.



This article covers different wget command for different operations along with options. Wget is a command line utility in linux to download files from the internet. It provides many features such as downloading multiple files, resuming stopped downloads, limiting the bandwidth, downloading in the background and can be used for taking mirrors of the site. Wget supports HTTP, HTTPS and FTP protocol to connect server and download files.

You can learn more about Wget visit the GNU wget Manual page.


How to Install wget on Ubuntu | Debian ?

If your operating system is Ubuntu, or another Debian-based Linux distribution which uses APT for package management, you can install wget with apt-get:

$ sudo apt-get install wget



This article covers how to change timezone in Ubuntu 18.04. If you have set up your Ubuntu system to fetch Automatic Time Zone, it will sync your system through the internet so that it will have the time zone of your closest location.

Most modern distributions such as Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, Arch, CentOS v.7.x+, and other Unix-based systems use the timedatectl utility. This command allows you to control and edit time and date settings using the command line.


To display the current time and date information use the command:

$ timedatectl

You can set your Ubuntu system to synchronize to the NIST atomic clock:

$ timedatectl set-ntp yes

If you need to turn off NTP synchronizing to be able to adjust the time and date manually, use:

$ timedatectl set-ntp no



This article covers how to check OS version using different methods. You can get more information on Debian releases at official site of the Debian Releases

The easiest way on how to check what Debian version you are running is to simply read a contents from /etc/issue file. Execute the command:

# cat /etc/issue

Also, you can check for /etc/os-release release file:

# cat /etc/os-release



This article covers how to install Skype on your Ubuntu 18.04 desktop system. Basically, Skype is the most popular platform to connect people through their computer systems. You can freely connect to anyone all around the world through text, voice, and video calls. You can also choose to call people on their telephones but that will not be free. 


To Install the Skype snap:

1. Enter the following command in order to refresh the list of available packages:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Since the Snap daemon comes by default in the latest versions of Ubuntu, we do not need to install it. If you are using an older version, you can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install snapd

3. Now type in the following command in order to install Skype Classic version:

$ sudo snap install skype --classic



This article covers some useful SCP commands to copy files/folders between hosts in the network. Linux administrator should be familiar with CLI environment. Since GUI mode in Linux servers is not a common to be installed. SSH may the most popular protocol to enable Linux administrator to manage the servers via remote in secure way. Built-in with SSH command there is SCP command. SCP is used to copy file(s) between servers in secure way.



SCP Basic syntax:

scp [options] username1@source_host:/location1/file1 username2@destination_host:/location2/file2

Some common scp command options include:

  • –P – Specify server SSH port.
  • –p – Preserve the timestamp for modification and access (note the lower-case).
  • –q – Quiet mode, don’t display progress or messages (will still show errors).
  • –C – Compress the data during transmission.
  • –r – Recursive – include subdirectories and their contents.



This article covers how to change timezone in CentOS 7. A time zone is basically a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for constitutional, business and cultural purposes.

To get detailed information your CentOS server's date, time, and timezone you use the timedatectl command:

$ timedatectl

To Delete the current /etc/localtime file or symlink:

$ sudo rm -rf /etc/localtime



This article covers how to enable and disable root user account in Ubuntu system. Considered the most privileged account on a Unix system, root can perform any tasks needed for system administration.

Navigating a specific folder, killing any process or deleting a directory, root is so powerful that it has to be managed properly.


In order to change the root password, you have to use the "passwd" and specify the root account:

$ sudo passwd root

After changing your password, the account will be automatically unlocked.

In order to switch to the root account, you can use the well-known "su" command without any arguments (the default account is root):

$ su - 


To restart your SSH server for the modifications to be taken into account:

$ sudo systemctl restart sshd



This article covers how to install Java Run-time Environment (JRE) and the Java Developer Kit (JDK) on Ubuntu 20.04. Java is one of the most popular programming languages. It is used for developing anything from lightweight mobile to desktop applications.

Oracle's licensing agreement for Java doesn’t allow automatic installation through package managers. To install the Oracle JDK, which is the official version distributed by Oracle, you must create an Oracle account and manually download the JDK to add a new package repository for the version you'd like to use. 


To install the Default JRE/JDK 

1. To install this version, first update the package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, check if Java is already installed:

$ java -version

If Java is not currently installed, you’ll see the following output:

Output
Command 'java' not found, but can be installed with:
apt install default-jre
apt install openjdk-11-jre-headless
apt install openjdk-8-jre-headless

3. Execute the following command to install the default Java Runtime Environment (JRE), which will install the JRE from OpenJDK 11:

$ sudo apt install default-jre

The JRE will allow you to run almost all Java software.

4. Verify the installation with:

java -version



This article covers how You can play Tetris on your Linux Mint 20 system's terminal. A veritable stack of Tetris clones are available on Linux and other platforms. Never played Tetris? 

The concept of Tetris is: 

1. Rotate and reposition blocks as they fall to create horizontal rows (lines) which disappear and score you points when made. 

2. The more points you score the faster the blocks fall. 

3. When the stack gets too high the game is over.


To install Tint on Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Peppermint OS and other related distros run this command:

$ sudo apt install tint

To play the game run:

$ tint

Enter a number from 1-9 to pick a level (1 being easiest, 9 being hardest).



This article covers how to archive and compress files using tar and zip commands with a few examples to show you how it works.

The tar command on Linux is often used to create .tar.gz or .tgz archive files, also called "tarballs".


How to Remove Files from a Tar Archive ?

Use the --delete operation to remove files from an archive.

The following example shows how to remove the file file1 from archive.tar:

$ tar --delete -f archive.tar file1



This article covers how to install MySQL version 8.0 on an Ubuntu 20.04 server. By completing it, you will have a working relational database that you can use to build your next website or application.

MySQL is an open-source database management system, commonly installed as part of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. It implements the relational model and uses Structured Query Language (better known as SQL) to manage its data.


To install MySQL using the APT package repository:

1. Update the package index on your server if you've not done so recently:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the mysql-server package:

$ sudo apt install mysql-server

This will install MySQL, but will not prompt you to set a password or make any other configuration changes. 

Because this leaves your installation of MySQL insecure, we will address this next.



This article covers methods to find out the processes that are listening to particular ports on your Linux system. A port is nothing but an endpoint of communication used in computer networks.

You have physical or wireless connections at the hardware level. At software or operating system level a port act as a logical construct that acts as communication port of network service such as SSH, HTTPD and more.

TCP and UDP are the most common port. TCP is an acronym for Transmission Control Protocol. UDP is an acronym for User Datagram Protocol.


How to Find Out Which Process Is Listening Upon a Port in Linux ?

1. netstat command or ss command – a command-line tool that displays network connections, routing tables, and a number of network interface statistics.

2. fuser command – a command line tool to identify processes using files or sockets.

3. lsof command – a command line tool to list open files under Linux / UNIX to report a list of all open files and the processes that opened them.

4. /proc/$pid/ file system – Under Linux /proc includes a directory for each running process (including kernel processes) at /proc/PID, containing information about that process, notably including the processes name that opened port.



This article covers the procedure of creating and using bash aliases. Running long and complex commands is usually tedious and time-consuming. Aliases provide much-needed relief by providing shortcuts to those complex commands.

These shortcuts can easily be called on the terminal and yield the same result as the complex command. 

This tutorial shows how to create and add aliases permanently to your bash shell on Linux and Unix-like systems.


To Create Bash Aliases

Creating aliases in bash is very straight forward. 

The syntax is as follows:

alias alias_name="command_to_run"

An alias declaration starts with the alias keyword followed by the alias name, an equal sign and the command you want to run when you type the alias. 



This article covers how to check the system or hardware details of your Ubuntu 20.04 system.

If you want to check all the above details for Debian 10, click here. While to check system or hardware details for CentOS, click here


For the command line tool, inxi is available to check:

i. Audio/sound card(s), driver, sound server.

ii. System battery info

iii. CPU output

iv. Hard Disk info

v. Graphics card, driver, display server, resolution, renderer, OpenGL version.

vi. vii. General info, including processes, uptime, memory, IRC client or shell type, inxi version.

vii. Memory (RAM) data (Require root)

viii. Network card, driver.

ix. system info, partition info, sensors output, USB data, and more.


To install inxi in Ubuntu, simply run command:

$ sudo apt-get install inxi

Then run man inxi to get a list of command options, or run inxi -F to get a brief output containing system or hardware details.



This article covers how to easily install Visual Studio code on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. Visual Studio Code is an open-source cross-platform code editor developed by Microsoft.

It has a built-in debugging support, embedded Git control, syntax highlighting, code completion, integrated terminal, code refactoring and snippets.


To Install Visual Studio Code on Ubuntu:

1. First, update the packages index and install the dependencies by typing:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install software-properties-common apt-transport-https wget

2. Next, import the Microsoft GPG key using the following wget command :

$ wget -q https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -

And enable the Visual Studio Code repository by typing:

$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb [arch=amd64] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/vscode stable main"

3. Once the apt repository is enabled , install the latest version of Visual Studio Code with:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install code



This article covers how To Reset Gnome Desktop Settings To Default. 


To Reset Gnome Desktop in Ubuntu 20.04, Fedora, & Other Linux:

1. First install Gnome Tweaks (if you don’t have it) from your system package manager. Then launch the tool, go to menu -> Reset to Defaults.

2. Ubuntu's default Settings offers a button on header-bar to reset all keyboard shortcuts.

3. And you can reset most Gnome database to default via dconf command. Simply open terminal and run:

$ dconf reset -f /org/gnome/

4. Some changes need a restart to apply.


To install Gnome Tweaks.

Run the command below:

$ sudo apt install gnome-tweaks

After running the command you'll need to restart the session (logout/login).



This article covers method to Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04. If you are still using Ubuntu version 16.04, you may want to consider updating to the latest Long Term Support release, version 18.04.


What does LTS or Long Term Support Release Mean?

A Long Term Support release or LTS release, means that Ubuntu will support the version for five years. 

If you are running a production environment, you will likely want to use a Long-Term Support version of your preferred server operating system.


What is New in Ubuntu Version 18.04:

1. Depending on when you installed Ubuntu version 16.04, the Linux kernel used would have been anywhere from version 4.4 to 4.10. Version 18.04 uses Linux kernel 4.15 at launch.

2. Linux kernel 4.5 now includes new features like CPU controller for the cgroup v2 interface, AMD secure memory encryption support, the latest MD driver with software RAID enhancements, and improved power management for systems with SATA Link Power Management.

3. The new kernel also includes some Ubuntu-specific updates, Linux security module stacking support, and the signing of POWER host and NV kernels is now supported.

18.04 does not install Python 2 default, and it updated Python version 3 to version 3.6.

4. Apache updates to version 2.4.29 and supports HTTP/2.

5. Nginx updates to version 1.14.0.

6. PHP updates from version 7.1 to 7.2.

7. The ifupdown network manager is removed on new installs and is deprecated. netplan.io is the new network configuration manager.

8. OpenSSH now refuses to use RSA keys smaller than 1024 bits. This command can report the length of a key.

ssh-keygen -l -f /path/to/key.pub

32-bit PowerPC support has been dropped.

9. The Subuquity server installer brings live sessions and fast installs of Ubuntu Desktop to server users.

10. Ubuntu 18.04 ships with LXD system container manager version 3.0. Version 3.0 of LXD allows for clustering of LXD servers, adds support of NVIDIA run-time pass-through, and lxd-p2c is a new tool that turns existing systems into LXD containers.


To Upgrade Ubuntu from 16.04 to 18.04:

1.  Create a backup of your environment.

2. Run the command below to update and upgrade the packages.

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

3. To add the Update Manager to your server add command below to your terminal.

$ sudo apt install update-manager-core

4. Now that you have created a backup installed package updates and have the upgrade manager you are ready to upgrade Ubuntu.

$ sudo do-release-upgrade

5. To check what version of Ubuntu is currently installed use the command below.

$ lsb_release -a



This article covers how to install Terminalizer which is a terminal recording tool on a Linux distribution of your choice, you will be able to conveniently record all your terminal-related activities. 

Terminalizer is a fancy and highly customizable CLI tool that records and renders terminal activity and can make an animated GIF image from it. 

It can work well on Ubuntu, CentOS, Arch Linux, SUSE, RedHat, Fedora, and so on.


To install Node.js on Ubuntu:

1. update your system.

$ apt update

2. Next, run the command below to install Node.js from the repositories.

$ apt install node.js

3. Upon successful installation of node.js, you can verify the version of Node.js using the command as shown.

$ nodejs --version



This article covers the different methods for the installation of NetBeans on Ubuntu OS.

NetBeans is an open source integrated development environment that comes with good cross-platform support. 

You can configure this tool to support a wide array of development objectives. 

Practically, you can develop Web, Desktop and Mobile Applications without leaving this platform.

Besides this, the user can add a wide array of known languages such as PHP, C, C++, HTML, Ajax, JavaScript, JSP, Ruby on Rails  and so on.


To install Netbeans IDE on any Linux distribution using Snap.

Snap is a universal package manager and if you have enabled Snap on your distribution, you can install it using the following command:

$ sudo snap install netbeans --classic



This article covers how you can install PlayOnLinux on Ubuntu OS using two different ways.

You can opt for any installation method (command line or GUI-based method) that is most convenient for you.

PlayOnLinux will allow you to install your Windows-based software on different virtual drives, which means that there is no interaction between the different applications you install. 

So if something doesn't work right, you know it won't affect the rest of your stuff and they can easily uninstall it by removing the virtual drive.


To install PlayOnLinux on Ubuntu:

PlayOnLinux can be found in the Ubuntu software repositories, so you can get it from Ubuntu Software Center or install it with the following command:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install playonlinux

It is also recommended to install some dependencies that may be necessary:

# sudo apt-get install winbind
# sudo apt-get install unrar-free p7zip-full



This article covers how To View Disk Usage With Duf On Linux And Unix.

Duf is a command line utility to find disk usage in Linux and Unix-like systems.
It displays the disk usage details in a nice tabular-column and user-friendly layout.
You can even get the disk usage output in JSON format as well.

Features of duf Utility:
1. Easy to use
2. Colorful display
3. Adjust height and width as per your terminal resize movement
4. Sorting data as per our need
5. Filters and groups
6. JSON outputs and more

On DEB-based systems such as Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, download the .deb binary installation file from the releases page and install it using your system's package manager.

$ sudo apt install gdebi
$ sudo gdebi duf_0.3.1_linux_amd64.deb

On RPM-based systems such as RHEL, CentOS, Fedora, download the .rpm binary file and install it using command:

$ sudo rpm -Uvh 
duf_0.3.1_linux_amd64.rpm


To View Disk Usage With Duf On Linux And Unix:
All you have to do is just run the duf command without any options like below:

$ duf



This article covers the installation method of the Neofetch shell script on a Ubuntu 20.04 system. After installing this script on your system, you can easily execute it to display your system's information on the terminal.
However, you can uninstall this script any time you want if you do not feel like using it anymore on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.
Neofetch is a command line system information tool which supports almost all operating systems.

It displays the system information in the terminal along side the operating system's logo.

To Install Neofetch in Ubuntu / Linux:
Execute the commands:

# sudo apt-get update
# sudo apt-get install neofetch



This article covers how to install atom editor on CentOS 8 using the command-line application.

Atom is a free and open-source text and source code editor for OS X, Linux, and Windows with support for plug-ins written in Node.js, and embedded Git Control, developed by GitHub

To install latest version of Atom using .rpm package on your CentOS 8 machine:
1. First, go to the Atom official website and download the Atom .rpm package:

# sudo curl -SLo atom.x86_64.rpm  https://atom.io/download/rpm

2. You can now install Atom using dnf command:

# sudo dnf localinstall atom.x86_64.rpm

3. Now that Atom is installed on your CentOS system you can launch it from the command line by typing atom or by clicking on the Atom icon (Applications -> Programming -> Atom).



This article covers how you can install Putty on your Ubuntu OS. Now you can use your Putty SSH client on Linux to connect to remote systems. For more help regarding Putty, visit its user manual.


PuTTY is a popular terminal emulator for Windows, but it is not only limited to Windows operating system. 

Being free and open source, it is popular among Linux users too. PuTTY supports a wide range of protocols such as serial, SSH, Telnet, rlogin, SCP, SFTP etc. 

Sysadmins generally use PuTTY as an SSH and telnet client whereas the Maker community widely uses PuTTY for interfacing with the serial ports on their hardware. 

PuTTY ships with a command line tool named "psftp", the PuTTY SFTP client, which is used to securely transfer files between computers over an SSH connection. 


To install PuTTY on Ubuntu:

1. In order to install Putty, you will need to ensure that the Universe repository is enabled on your Ubuntu system. If it is not already enabled, you can enable it by using the following command in Terminal:

$ sudo add-apt-repository universe

When prompted for the password, enter the sudo password.

2. After enabling the Universe repository, now you can install Putty on your system. Issue the following command in Terminal in order to do so:

$ sudo apt install putty

When prompted for the password, enter the sudo password.



This article covers methods to Install AnyDesk on Ubuntu 20.04/18.04 Linux.

AnyDesk is a remote server management tool which provides powerful Linux-based connectivity for smooth and seamless remote access to any computer. 

AnyDesk can be used comfortably for both individual, teams and in professional organizations offering remote support to customers.


To Install AnyDesk on Ubuntu:

1. Start by ensuring your system is updated.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt -y upgrade

2. Import AnyDesk GPG key for signing APT packages.

$ wget -qO - https://keys.anydesk.com/repos/DEB-GPG-KEY | sudo apt-key add -

3. Then add AnyDesk repository content to your Ubuntu system.

$ echo "deb http://deb.anydesk.com/ all main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/anydesk-stable.list

4. Finally update apt cache and install the latest release of AnyDesk on Ubuntu.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install anydesk

5. After installation, use the Desktop Applications launcher to start AnyDesk on Ubuntu.

$ anydesk



This article covers how to install the VS code package on CentOS 8 using the command line application. Visual Studio Code is a free and open-source, cross-platform IDE or code editor that enables developers to develop applications and write code using a myriad of programming languages such as C, C++, Python, Go and Java to mention a few.


To Install Visual Studio Code on Debian, Ubuntu and Linux Mint:

1. Update your system by running the command.

$ sudo apt update

2. Once updated, proceed and install dependencies required by executing.

$ sudo apt install software-properties-common apt-transport-https

3. Next, using the wget command, download the repository and import Microsoft’s GPG key as shown:

$ wget -qO- https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc | gpg --dearmor > packages.microsoft.gpg
$ sudo install -o root -g root -m 644 packages.microsoft.gpg /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/
$ sudo sh -c 'echo "deb [arch=amd64 signed-by=/etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/packages.microsoft.gpg] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/vscode stable main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/vscode.list'

4. Once you’ve enabled the repository, update the system and install Visual Studio Code by running the command:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install code



This article covers how you can copy and paste text in the Linux Terminal. This saves the time that spends in typing the long commands and text.

When you enter a long command into the Terminal window that you found on the web or in a document, you can save yourself some time by easily copying and pasting the command at the prompt.


To Copy and Paste Text into the Linux Terminal:

1. To begin, highlight the text of the command you want on the webpage or in the document you found. 

2. Press Ctrl + C to copy the text.

3. Press Ctrl + Alt + T to open a Terminal window, if one is not already open. Right-click at the prompt and select "Paste" from the popup menu.

4. The text you copied is pasted at the prompt. 

5. Press Enter to execute the command.

6. You can also copy text from the Terminal window to paste into other programs. 

7. Simply highlight the text, right-click on it, and select "Copy" from the popup menu. 

You can paste this text into a text editor, word processor, and so on.



This article covers how you can change user password in Linux either graphically or using the command line. Both Linux and UNIX-like operating systems use the passwd command to change user password. 

This applies to any Linux distribution, including Alpine, Arch, Ubuntu, Debian, RHEL, Fedora, Oracle CentOS, SUSE/OpenSUSE and other popular Linux distros.

The passwd is used to update a user's authentication token (password) stored in /etc/shadow file. 


To Set User Password in Linux:

Type following passwd command to change your own password:

$ passwd


To see all user account try grep command or cat command as follows:

$ cat /etc/passwd
$ grep '^userNameHere' /etc/passwd
$ grep '^linuxapt' /etc/passwd



This article covers how to install FileZilla on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. Also we mentioned the steps to remove FileZilla in case you need to so.

FileZilla is a ftp client for both windows & linux operating system. It is a powerful client for plain FTP, FTP over SSL/TLS (FTPS) and the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). 


To Install FileZilla from command line on Ubuntu / Debian:

Use the following commands.

$sudo apt-get update
$sudo apt-get install filezilla

First command synchronizes the configured repositories.

This command is used to ensure that always the latest version of the software is installed.



This article covers how to install Atom text editor on the Debian system. Atom is a very powerful text editor.

The Atom user interface is very clean and it has support for many important features such as split view, Git integration and so on. Atom is cross platform. It runs on Linux, Windows and macOS.


To Enable snaps on Debian and install Atom:

Snaps are applications packaged with all their dependencies to run on all popular Linux distributions from a single build. They update automatically and roll back gracefully. 

1. Enable snapd

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd
$ sudo snap install core

2. To install Atom, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install atom --classic


To Update Atom Text Editor on Debian:

You can update the Atom when a new version is available. You can update it through your desktop standard Software Update tool. 

Alternatively, you can update by running the following commands in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade



This article covers how to install TeamViewer on Ubuntu 20.04 via the command-line and GUI. You can also explore our related how-tos for Debian  and CentOS .

TeamViewer is a cross-platform solution that can be used for remote control, desktop sharing and file transfer between computers.


To Install TeamViewer on Ubuntu:

1. Open your terminal either by using the Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut or by clicking on the terminal icon.

Download the latest TeamViewer .deb package with the following wget command:

$ wget https://download.teamviewer.com/download/linux/teamviewer_amd64.deb

2. Install TeamViewer

Install the TeamViewer .deb package by issuing the following command as a user with sudo privileges:

$ sudo apt install ./teamviewer_amd64.deb

At the prompt Do you want to continue? [Y/n], type Y to continue the installation.


To Uninstall TeamViewer from Ubuntu System:

1. In order to uninstall TeamViewer from your system without removing any configurations you might have made, enter the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt remove teamviewer

The system will prompt you with a Y/n option in order to begin the uninstall procedure. Please enter Y and hit Enter to begin. TeamViewer will then be removed from your system.

2. If you have made any configurations, you can remove TeamViewer and all those by using the following command:

$ sudo apt purge teamviewer



This article covers the different methods to install IntelliJ IDEA on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. Basically, In developing Java applications, IntelliJ IDEA is arguably one of the most ergonomic and formidable IDEs there is. 

It ships with all the right tools and a set of plugins to make coding a seamless exercise.


To Install IntelliJ IDEA from command line on Ubuntu:

1. Start by opening a terminal window and execution of the bellow apt command. Select your preferred version to install:

$ sudo snap install intellij-idea-community --classic

OR

$ sudo snap install intellij-idea-ultimate --classic

OR

$ sudo snap install intellij-idea-educational --classic

2. You can start the IntelliJ IDEA using the below command:

$ intellij-idea-community

OR

$ intellij-idea-ultimate

OR

$ intellij-idea-educational



This article covers the different methods to install Atom editor on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Atom is an open-source text and source code editor for Windows, Linux, and macOS, developed by GitHub. 

It is called "A hackable text editor for the 21st century" due to being a highly customizable text editor.


To Install Atom Editor using Snap:

1. First, install the Snap package manager on your system if it is not already installed.

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y snapd

2. Then, install Atom editor with the snap command.

$ sudo snap install atom --classic



This article covers how you can download YouTube videos on Linux using the youtube-dl utility. The youtube-dl is a handy utility with a large feature set. However, there is a lot more you can do with this utility. To explore more features, visit its official documentation . To play the downloaded videos, you can use any media players like VLC , FFmpeg , and so on.

youtube-dl is a command-line program that lets you easily download videos and audio from more than a thousand websites. 


youtube-dl is a Python based small command-line tool that allows to download videos from YouTube.com, Dailymotion, Google Video, Photobucket, Facebook, Yahoo, Metacafe, Depositfiles and few more similar sites. 

It written in pygtk and requires Python interpreter to run this program, it's not platform restricted. It should run on any Unix, Windows or in Mac OS X based systems.


To Install YouTube-DL in RHEL/CentOS and Fedora:

The youtube-dl program can be installed by enabling epel repository under your systems. Once enabled, you can install using 'yum' package manager tool:

$ yum install youtube-dl

Also, if you wish to add any third party repository, you can still install it right away using curl or wget command:

$ curl https://yt-dl.org/latest/youtube-dl -o /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

OR

$ wget https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

Your system must have curl or wget packages installed to fetch the recent version youtube-dl file. If you don't have them, you may yum to get it.

After fetching the file, you need to set a executable permission on the script to execute properly:

$ chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl


To Install YouTube-DL in Ubuntu/Linux Mint and Debian:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nilarimogard/webupd8
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install youtube-dl

Also, instead using any third party PPA, you can use curl or wget command to install latest version of youtube-dl script:

$ sudo curl https://yt-dl.org/latest/youtube-dl -o /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

OR

$ sudo wget https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

After downloading the script, set the executable permission:

$ sudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl


To Update YouTube-DL,

Youtube-dl itself can be updated to the latest version using the following command:

$ youtube-dl -U



This article covers how to view standard log files for troubleshooting any Linux system. Linux system administrators often need to look at log files for troubleshooting purposes.

Linux and the applications that run on it can generate all different types of messages, which are recorded in various log files. Linux uses a set of configuration files, directories, programs, commands and daemons to create, store and recycle these log messages. 

Knowing where the system keeps its log files and how to make use of related commands can therefore help save valuable time during troubleshooting.


To view log files on Linux:

Open the Terminal or login as root user using ssh command. 

Go to /var/log directory using the following cd command:

# cd /var/log

To list files use the following ls command:

# ls


To Configure Log Files on Ubuntu and CentOS:

This section explains different mechanisms for configuring log files. Let's start with a CentOS example.

To view users currently logged onto a Linux server, enter the who command as a root user:

$ who

This also lists the login history of users. 

To view the login history of the system administrator, enter the following command:

$ last reboot

To view information of the last login, enter:

$ lastlog


To Execute Log Rotation on Linux:

Log files that have zeroes appended at the end are rotated files. That means log file names have automatically been changed within the system.

The purpose of log rotation is to compress outdated logs that are taking up space. Log rotation can be done using the logrotate command. This command rotates, compresses, and mails system logs.

logrotate handles systems that create significant amounts of log files. The command is used by the cron scheduler and reads the logrotate configuration file /etc/logrotate.conf. It's also used to read files in the logrotate configuration directory.



This article covers how to install Autotrash on Ubuntu system. With Autotrash, you can automatically delete the files residing in the Trash based on the conditions you specified.

trash-cli is a command-line interface to the trash-can used by Linux Systems. 

The trash-cli is present in repositories of most of the Linux Distributions.


To remove Autotrash from Ubuntu:

Run the command:

$ sudo snap remove autotrash-unofficial



This article covers different methods to install the Arduino IDE on Debian system. To get the latest version of Arduino IDE, simply go for installation via tarball and snap. If you prefer an older release of Arduino, go for installation via apt.

Arduino boards are able to read inputs – light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message – and turn it into an output – activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online. You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board. 

To do so you use the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring), and the Arduino Software (IDE), based on Processing.”


To Install Arduino IDE on Ubuntu:

1. Execute the command:

$ sudo apt install Arduino

2. You will be provided with Y/N option, press y to continue.

3. Now wait for a while until the installation of Arduino IDE is completed.


To Launch Arduino IDE:

To launch Arduino IDE application on your system, hit the super key and in the search bar that appears, type Arduino. When the Arduino IDE icon appears, click on it to launch.

You will see the default view of Arduino IDE.



This article covers the different methods to install Skype on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS including both the GUI and the command line. 


To install the Skype snap, open your terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and run the following command:

$ sudo snap install skype --classic

That's it. You have installed Skype on your Ubuntu machine, and you can start using it.


How to install Skype with apt on Ubuntu ?

Skype is available from the official Microsoft Apt repositories. To install it, follow the steps below:

1. Open your terminal and download the latest Skype .deb package using the following wget command:

$ wget https://go.skype.com/skypeforlinux-64.deb

2. Once the download is complete, install Skype by running the following command as a user with sudo privileges :

$ sudo apt install ./skypeforlinux-64.deb

You will be prompted to enter your password.

3. When a new version is released, you can update the Skype package through your desktop standard Software Update tool or by running the following commands in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update

$ sudo apt upgrade



This article covers how to install the Pepper Flash plugin for the Mozilla Firefox browser on Ubuntu 20.04. After the successful installation of this plugin, we can easily use it for enjoying feature-rich content while browsing. 

We have also shared with you the method of removing this plugin from your system whenever you feel like it at the end of this guide.


How can I install Pepper Flash Player on Ubuntu? 

How can I setup Flash Player for Chromium web browser on Ubuntu?  

Pepper Flash Player is maintained by Google and is newer than Adobe Flash Player. 

Pepper Flash Player can be used with Chromium web browser.

The Pepper Flash Player is available on the Canonical Partners Repository. 

This repository is disabled by default on Ubuntu . 

1. Enable it by running the command:

$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://archive.canonical.com/ $(lsb_release -sc) partner"

2. Then, Update your package list after enabling the repository

$ sudo apt update

3. You can then install Pepper Flash Player in your Ubuntu 18.04 Desktop.

$ sudo apt -y install pepperflashplugin-nonfree

4. To update Pepperflash, use:

$ sudo update-pepperflashplugin-nonfree --install

5. After the installation of Pepper Flash Player on Ubuntu, make sure Flash is allowed to run in:

chrome://settings/content/flash



This article covers how to install the Mozilla Firefox browser on the Ubuntu system. Mozilla Firefox is the official Internet browser for Ubuntu, therefore, most Ubuntu distros have it installed by default.

If your system lacks this browser due to any reason or if you have accidentally deleted it, we will tell you how to install it on your Ubuntu.


To update Firefox on Linux:

1. Click the menu button , click. Help and select About Firefox. On the menu bar click the Firefox menu and select About Firefox.

2. The About Mozilla Firefox Firefox window opens. Firefox will check for updates and download them automatically.

3. When the download is complete, click Restart to update Firefox.


To Delete Firefox and all it's data from Ubuntu:

1. run sudo apt-get purge firefox.

2. Delete /etc/firefox/ , this is where your preferences and user-profiles are stored.

3. Delete /usr/lib/firefox/ should it still be there.

4. Delete /usr/lib/firefox-addons/ should it still be there.



This article covers how to create and run a simple shell script in CentOS 8 system. With this, you can easily create and run even complex scripts and automate repetitive tasks. 

If you are using other Linux distributions, you can visit our posts on how to create and run a shell script in Ubuntu , Debian , and Linux Mint .


An SH file is a script programmed for bash, a type of Unix shell (Bourne-Again SHell). It contains instructions written in the Bash language and can be executed by typing text commands within the shell's command-line interface.


To write and execute a script:

1. Open the terminal. Go to the directory where you want to create your script.

2. Create a file with . sh extension.

3. Write the script in the file using an editor.

4. Make the script executable with command chmod +x <fileName>.

5. Run the script using ./<fileName>.



This article covers different effective ways to free up some disk space on your Ubuntu system or other Linux distro. 

Although Linux does not clutter up like Windows, it may be useful to occasionally clean up Linux. Especially in systems with a smaller hard drive it can be beneficial to clean Linux. Occasionally cleaning up Linux does have to be done on a daily basis or weekly basis, 1 time per month is more than sufficient.


Terminal commands to free up some disk space on your Linux System:

There are 3 terminal commands which you can use top clean up Linux Mint. 

Each terminal will be explained about what they do and remove. 

All three commands contribute to free up disk space.

1. sudo apt-get autoclean

This terminal command deletes all .deb files from /var/cache/apt/archives. It basically cleans up the apt-get cache.

2. sudo apt-get clean

This terminal command is used to free up the disk space by cleaning up downloaded .deb files from the local repository.

3. sudo apt-get autoremove

This terminal command used to remove packages that were automatically installed to satisfy dependencies for some package and no longer needed by those packages.



This article covers how to use the unzip command on the CentOS 8 Linux system.

Also, you will learn various uses of the unzip command through which you can list ZIP archive content and extract files. You can utilize the unzip command according to your needs.


How to Create a ZIP File with the zip Command ?

To create a ZIP file, you need to tell zip the name of the archive file and which files to include in it. 

You don't need to add the ".zip" extension to the archive name, but it does no harm if you do.

To create a file called source_code.zip containing all the C source code files and header files in the current directory, you would use this command:

$ zip source_code *.c *.h


How to Unzip a ZIP File With the unzip Command ?

To extract the files from a ZIP file, use the unzip command, and provide the name of the ZIP file. 

Note that you do need to provide the ".zip" extension.

$ unzip source_code.zip


To Unzip on the Linux command line:

The simplest option that will extract the contents to current directory:

$ unzip backup.zip


To change the target directory for extracted material, use -d option followed by the desired directory:

$ unzip backup.zip -d ./restore-directory


To preview contents of zip file:

$ unzip -l backup.zip


If you don't want to unzip the whole file, then add the specific files to extract at the end:

$ unzip backup.zip file1 subdirectory/file2


The inverse of the above command. Unzip every file EXCEPT the ones specified after the -x modifier:

$ unzip backup.zip -x file1 subdirectory/file2


Unzipping a password protected file:

$ unzip -p mypassword backup.zip



This article Covers how to install the TermRecord application on CentOS 8. The TermRecord application allows you to better enjoy the recorded #Terminal content. 

TermRecord is a simple, open source, terminal session recorder with easy-to-share self-contained HTML output.

#TermRecord Stores these files as your own notes, email them to collaborators, use them as instructional examples, or whatever you wish.

TermRecord consumes output from the script command with timing information and can create a self-contained HTML file which replays the recorded session without needing to load anything from the web. 

These term sessions can be emailed and viewed on practically any device (including iPads etc.). 

The end user only needs a modern browser.


Features of TermRecord includes:

1. User friendly.

2. Detects the terminal size.

3. Nest sessions.

4. Cross-platform HTML-based output.

5. Stores the output as either JSON, embeddable JavaScript, or a static HTML file.

6. Written in Python.


To install on TermRecord #CentOS:

1. First of all, connect to your server via SSH and make sure that all of your system software is up to date. 

Run the following command to update the package list and upgrade all of your system software to the latest version available:

$ sudo yum update -y

2. Install Pip. 

Add the EPEL Repository:

$sudo yum install epel-release

Install pip:

$ sudo yum install python-pip

Once the installation has completed, you can verify that it was successful by using the following command:

$pip -V

3. Install TermRecord

Install TermRecord using the Python package manager (pip):

$sudo pip install TermRecord


How to use TermRecord on CentOS system ?

Taking a video of the terminal with TermRecord is rather simple, just run the following command (be attentive to capital letters):

TermRecord -o record.html

Note: We specify the output file in which the video will be recorded using the -o option. the .html format is the default format.

For more complex operations check out TermRecord --help



This article covers how to easily create a shell script and automate repetitive jobs in #Linux. Shell scripts are just a series of commands that you add in a file and run them together.  


To write and execute a #script:

1. Open the #terminal. Go to the directory where you want to create your script.

2. Create a file with . sh extension.

3. Write the script in the file using an editor.

4. Make the script executable with command chmod +x <fileName>.

5. Run the script using ./<fileName>.


#Shell is a #UNIX term for an interface between a user and an operating system service. 

Shell provides users with an interface and accepts human-readable commands into the system and executes those commands which can run automatically and give the program's output in a shell script.



This article covers different methods to #install Google Chrome on Linux Mint. You can easily install/uninstall Google Chrome on Linux mint 20 OS. You will also learn how to set Google Chrome as the default web browser so that all your links or URLs open by default in Google Chrome.

You can install Google #Chrome onto your Linux #Mint 20 distro by using either of the following two methods:
1. Install Chrome by adding the Google Chrome repository.
2. Install Chrome using the . deb package.

To install #Google Chrome on #Linux Mint:
1. Add this link to the list of repo sources "deb http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ stable main"
2. Run in terminal "sudo apt-get update"
3. Run in terminal "sudo aptitude install google-chrome-stable"

Running sudo apt-get update (or sudo aptitude update ) updates this on your local system.
This is the step that actually retrieves information about what packages can be installed, including what updates to currently installed packages packages are available, from Internet sources.



This article covers different methods to install and enjoy Google Chrome on your Debian 10 system. Moreover, whenever you feel like you do not need this browser any longer, then we have even explained to you the method of removing this browser from your Debian 10 system for your convenience.


To Install Google Chrome on Debian:

1. Downloading Google Chrome. Open the terminal either by using the Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut or by clicking on the terminal icon.

2. Installing Google Chrome. Once the download is complete, install Google Chrome with apt : sudo apt install ./google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb.



This article will guide you on different methods to install Adobe Flash Player on Ubuntu 20.04. 

Once the Adobe Flash Player has been successfully installed on your Ubuntu 20.04 system, it will never render any error while displaying the contents of those websites that are based on the Adobe #Flash platform. 

Moreover, whenever you feel like removing the Adobe Flash Player from your Ubuntu 20.04 system, then you can even remove it using the method described in this guide.


To update #Adobe Flash Player on #Ubuntu:

1. Open "Software & updates" or run software-properties-gtk from terminal.

2. Check all options under "Ubuntu Software" tab.

3. Run sudo apt-get update from terminal followed by sudo apt-get install adobe-flashplugin.

4. Restart Firefox browser if it is already open.



This article will guide you on the different methods to modify the date, time, and Timezone of your #Ubuntu 20.04 system. 

However, if you have attempted to change these entities just for the sake of demonstration, then it is highly recommended to activate the #NTP Service again once you are done so that your system can again synchronize itself with NIST atomic clock. 

This can be done by running the “timedatectl set-ntp yes” command.

To change the time zone in Linux systems use the sudo timedatectl set-timezone command followed by the long name of the time zone you want to set.


To change the hostname in #Linux:

1. Type the following command to edit /etc/hostname using nano or vi text editor: sudo nano /etc/hostname. Delete the old name and setup new name.

2. Next Edit the /etc/hosts file: sudo nano /etc/hosts.

3. Reboot the system to changes take effect: sudo reboot.


#NTP server sync date and time in Linux by:

i. On the Linux machine, log in as root.

ii. Run the ntpdate -u <ntpserver> command to update the machine clock. For example, ntpdate -u ntp-time.

iii. Open the /etc/ntp. conf file and add the NTP servers used in your environment.

iv. Run the service ntpd start command to start the NTP service and implement you configuration changes.



This article will guide you on different methods to retrieve information about your #Linux system and the underlying #hardware devices. These procedures will help you check the specifications of your computer machine and you can easily know either the hardware device or computer software is compatible with your working system or not.

The Linux kernel is the main component of a Linux operating system (OS) and is the core interface between a computer's hardware and its processes.


To  find system information in #Centos:

1. To know only system name, you can use uname command without any switch will print system information or uname -s #command will print the kernel name of your system. 

2. To view your network hostname, use '-n' switch with uname command as shown. 

3. To get information about kernel-version, use '-v' switch.



This article will guide you how to display the system details in your Debian 10 system.

The uname command Displays the operating system name as well as the system node name, operating system release, operating system version, hardware name, and processor type. 

To Check os version in Linux:

1. Open the terminal application (bash shell).

2. For remote server login using the ssh: ssh user@server-name.

3. Type any one of the following command to find os name and version in Linux: cat /etc/os-release. lsb_release -a. hostnamectl.

4. Type the following command to find Linux kernel version: uname -r.


Commands to Check Hardware Information on Linux:

i. lscpu. The lscpu command reports information about the cpu and processing units.

ii. lshw - List Hardware. will give you a very comprehensive list of hardware and settings.

iii. hwinfo - Hardware Information.

iv. lspci - List PCI. will show you most of your hardware in a nice quick way.

v. lsscsi - List scsi devices.

vi. lsusb - List usb buses and device details.

vii. Inxi.

viii. lsblk - List block devices.



This article will guide you on methods to logout from the Linux #Mint. Based on your convenience, you can use either the keyboard shortcut or the system menu to logout from your session. When you use a terminal or if you log in to an #Ubuntu system via #SSH, you open a shell session. If you want to logout from your session, you simply exit the #shell. This is why the exit command is equivalent to log out command in Linux.

To switch users in #Linux:

The su command lets you switch the current user to any other user. 

If you need to run a command as a different (non-root) user, use the –l [username] option to specify the user account. 

Additionally, su can also be used to change to a different shell interpreter on a go.



This article will guide you on different methods to log out of your #Ubuntu 20.04 system very conveniently. By logging out of a current user session, we essentially attempt to stop all the running #applications. 

It means that when we will log into the same user account again, we will have to start everything from scratch.

Steps to Log Out from Ubuntu #Linux:

1. To log out from Ubuntu desktop #session, go to the top right corner and click to bring the system tray. 

2. You should see Power Off / Log Out option. 

3. Click on it and it will show the Log Out option. 

4. When you click on the Log Out button, it will open a dialogue box and ask for your conformation.

You can Use #logout to log out of the #terminal. Or alternatively we can use ctrl + d to log out of the terminal session.



This article will guide you on methods to remove or #uninstall a program in #Linux #Mint 20. 

To uninstall a program, use the "apt-get" command, which is the general command for installing programs and manipulating installed programs.

If you want to remove a package, use the apt in the format; sudo apt remove [package name]. If you want to remove a package without confirming add –y between apt and remove words.

To uninstall an RPM package:

1. Execute the following command to discover the name of the installed package: rpm -qa | grep Micro_Focus. This returns PackageName , the #RPM name of your Micro Focus product which is used to identify the install package.

2. Execute the following command to uninstall the product: rpm -e [ PackageName ]


To clean up broken #packages in #Ubuntu:

i. Find your package in /var/lib/dpkg/info , for example using: ls -l /var/lib/dpkg/info | grep <package>

ii. Move the package folder to another location.

iii. Run the following command: sudo dpkg --remove --force-remove-reinstreq <package>



This article will guide you on how to check your private IP address in #Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. 

ifconfig command is used to display or configure a network interface.

To use command prompt (CMD) to find my #IP #address:

1. Open the command prompt: if you have a Start menu in your Windows system, open it and type cmd into the search bar.

2. Type ipconfig into the command prompt (or the Run box).

3. Find your IP address within the text that pops up.

You can also use the following commands will get you the private IP address of your interfaces:

i. ifconfig -a.

ii. ip addr (ip a)

iii. hostname -I | awk '{print $1}'

iv. nmcli -p device show.



This article will guide you on how to #install and get started with Steam on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Steam on Linux made it easier for various hardcore gamers to switch to #Linux from Windows or #Mac for professional reasons.

Ubuntu is the best OS for developers because of the various libraries, examples, and tutorials. These features of ubuntu help considerably with AI, ML, and DL, unlike any other OS. 

Furthermore, Ubuntu also provides reasonable support for the latest versions of free open source software and platforms.

To Install #Steam from Ubuntu package #repository:

1. Confirm that the multiverse Ubuntu repository is enabled: $ sudo add-apt-repository multiverse $ sudo apt update.

2. Install Steam package: $ sudo apt install steam.

Use your desktop menu to start Steam or alternatively execute the following command: $ steam.


To play steam on #Linux:

i. To get started, click the Steam menu at the top-left of the main Steam window, and select 'Settings' from the dropdown. 

ii. Then click 'Steam Play' on the left side, make sure the the box that says 'Enable Steam Play for supported titles' is checked, and check the box for 'Enable Steam Play for all other titles'.



This article will guide you on how to uninstall programs from Debian 10. The first method can be used if you prefer #GUI over #CLI. The second method can be used if you only intend to delete a program without its configuration files. The third mthod can be used if you intend to delete a program along with all of its configuration files. Finally, the fourth mthod can be used if you want to get rid of all the unused packages and dependencies altogether.

Whenever you add a repository using "add-apt-repository" command, it will be stored in /etc/apt/sources. list file. 

To delete a software repository from Ubuntu and its derivatives, just open the /etc/apt/sources. list file and look for the repository entry and delete it.

Running sudo apt-get update (or sudo aptitude update ) updates this on your local system. This is the step that actually retrieves information about what packages can be installed, including what updates to currently installed packages packages are available, from Internet sources.

To Uninstall Programs on #Debian:

1. Go to the Installed tab. 

2. It will list all the installed #applications in your system. 

3. From the list, search for the application you want to #uninstall and click the Remove button in front of it. 

4. When you click the Remove button, the following message will appear for you to confirm the decision.



This article will guide you on different installation methods for the VLC. We have also seen how we can uninstall this streaming #software from the system when it is not needed.

VLC Media Player is one of the most well known and arguably best media players available for any platform, including Windows. #VLC can also help you convert video files from one format to another, save YouTube videos for offline playback, and record your own videos using your webcam.

Using #Linux #Terminal to Install VLC in #Ubuntu:

1. Click on Show Applications.

2. Search for and launch Terminal.

3. Type the command: sudo snap install VLC .

4. Provide the sudo password for authentication.

VLC will be downloaded and installed automatically.



This article will guide you on the basic syntax and usage of the #grep #command in #Linux. We also went through some command-line options to expand its usefulness. The easiest of the two #commands is to use grep's -w option. This will find only lines that contain your target word as a complete word. 

Run the command "grep -w hub" against your target file and you will only see lines that contain the word "hub" as a complete word.

1. grep searches one or more input #files for lines that match a given pattern and writes each matching line to standard output. 

2. If no files are specified, grep reads from the standard input, which is usually the output of another command.



This article will guide you on different methods to uninstall a #program from your Ubuntu 20.04 #system. You can #unininstall a package via a graphical #software manager and also through the command line. 

You can safely use sudo apt-get remove --purge application or sudo apt-get remove applications. When you use the purge flag, it simply removes all config files too.

To remove packages from Ubuntu system:

1. Click on the Ubuntu Software icon in the Activities toolbar; this will open the Ubuntu Software manager through which you can search for, install and uninstall software from your computer. 

2. From the list of #applications, look up for the one you want to uninstall and then click the Remove button against it.



This article will guide you on how to work with #XAMPP in Linux Mint 20. This will help you to easily host your #applications on this server. With this, you can create a simple PHP application, however, you can even choose to create applications with complex functionality that are not essentially written in #PHP but can also be written in Perl or #MySQL.

XAMPP is a powerful and versatile solution for setting up a local web server. It presents a perfect way to create an environment for basic #WordPress coding, experimenting with multisite settings, tweaking #themes, and much more.

To run xampp on Linux:

1. Install gnome-panel to be able to create launcher.

2. Run the below command to execute the Create Launcher Application.

3. The "create launcher" window pops up and select “Application” as the Type.

4. Enter for example "XAMPP starter" as the Name.

5. Enter "sudo /opt/lampp/lampp start" into the Command Box.

To Remove Xampp from Linux (Ubuntu):

i. >sudo /opt/lampp/uninstall.

ii. Alternatively > sudo -i cd /opt/lampp ./uninstall.

iii. > sudo rm -r /opt/lampp.



This article will guide you on steps to install #XAMPP on Linux Mint 20. You will also learn the method of uninstalling XAMPP web server whenever you feel like it.

The #htdocs folder can be found in /opt/lampp/ . You can navigate to your root folder from the file manager (nautilus by default), by clicking on Other locations from the sidebar, then #Computer . From there you can find the opt folder that contains the lampp folder.

To install xampp in MX #Linux:

1. Click XAMPP for Linux. It's in the middle of the page.

2. Allow the download to complete.

3. Open #Terminal.

4. Change over to the "Downloads" directory.

5. Make the downloaded file executable.

6. Enter the installation #command.

7. Enter your password when prompted.

8. Follow the installation prompts.



This article will guide you on the different methods to #install #Google #Chrome on #Ubuntu 20.04 system using two different ways using the command line and graphical methods. We have executed different commands on the terminal for the installation.

To Install Google Chrome on Ubuntu Graphically:

1. Click on Download Chrome.

2. Download the DEB file.

3. Save the DEB file on your #computer.

4. Double click on the downloaded DEB file.

5. Click Install button.

6. Right click on the deb file to select and open with Software Install.

7. Google Chrome installation finished.



This article will guide you on how to #SSH remote Linux servers using #OpenSSH utility. We have also discussed some basic configurations that you may find useful when connecting via SSH. Now you can easily manage remote #Linux servers for administration and troubleshooting.

To Enable #root login over SSH:

1. As root, edit the sshd_config file in /etc/ssh/sshd_config : 

nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config.

2. Add a line in the Authentication section of the file that says PermitRootLogin yes.

3. Save the updated /etc/ssh/sshd_config file.

4. Restart the SSH server: service sshd restart.



This article will guide you on different methods to modify font type, size, and color of #Ubuntu 20.04.

Ubuntu Mono from the Ubuntu Font Family (font.ubuntu.com) is the default GUI monospace terminal font on Ubuntu 11.10 (Oneiric Ocelot).

GNU Unifont (unifoundry.com) is the default font for the CD #bootloader menu, #GRUB bootloader, and alternate (text-based) installer where a software framebuffer is in use. 

To change text color in Ubuntu #terminal: 

1. Open your terminal and right-click inside it.

2. Select profile and profile preferences. 3. Go to colour header button.

4. Unmark user colours of system theme.

5. Select any colour you would like in the text or background and named your choice.

6. In addition You can also add an image onto your terminal as background.



This article will guide you on steps to write your first C #program. Hello World! the program may seem useless and simple, but it is the best way to get started on learning how to program. By writing this yourself, you better under concepts that may otherwise seem abstract and vague. To run C program: Open #Command #prompt or Terminal(if you use #Ubuntu or Mac OS), and go to the directory where you have saved the hello. c program file. Now, to run the program, type in ./a. out and you will see Hello, World displayed on your screen. To compile and run a C program on Ubuntu Linux using the gcc compiler: 1. Open up a #terminal. Search for the terminal application in the Dash tool (located as the topmost item in the Launcher). 2. Use a text editor to create the C source code. 3. #Compile the program. 4. Execute the program.



This article will guide you on steps to install #Notepad++ on Ubuntu 20.04 #Linux operating system using snap package manager. Notepad++ is a #GUI based user friendly text editor that can be used on #Linux as well as on Windows platform. To #Install Notepad++ on Ubuntu 20.04 : 1. Install Notepad++ on Ubuntu 20.04. Notepad++ runs over the WINE platform, which provides compatibility for the Windows application on Unix-like operating systems. 2. Open Notepad++. 3. Uninstall Notepad++.



This article will guide you on different methods to have the latest version of #LibreOffice installed on your #Ubuntu 20.04 system. To #install LibreOffice Ubuntu 20.04 step by step instructions: 1. Use the top left Activities menu to open the #Software application. 2. Search for LibreOffice software. 3. Click the Install button to begin the LibreOffice installation. 4. Enter your username and password. 5. Start the LibreOffice #application.



This article will guide you on how to use the #mount and #umount command to attach and detach various file systems. You can perform this task on several media options like ISO file, NFS share and USB flash drive. Mounting will not erase everything. The #disk does get modified slightly each time you mount it, though. However, since you have serious directory corruption which cannot be repaired by Disk Utility you need to repair and replace the directory before it can be mounted.



This extract will guide you on how to save terminal output to a file when using Linux or Unix-like operating system with modern shell such as Bash or KSH including POSIX syntax.




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