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This article covers how to show an asterisk as visual feedback while typing sudo password. Try once on Ubuntu or Centos by doing small changes on the file on /etc/sudoers file. 

To Show Asterisks While Typing Sudo Password in Linux, simply edit the /etc/sudoers file and add pwfeedback. This makes the asterisks visible when the password is entered. After the file is edited and saved, we type reset command for the effect to take place.



This article covers how to Install and Use Terminator, the Terminal Multiplexer. In fact, The terminator is similar to the built-in terminal with added features. You can arrange Terminals in a grid, Tab, Drag and drop re-ordering the terminal, use keyword shortcuts, create and save profiles. It is inspired by programs such as gnome-multi-term, quad console, and so on.

For more information about Terminator, visit its documentation.


How to Install terminator on your Linux system ?

For kali Linux:

$ sudo apt-get install terminator

For Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt install terminator

For Arch Linux:

$ sudo pacman -S terminator

For CentOS:

$ sudo yum install terminator



This article covers how to set and unset both local and persistent environment variables in Linux. In fact, every time you start a shell session in Linux, the system goes through configuration files and sets up the environment accordingly. Environment variables play a significant role in this process.

Environment variables are a set of key value pairs stored on your Linux and used by processes in order to be able to perform specific operations. with the export command but also by modifying some system files to make them persistent.


How to Set Environment Variables on Linux using export ?

The easiest way to set environment variables is to use the export command:

$ export VAR="value"


How to Unset Environment Variables on Linux Using unset command ?

To unset an environment variable, use the unset command with the following syntax:

$ unset <variable>


Common Set of Environment Variables on Linux:

  • USER : the current username of the user using the system;
  • EDITOR : the program run to perform file edits on your host;
  • HOME : the home directory of the current user;
  • PATH : a colon separated list of directories where the system looks for commands;
  • PS1 : the primary prompt string (to define the display of the shell prompt);
  • PWD : the current working directory;
  • _ : the most recent command executed on the system (by the user)
  • MAIL : the path to the current user’s mailbox;
  • SHELL : the shell used in order to interpret commands on the system, it can be many different ones (like bash, sh, zsh or others);
  • LANG : the language encoding used on the system;
  • DESKTOP_SESSION : the current desktop used on your host (GNOME, KDE)
  • HISTFILESIZE : number of lines of command history stored in the history file;
  • HISTSIZE : number of lines of history allowed in memory;
  • UID : the current UID for the user.



This article covers how to set a system and view the locale on Linux. In fact, Locale settings usually consist of at least a language code, a country/region code, time / date format, numbers format setting, currency format setting, Color setting, and so on.

To view the information regarding the currently installed locale use the following command on the terminal:

$ locale

For more information, see the locale, update-locale and localectl man pages with the below commands respectively:

$ man locale
$ man update-locale
$ man localectl



This article covers the process of creating a CSR file in any Linyx system which is very necessary before applying for an SSL certificate from a Certificate Authority(CA). In fact, Certificate Signing Request(CSR) is a block encrypted text which is given to Certificate Authority when applying for SSL Certificate. Generation of Certificate Signing Request(CSR) for Secure Sockets Layer(SSL) is common in Linux on various distributions. 

CSR is generated on the server, it stores information relating to the organization, domain name, country, a city which is to be included in the certificate.  The CSR Certificate can be used on any website whenever it is necessary to encrypt communications. To generate an SSL certificate, CSR certificate has to be generated. To obtain a self-signed SSL Certificate, it is necessary to create CSR, after generating submit it to a certificate authority to acquire an SSL Certificate. 



This article covers how you can use the basic / limited functionalities provided by the built-in extensions or use the additional extensions provided by the GNOME official site to amp up your desktop game. Or you can set your extension manually by their downloaded packages. It all depends on your preferences. In fact, GNOME shell extensions are useful in desktop environment customization, but their usability is dependent on its user.



This article covers all about Batch processing using Converseen. In fact, Converseen is an open source software for batch image conversion. With this tool, you can convert multiple images to another format, resize, change their aspect ratio, rotate or flip them all at once.

Now you can edit and convert all your images with just a few clicks.


How to Install Converseen on Linux ?

1. On Debian and Ubuntu-based distributions, use:

$ sudo apt install converseen

2. On Fedora, use:

$ sudo dnf install converseen

3. On Arch and Manjaro, use:

$ sudo pacman -Sy converseen



This article covers how to install Docker engine on the Debian 11 bullseye system. In fact, Docker is a toolset to build applications and CI/CD pipelines to build, ship and run your applications in containers.



This article covers how to install Audacity on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Audacity is a very powerful and popular editing application that can be very useful when manipulating audio files. With the help of this useful tool, you will not only be able to record your audios but will also be able to edit them very efficiently.


How to Install Audacity via Snap Store and Launch on Linux ?

1. Perform system update:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install Snapd:

$ sudo apt install snapd

3. Install Audacity:

$ sudo snap install audacity

4. Once Audacity has been installed via Snap, run the Audacity application by searching for the term 'audacity' in the Application menu.

5. Click the Audacity icon to open Audacity.



This article covers how to install and configure as well as its advanced and extra options to create better backups in your Linux Mint system. In fact, Grsync is an open-source simple, great, and easy to use graphical user interface for the popular rsync command-line tool.

To install Grsync on your system, simply run the following command:

$ sudo apt install grsync



This article covers the best Open-source free CAD modeling software for your Linux system. In fact, CAD software refers to a type of software program used by engineers and designers to create 2D and 3D physical component models. These applications have an easy-to-use user interface, toolbars, and a large library of 3D models. Many tools also enable you to print on multiple pages. This includes LibreCAD, FreeCAD, OpenSCAD, TinkerCAD, BRL-CAD, Open Cascade and QCAD.


How does CAD Software work ?

  • Initially, a graphics card or a CAD software package will be installed in your computer to enable your typical CAD system work.
  • The graphics kernel is the heart of the CAD software package.
  • GUI is an essential part of the CAD packages. The usage of GUI involves obtaining user input by displaying the CAD geometry.
  • The mouse and the keyboards are mostly used as the input devices. However, digitizer, tracker ball, etc are also used sometimes.



This article covers to install Volatility on your Linux Mint 20 system via a step by step guide. In fact, Volatility is a powerful tool used for analyzing memory dumps on Linux, Mac, and Windows systems.



This article covers the right steps to install the GDU disk usage analyzer on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, GDU Disk Usage Analyzer is a graphical disk usage analyzer for GNOME. It is inspired by godu, dua, ncdu, and df and is intended primarily for SSD disks to utilize parallel processing fully.



This article covers how to install Jenkins on CentOS system. In fact, Jenkins is an open-source software written in Java and Scala which allows users the ability to automate almost any task and, it saves significant time that can be better utilized addressing other issues. When automating tasks with Jenkins, users can optimize their workflow by quickly automating the jobs that servers cannot do themselves.

Also, you will learn how to manage Jenkins services, allow them in firewall, and access Jenkins using the web browser.



This article covers the basic nvm commands that you can use to install and manage multiple versions of Node.JS. In fact, Node.js uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model that makes it lightweight and efficient, perfect for data-intensive real-time applications that run across distributed devices.


You can use the following command to list installed version's of Node for the current user:

$ nvm ls 

With this command you can find available Node.js version for the installation:

$ nvm ls-remote 

To find the default Node version set for the current user, run the command:

$ nvm run default --version 



This article covers how to Install OpenBoard on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, OpenBoard is an open source cross-platform teaching software for interactive whiteboard designed primarily for use in schools and universities. It can be used both with interactive whiteboards or in a dual-screen setup with a pen-tablet display and a beamer.



This article covers how to install ntopng on Ubuntu OS and access its web interface. In fact, Ntopng is an essential application for monitoring and troubleshooting network problems.


More about Ntopng

Ntopng basically is a network traffic probe that will monitor network usage. It is based on libpcap, a Library written as part of a larger program called TCPDump. Ntopng is based on Redis key value server rather than traditional database, leverages nDPI for protocol discovery, supports host geolocation, and can display real-time flow analysis for connected hosts.


Main Features of Ntopng:

  • Packet capture → Packet capture / transmission using basic hardware with PF_RING. Zero-copy package distribution across threads, applications, and virtual machines. Includes Libpcap support for seamless integration with legacy applications.
  • Traffic recording → Lossless network traffic recording of 10 Gbit and above with n2disk. Industry standard PCAP file format. It allows to quickly retrieve packages using BPF. Accurate traffic reproduction with disk2n.
  • Network probe → nProbe- NetFlow v5 / v9 / IPFIX extensible probe with plug-in support for L7 content inspection.
  • Report on the use of the IP protocol → Even going so far as to classify it by type of protocol.
  • Traffic analysis → High speed web based traffic analysis and flow collection using ntopng. Persistent traffic statistics in RRD format. Layer 7 analysis leveraging nDPI, an open source DPI framework. Even going so far as to classify the traffic according to the source / destination.
  • Geolocate and Overlay Hosts → This will be done on a geographic map.
  • Alert engine → We can capture anomalous and suspicious hosts.
  • Produce network traffic statistics → Using HTML5 / AJAX technology.
  • We will have full support for current network protocols → Including IPv4 and IPv6.



This article covers How to Install Brave Browser on Debian 11. In fact, Brave is an open-source privacy-focused Internet web browser, which distinguishes itself from other browsers by automatically blocking online advertisements and website trackers in its default settings. 



This article covers how you install Anaconda on your CentOS system. In fact, Anaconda manages many pre installed packages and that packages are helpful for data science, Machine Learning and Artificial intelligence applications. Once installed on your system, you can now start building your machine learning projects.



This article covers a step-by-step procedure of how you can install LAMP stack on the Debian 11 Bullseye server. In fact, LAMP is a popular opensource stack that stands for Linux Apache MySQL/MariaDB and PHP. It’s mostly used by front-end and back-end developers to test and host a website. The stack comprises of 3 components. First, we have  Apache, which is a web server. Then we have Mariadb, which is a fork of MySQL and PHP which is a server-side scripting language. All the components are absolutely free and opensource.


How to Install Apache webserver on your Linux system ?

1. To get started, log into your server instance and update the package lists with the below command:

$ sudo apt update

2. Once your packages are up to date, install the Apache webserver with the below command:

$ sudo apt install apache2 apache2-utils

3. Once installed, verify the status of apache to see if it is running, by executing the command:

$ sudo systemctl status apache2

4. If apache is not running, you can start and enable it on boot using the commands:

$ sudo systemctl start apache2
$ sudo systemctl enable apache2



This article covers how to install, run, and remove the Links browser for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS terminal. In fact, Links provides a pull-down menu system, renders complex pages, has partial HTML 4.0 support (including tables, frames and support for multiple character sets and UTF-8), supports color and monochrome terminals and allows horizontal scrolling.


How To Install links on Ubuntu ?

1. Update system:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Install links:

Ater updating the OS run following command to install the package:

$ sudo apt-get install links



This article covers the best Command Line Browsers on Ubuntu OS.



This article covers the installation of ruby, middleman, and related gems on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux system. In fact, Middleman is a Ruby-powered static site generator which follows an easy-first approach to building static sites. It has powerful features for maintaining static blogs, like easy tag generation, quick commands for listing categorized articles and pagination.

You can install Middleman with Ruby using this command:

$ gem install middleman



This article covers how to install and use the Nethogs utility in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, nethogs is a networking monitoring tool for Linux capable of monitoring any specific network interface or all the networking interfaces on your computer. Also, it shows bandwidth usage per process on your computer in real time.


How to install nethogs on Ubuntu / Debian ?

nethogs is not installed on Ubuntu/Debian by default. But, it is available in the official package repository of Ubuntu/Debian.

1. First, update the APT package manager cache with the following command:

$ sudo apt update

2. Now, install nethogs with the following command:

$ sudo apt install nethogs

3. Now, to check whether nethogs is working, run the following command:

$ nethogs -V



This article covers how to install the NetHogs network bandwidth monitoring utility very easily on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, you will be able to get the network bandwidth usage in real-time very efficiently without any sort of hassle.



This article covers the process of extracting compressed files to a specific directory in Linux. 

To Unzip files in particular directory or folder under Linux, run the command:

$ unzip {.zip-file-name}-d {/path/to/extract}



This article covers how to install and remove HexChat 10 buster edition. In fact, HexChat is a nice chatting utility to connect with IRC servers.

Installing hexchat package on Ubuntu is as easy as running the following commands on terminal:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install hexchat


How to Install HexChat in Linux ?

Run the below command as per your Linux distribution:

$ sudo apt install hexchat [On Debian/Ubuntu & Mint]
$ sudo yum install hexchat [On CentOS/RHEL 7]
$ sudo dnf install hexchat [On CentOS/RHEL 8 & Fedora]
$ sudo yay -S hexchat [On Arch Linux]
$ sudo zypper install hexchat  [On OpenSUSE Linux]
$ sudo pkg install hexchat [On FreeBSD]



This article covers how Gnome-clocks can help keep track of time in multiple time zones for you. Now you can keep up with your work meetings and deadlines across the globe with a simple click. You can explore and use Gnome-clocks other features like timer, stopwatch, and Alarms and get a hundred percent performance out of it.

To install GNOME Clocks, simply run the below commands:

$ sudo apt install gnome-clocks



This article covers how to install, run, and remove a fantastic, multi-color, and terminal-based browser w3m for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS terminal. In fact, If you're looking for text-based web browser To use it from the terminal and Lynx does not convince you, W3M can be a good alternative. This is a modern text-based terminal web browser for Gnu / Linux it has a lot to offer. 



This article covers how to install Pelican using pip on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Pelican is a Python-based static site generator which is a great choice for Python users who want to self-host a simple website or blog.

To Install pelican package on Ubuntu, simply execute the following command on terminal:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install pelican


How to install pelican-foli on Ubuntu via Snaps ? 

1. Enable snapd

snapd can be installed from the command line:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd

2. Install pelican-foli, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install pelican-foli



This article covers the installation and configuration procedure of phpMyAdmin on CentOS 8 / AlmaLinux 8. It is one of the most popular database administration tools used by hosting companies and system administrators for performing database activities such as creating, deleting, querying tables, columns, relations, indexes, users, permissions, etc. Now, you can create and manage all the databases conveniently without the need of running SQL queries.



This article covers how to add programs to the Startup programs, launch the startup programs with a delay, and how to remove the programs from the Startup programs. In fact, Every time you boot in to an operating system, a number of programs start running automatically. These are called 'startup applications' or 'start up programs'.


What you will learn regarding managing startup applications on Linux systems:

  • Learn to add (almost) any program in the startup applications list to start them automatically at each boot.
  • Learn to remove a program from the startup applications list so that you have a faster system when you boot into it.
  • Learn to delay the running of a startup application so that it runs automatically but with a time delay. This way, not all startup applications consume the system resource simultaneously.



This article covers how to install and configure apache spark on ubuntu. In fact, Apache Spark is a framework used in cluster computing environments for analyzing big data. This platform became widely popular due to its ease of use and the improved data processing speeds over Hadoop. Spark basically supports various APIs for streaming, graph processing, SQL, MLLib. It also supports Java, Python, Scala, and R as the preferred languages. Spark is mostly installed in Hadoop clusters but you can also install and configure spark in standalone mode.



This article covers the process of installing Yarn on Rocky Linux system. In fact, Yarn is a tool for managing, updating, and sharing your Java code. Yarn works through node.js helping to track libraries, dependencies, and even enables you to share solutions with other developers.



This article covers how to install yarn on Linux Mint 20 distribution using the command line method. In fact, Yarn is a JavaScript package and dependency management tool that helps users to automate the tasks of installing, updating, removing, and configuring NPM packages. It is a good dependency package manager that is very helpful for experienced developers as well as for learners. 


How to Remove Yarn from Linux Mint 20 ?

If you no longer require Yarn and want to remove it from your Linux Mint 20 system, then it is very easy and straightforward to remove.

Issue the following command in the terminal to remove Yarn completely from your system:

$ sudo apt remove--autoremove yarn



This article covers the installation of ROS Noetic on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Robot Operating System (ROS or in lowercase ros) is the most widely used framework to program robots, more than 50% robots run on ROS. Once it is installed on your system, you can instantly start using it for the development of robotics applications. 



This article covers how to install GNS3 on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS OS. In fact, GNS3 is an incredibly powerful tool that virtualizes real network hardware and helps you to test and verify real-world network deployments. It provides a risk-free virtual environment to design and build a network with your considered size and even with no hardware. GNS3 can be installed on Windows, macOS, and on Linux. It supports Linux distributions (Ubuntu-based distributions 64 bit only) and emulates Linux switches and multiple Linux appliances.



This article covers a step by step procedure on how to install dotnet core on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux system. 



This article covers the best procedure of Installing Stacer on Linux Mint 20. In fact, Stacer is an amazing tool for Linux system monitoring and optimizing. It is a multi utility tool with features that allows you to easily manager your Linux system. Once installed successfully, Stacer can easily be used for system monitoring and improving its performance and efficiency.


How to Install Stacer on Linux ?

If you want the latest version of Stacer then open a new Terminal Window and execute the following command line by line:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:oguzhaninan/stacer
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install stacer

This will add Stacer PPA in your repository and install the latest version of Stacer on your system.

However, if you want to install the most stable release (tested) of stacer, which can be installed from the official repository of your operating system then open terminal and execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install stacer



This article covers how you can install and use the Trash CLI on a Linux Mint 20 machine. In fact, trash-cli is a command line interface that trashes files and records the original absolute path, deletion date, and associated permissions. It uses the same trashcan used by popular Linux desktop environments such as KDE, GNOME, and XFCE which can be invoked from the command line (and via scripts).


Trash-cli provides these commands:

$ trash-put           #trash files and directories.
$ trash-empty         #empty the trashcan(s).
$ trash-list          #list trashed files.
$ trash-restore       #restore a trashed file.
$ trash-rm            #remove individual files from the trashcan.


How to Install Trash-cli in Linux ?

The straightforward way of installing trash-cli is by using easy install tool as follows:

$ sudo apt-get install python-setuptools		#Debian/Ubuntu systems
$ sudo yum install python-setuptools #RHEL/CentOS systems
$ sudo easy_install trash-cli



This article covers how to install and publish a static website using Jekyll. In fact, Jekyll is an open-source static-site generator written in Ruby which allows for quick execution of commands that help manage your site from initial to production deployment, all from your command line.



This article covers the installation procedure of Ghost CMS on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Ghost is a lightweight, open-source Content Management System (CMS) and blogging platform built with Node.js. It is easy to install and update with Ghost-CLI.


How to Troubleshoot Ghost CMS ?

1. Troubleshoot the system for any potential issues when installing or updating Ghost:

$ ghost doctor

2. Get help about Ghost:

$ ghost --help



This article covers how Rsync and BTRFS differ from each other. In fact, the really main difference is that RSYNC can create snapshots on an external disks. Not the same BTRFS. So, if your need is to prevent an unrecoverable crash of your hard disk, you must use RSYNC. After that using a live boot media (pendrive or DVD) you can install on the live boot media Timeshift and the restore your system from the external disk.



This article covers how to install HTTrack, run, and remove HTTrack on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, HTTrack is an exclusive utility to copy web pages to a local disk for offline development and browsing to test web applications. 


How to Install Httrack on Kali Linux ?

You can install Httrack by running the following commands:

$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install httrack



This article covers how to resize and reconfigure our Ubuntu terminal. 



This article covers the different methods you can apply to disable the screen lock in ubuntu. In fact, the screen delay option exists to conserve power when your computer is idle. If the default timeout settings are hindering your day-to-day workflow.

It is important to clarify that the screen lock provides a light security mechanism, if someone has physical access to your device, even with a screen lock, he will be able to gather the information from the disk or to reset the root password.



This article covers the right steps to successfully install Oracle Java 16 on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, The Java JDK (Java Development Kit) is a software development environment used for developing Java Applications. The JDK is a collection of programming tools, notably JRE (Java Runtime Environment), Java (Loader for Java Application), Javac (Compiler), Jar (Archiver), etc. You can now proceed and start developing your Java applications with the enhanced features provided with the latest Java 16 version.

To Check the java version Installed on the system, sumply issue the following command:

$ java -version


How to Set Default Java Version on Ubuntu Linux system ?

1. You can Use the alternatives command to set the default java version.

Simply run the below command on the terminal:

$ sudo update-alternatives --config java

Then you will be given an output such as this to Select Java:

There are different choices for the alternative java (providing /usr/bin/java).


  Selection    Path                                         Priority   Status
------------------------------------------------------------
  0            /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64/bin/java   1111      auto mode
  1            /usr/lib/jvm/java-11-openjdk-amd64/bin/java   1111      manual mode
  2            /usr/lib/jvm/jdk-11.0.12/bin/java             2         manual mode
  3            /usr/lib/jvm/jdk-16.0.2/bin/java              1         manual mode
* 4            /usr/lib/jvm/jdk1.8.0_301/bin/java            3         manual mode
Press  to keep the current choice[*], or type selection number: 1

2. Then, Enter the number below the selection column to set the default Java version and press Enter button to proceed.



This article covers how you can easily install the Protobuf library on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Protocol Buffer, abbreviated as Protobuf, is an open source library developed by Google that allows to serialize or deserialize structured data. It is basically used to communicate with one another over a network and to store data when building applications.


How to Install Protobuf Using Command Line on Ubuntu ?

1. Update all the previous packages installed on your system:

$ sudo apt update

2. Now to install Protobuf compiler on your Ubuntu system, run the below mentioned command:

$ sudo apt install protobuf-compiler


How to Remove Protobuf from Ubuntu System using software center ? 

1. Open the ubuntu software manager and click on installed tab.

2. Now search for "Protobuf" from the list of apps and click on "Remove" button in front of it.

3. A permission dialogue box will get open click on "Remove" to uninstall the application. 

And now protobuf will be uninstalled successfully and no longer exist in the list.



This article covers the installation procedure of the GDebi tool on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Gdebi is a lightweight deb packages installer is default in Ubuntu Desktop. It help you to Install and Manage Packages you downloaded from 3rd Party sites and Software centre.


How to Install GDebi through Command Line ?

If you don't have gdebi installed you'll get the below error:

$ sudo gdebi command not found

1. Update the APT Repository:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Install Gdebi now:

$ sudo apt-get install gdebi



This article covers a step-by-step procedure of installing PostgreSQL 13 on Debian 11 Bulls-Eye. In fact, PostgreSQL is an open source, powerful, resilient and fault tolerant relational database management system powering many mission critical applications. 


Features of PostgreSQL 13 includes:

  • Improvements from de-duplication of B-tree index entries – Space savings and performance gains from.
  • Queries that use aggregates or partitioned tables gets improved performance.
  • Incremental sorting.
  • Better query planning when using extended statistics.
  • Parallelized vacuuming of indexes.



This article covers the different ways and steps to perform the installation of Stacer on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Stacer lets you perform several Linux optimization and monitoring tasks through a single utility. Now you can manage and monitor your system easily and efficiently using a graphical tool.

To install the latest version of Stacer in Debian and Ubuntu-based Linux distributions, use the following PPA y running the commands:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:oguzhaninan/stacer
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install stacer



This article covers how to allow remote connections to a MySQL server. Hosting databases and web servers on a separate database server can improve security, hardware performance, and enable you to scale resources quickly.

One of the most frequently observed database bottlenecks encountered by large projects is high MySQL traffic. Sure, we could talk about moving to a bigger cloud instance size, faster cores, and better storage, but that’s too obvious and costly. Instead, we would like to focus on several tips that can reduce traffic with a bit of configuration.


Methods to reduce Internet traffic when connecting to the remote host:

  • Disable and/or optimize the high-load features of your application.
  • Use ProxySQL to enable connection pooling. This will prevent your application from overloading MySQL with a multitude of concurrent connections. Another nice feature of ProxySQL helps cache query results for a certain period of time.
  • Monitor your databases for performance bottlenecks.
  • Identify and optimize queries that cause high load. If you use dbForge Studio for MySQL, you get a specialized tool—Query Profiler—which helps you deal with this task easily.
  • Add missing indexes and eliminate redundant and unused ones.
  • Conduct a thorough check of your background operations. Some of them can be postponed, some may work just as effectively with limited resources (e.g. limited concurrencies for batch jobs), and some may be perfectly running on replicas.



This article covers the best method to get GPing installed on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, gping gives ping a nice graph in your Linux terminal.


How to Install gping on Linux Mint ?

On Linux Mint 20, /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref needs to be removed before Snap can be installed. This can be accomplished from the command line:

$ sudo rm /etc/apt/preferences.d/nosnap.pref
$ sudo apt update

To install snap from the Software Manager application, search for snapd and click Install.

Alternatively, snapd can be installed from the command line:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install snapd

To install gping, simply use the following command:

$ sudo snap install gping



This article covers the different ways to check the health of your Hard Disk Drives and Solid-State Drives. In fact, SMART (Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology) is a feature enabled in all modern hard disk drives and SSDs to monitor/test reliability. It checks different drive attributes to detect the possibility of drive failure. 


What is the need to check Linux system SSD and HDD drives ?

If you are a system administrator and responsible for managing Linux systems in Datacenter. Then, it is recommended to check the health of the SSD and HDD drives regularly. It will help you to identify failed drives and they can be replaced before any data loss occurs. S.M.A.R.T is a tool used to monitor the health status of SSD and HDD. It also allows you to perform on-demand tests on the drive.


How to Test SSD Health using Smartctl ?

Smartctl is a command-line utility tool that can be used to check S.M.A.R.T-enabled HDD or SSD status in the Linux system.

Smartctl utility tool comes with the package smartmontools. Smartmontools is available by default in all Linux distributions including Ubuntu, RHEL and Centos and Fedora.

To install smartmontools in Linux, run the below command:

$ sudo apt install smartmontools 

To Start Smartmontools service, execute the below command:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/smartmontools start

Smartd service will start automatically after the successful installation.

If not started, start smartd service:

$ sudo systemctl start smartd



This article covers a complete guide on how to install Vsftpd with SSL/TLS on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, sftpd (i.e. very secure FTP daemon) is an FTP server software for Linux and other Unix-like systems. An FTP server software facilitates the transfer of files from a client computer to the server and vice versa.



This article covers methods to install Buttercup on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Buttercup is a simple, yet mature and fully functional password manager. If you ever need a password manager, Buttercup may be a good option. For more details, see the site project website.



This article covers the Installation procedure of OnlyOffice on your Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, ONLYOFFICE for Linux Mint 20 is an online office that enables you to manage documents, projects, team and customer relations in one place. Also, it offers a complete productivity suite with document management, project management, CRM, calendar, mail, and corporate network. 


How to Install ONLYOFFICE Desktop Editors via Snap ?

The easiest way of installing ONLYOFFICE Desktop Editors might be using a snap package.

1. To get the application installed, just execute the following command:

$ snap install onlyoffice-desktopeditors

2. When the installation process is over, you can launch ONLYOFFICE Desktop Editors using this terminal command:

$ snap run onlyoffice-desktopeditors



This article covers steps to install the CUPS print server on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, Linux uses the Common UNIX Printing System, also known as CUPS. CUPS uses the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) to allow local printing and print sharing. The /etc/cups/ directory stores all the configuration files for printing. However, these files can be easily managed with the Printer Configuration Tool in Linux. Once it is installed on your system, you can use it very effectively for managing multiple printers and computers that wish to use those printers.



This article covers how to install PIP on Ubuntu 18.04 for Python 3 and Python 2. In fact, PIP is the default package manager for Python packages which allows you to install, and manage Python packages in an easy and convenient manner. 


How to Install pip for Python3 ?

Pip3 can be installed on Ubuntu using the APT package manager. 

1. To start off, update the package lists as shown:

$ sudo apt update

2. To install pip3 run the command:

$ sudo apt install python3-pip

3. Verify that pip3 is installed by running the command:

$ pip3 --version


For assistance on more command options and usage of pip3, run the below command:

$ pip3 --help



This article covers the different ways to install Python on Ubuntu Linux system. In fact, Python is an object-oriented, high-level programming language. It is open-source with a large community. Python is used as a key language among the top tech companies like Google. Now you can start developing your Python 3 project.



This article covers how to enable ssh passwordless login using ssh-keygen and ssh-copy-id. In fact, SSH (Secure SHELL) can be used to transfer files from one computer to another computer over the network using a secure copy (SCP) Protocol.

ssh-keygen creates the public and private keys. ssh-copy-id copies the local-host's public key to the remote-host's authorized_keys file. ssh-copy-id also assigns proper permission to the remote-host's home, ~/.ssh, and ~/.ssh/authorized_keys.



This article covers how to install Fail2ban and protect SSH from illegitimate attempts. For webmasters or anyone managing Linux server that is accessible over the Internet, the risks of the server being compromised is high, so implementing best security practices to help mitigate these attacks should be a priority. In fact, Fail2ban is a tool that help protect Linux servers from brute force and other automated attacks by monitoring the services logs for malicious activity. It uses regular expressions to scan the server's logs for malicious attempts and bans offending IPs for a specific length of time using the system's firewall.


How to Install Fail2ban on any Linux system ?

Fail2ban packages are automatically included in Ubuntu repositories. To install it, simply run the commands below:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install fail2ban

Once the installation is complete, the service should automatically start up and ready to be configured.

To check if the service is up and operational, run the commands below:

$ sudo systemctl status fail2ban



This article covers the installation of Shotcut on a Linux Mint 20 system with the help of the Flatpak package manager. In fact, Shotcut is a Free, Open Source, Cross-Platform Video Editor.



This article covers how to install and setup free version of Bitwarden for individual use. Now start saving your passwords and other confidential information in your Bitwarden vault. Using Bitwarden you can easily and safely generate, store, and secure unique passwords from any location or device. It is compliant with Privacy Shield, HIPAA, GDPR, CCPA, SOC2 and SOC3 security standards and comes with AES-256 bit encryption, salted hashing, and PBKDF2 SHA-256.


How to Install Bitwarden via Snap ?

1. Open the terminal app (ctrl+alt+t) and run below Bitwarden password manager snap installation command:

$ sudo snap install bitwarden

2. After the installation you can open Bitwarden from the application menu or via this command.

$ bitwarden

3. It also comes with a command-line support. You can install the Bitwarden command-line cli app via the below command.

$ sudo snap install bw



This article covers the installation procedure of Pandoc on a Linux Mint 20 machine. This tool can be utilized to design a wide range of different documents. 

To check Pandoc Version, simply run the below command:

$ pandoc -v


To Update System and Install Pandoc, simply run the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install pandoc



This article covers how to successfully install OwnCloud on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, OwnCloud is an open source project that can be installed on your server to securely store and access files. Also allows you to share and collaborate contents that lets teams work on data easily from anywhere, on any device. With the support of a lot of plugins, Nextcloud becomes such a Collaboration software. You can install plugins for project management, video conferencing, collaborative editing, note-taking, email client, etc.


To Open port  80 in firewall, use the following command:

$ firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=80/tcp --permanent
$ firewall-cmd --reload


How to Install Apache or httpd web server on the Rocky Linux server ?

1. Simply Execute the dnf command below to install the httpd web server:

$ sudo dnf install httpd

Type "y" and press "Enter" to confirm and install httpd packages.

2. Now, enable and start the httpd service using the following command:

$ sudo systemctl enable httpd
$ sudo systemctl start httpd

The "systemctl enable" command will enable the service to start at every boot.

3. Finally, run the command below to verify the httpd service:

$ sudo systemctl status httpd



This article covers methods to install GParted on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, GParted is an open-source GUI-based disk partition editor originally developed for Linux GNOME Desktop. It allows you to create, resize, copy and paste, move, and repair disk partitions using easy-to-use GUI. Also it supports many filesystems including btrfs, ext2/ext3/ext4, fat16/fat32, lvm2, ntfs and xfs, and a variety of storage devices such as SATA/IDE/SCSI, Flash memory, SSD and RAID.


How to Install Gparted on Debian, Ubuntu or Linux Mint ?

Gparted is part of the base repositories on Debian-based Linux, so apt-get will do the job:

$ sudo apt-get install gparted


GParted enables you to easily manage your disk partitions:

  • Create partition tables, (e.g., msdos or gpt).
  • Create, move, copy, resize, check, label, set new UUID, and delete partitions.
  • Enable and disable partition flags, (e.g., boot or hidden).
  • Align partitions to mebibyte (MiB) or traditional cylinder boundaries.
  • Attempt data rescue from lost partitions.



This article covers how to install "exa" on your system and use it as a replacement for the "ls" command in Linux Mint 20. In fact, exa is a modern replacement for the venerable file-listing command-line program ls that ships with Unix and Linux operating systems, giving it more features and better defaults. It uses colours to distinguish file types and metadata. It knows about symlinks, extended attributes, and Git. And it’s small, fast, and just one single binary. Using this modern tool will simply allow you to visualize your files and directories in Linux in a much better way.



This article covers how to install bpytop tool on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, BpyTop is a Linux command-line utility for resource monitoring. It shows usage and stats for processors, memory, disks, network, and processes. With this tool installed on your system, you can use it very efficiently for resource usage monitoring.

To check the version of Python running on your Linux distribution, type:

$ python3 --version

After installing Bpytop, you can start monitoring your Linux system resources by running the command below:

$ bpytop



This article covers steps to Install Ruby and run ruby applications on your centos 8 machine. In fact, Ruby is a dynamic, object-oriented programming language focused on simplicity and productivity. RVM (Ruby Version Manager) is a tool for installing and managing multiple Ruby versions on single operating systems. 


To Verify Active Ruby Version installed on your Linux system, run the below command:

$ ruby --version



This article covers how to install the Gparted partition editor on Ubuntu 20.04 system. GParted is a free partition editor that permits you to manage your partitions graphically. GParted allows you to copy, resize and move partitions without losing data. 


Main features of  GParted includes:

  • Shrink or increase your C: drive
  • Make room for new operating systems to be installed.
  • Perform actions on partitions such as creating, deleting, resizing, and moving, checking, copying, pasting, and labeling.
  • Tries to recover data from deleted partitions.
  • You can also manipulate file systems such as: btrfsm, xfs, exfat, nilfs2, reiserfs / reiser4, lvm2 pv, hfs / hfs+, fat16 / fat32, ext2 / ext3 / ext4, ufs, udf, ntfs, linux-swap.


How To install GParted on Ubuntu ?

1. Open the terminal by pressing 'CTRL+ALT+T' or search it manually in the activities and update the packages list:

$ sudo apt update

2. Execute the following command to install GParted on your system:

$ sudo apt install gparted



This article covers how to deploy Mattermost on Ubuntu 20.04. Mattermost is an open source collaboration and messaging platform created with security and configurability in mind providing comparable functionality to Discord or Slack. It offers group, threaded and one-to-one messaging, unlimited search history and file sharing capabilities, two-factor authorization and notifications. Mattermost also provides webhooks and bot integration for further customization. It's accessible from every type of modern device due to its responsive web interface and dedicated mobile apps.

Now, you can easily connect with your team on Mattermost using a Desktop client. Even you can add multiple Mattermost servers to single desktop client and collaborate with different team users.



This article covers the best billing and invoicing software that is cross-platform compatible, free, and completely open-source including InvoicePlane, BoxBilling, BambooInvoice, InvoiceNinja, LogicInvoice, InvoiceExpert and Carter. In fact, these billing and invoicing software can work for all sort of businesses.



This article covers how to install Timeshift on Debian 10 from its stable repositories. Timeshift brings the System Restore feature in Windows or the Time Machine tool in macOS to Linux.


How to Restore Ubuntu, Debian & Linux Mint from Snapshot using Timeshift ?

  • To revert your system to Snapshot state, select the Snapshot you want to restore to and click the "Restore" tab on the top menu.
  • This will ask you to "Select target device" and options for /boot and /home.
  • Timeshift will Perform Dry run before doing the actual restore.
  • Confirm Actions to initiate Snapshot restore process.
  • Timeshift will start to sync Snapshot files to the root filesystem.
  • The system should reboot after the process is completed.



This article covers how to install the Jupyter Notebook web application on Ubuntu 20.04. In fact, Jupyter Notebook is easy to install and can be used to streamline numerical simulation, data transformation & cleaning, machine learning, and statistical modeling.

To install Pip, Python, and Python development, simply run the below command:

$ sudo apt-get -y install python3python-pip python-dev

The command above will install the most recent version of Python and Python Pip; a reliable Python package manager that makes it easy to manage the Python packages. In addition, Python Development will be installed.



This article covers how to create and view hidden files and directories in Linux via command line and GUI. We also covered how to unhide the files and directories in Linux through a keyboard shortcut, command line, and File Manager. In fact, Linux, by default, hides many of the sensitive system files. Hidden files are usually system or application files, concealed to prevent accidental changes.



This article covers the procedure on how to set up automatic kernel updates on Linux. In fact, Applying security updates to the Linux kernel is a simple process that can be done with tools like apt, yum, or kexec. 

For organizations with more than a few servers, live patching is the best option. It is an automatic way to fix the Linux kernel while the server is running, making it more efficient and safer than manual methods.



This article covers how loaded kernel modules works in Linux. The kernel of a Linux system is the core that everything else in the operating system relies on. The functionality of the kernel can be extended by adding modules to it. As such, a user can fine tune their kernel settings by enabling or disabling modules. Now, you can list the information of these loaded kernel modules on your system's terminal.



This article covers how to check the hardware information on your Linux system graphically using the hardinfo tool. In fact, a linux system is consists of different types of hardware such as processor, RAM, hard disk, network cards, etc. Linux provides various tools to check the details of these hardware parts. 

You can launch hardinfo tool from the terminal by using the below command:

$ hardinfo



This article covers how to recover the file in a few minutes using TestDisk on Linux systems. Deleting files is unavoidable as everyone likes to work in a decluttered and organized system. Whenever we delete something from our system, it does not actually get deleted, till that space gets overwritten by something else in the disk. 


What TestDisk tool can do on your Linux System:

  • Rebuild NTFS boot sectors.
  • Recover FAT32 boot sectors.
  • Recover deleted partitions and fix errors in route tables.
  • Locate blocks ext2, ext3 and ext4.
  • Copy files from deleted partitions from FAT, exFAT, NTFS and ext2 file systems.



This article covers how to install Django on  Alma Linux | Rocky Linux. In fact, Django is the most popular Python web framework designed to help developers build secure, scalable, and maintainable web applications.


How to Install Python on Debian 10 Buster ?

1. Before we install any software, it's important to make sure your system is up to date by running the following apt commands in the terminal:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install Python and necessary dependencies.

Now install Python dependencies on your system using the following command:

$ sudo apt install python3 python3-pip tree

3. Confirm the Python installation and check the Python version by typing the following command:

$ pip3 -V



This article covers how to keep check and balance on your file system. Ext4 is the default file system on most Linux distributions for a reason. It's an improved version of the older Ext3 file system. It's not the most cutting-edge file system, but that's good: It means Ext4 is rock-solid and stable.

If you're setting up partitions on your main Linux boot drive, you'll also want to create a swap partition of at least a few GBs in size when setting up those partitions. This partition is used for "swap space". It's similar to the paging file on Windows. Linux swaps out memory to the swap space when its RAM is full. This partition must be formatted as "swap" instead of with a particular file system.



This article covers the Installation process of NetBeans IDE on a Linux Mint 20 system. In fact, NetBeans is an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) application mainly used by developers to create applications using Java and other programming architectures like PHP and C++.


Features of NetBeans IDE includes:

  • A drag and drop GUI design tool for rapid UI development.
  • A feature-rich code editor with code templates & refactoring tools.
  • Integration tools such as GIT and mercurial.
  • Support for the latest Java technologies.
  • A rich set of community plugins.



This article covers how to install VidCutter on a Linux Mint 20 machine. In fact, VidCutter is a cross-platform video cutting or trimmer software for Linux.


Features of VidCutter video editor:

  • Open source Software.
  • Cross-platform app available for Linux, Windows and MacOS.
  • Supports most of the common video formats such as: AVI, MP4, MPEG 1/2, WMV, MP3, MOV, 3GP, FLV etc.
  • Simple interface.
  • Trims and merges the videos.



This article covers the different methods to check the Ubuntu Version by the terminal. While working with the system, we need to install multiple third-party software, which is available for version-specific. In that case, you need to find the Ubuntu version you are using.

The lsb-release is the standard package for reporting the version on Ubuntu systems. Which is basically written in the Python programming language. It provides lsb_release command-line tool to check Ubuntu version and other useful details.



This article covers step by step procedure for the installation of Anaconda on Ubuntu OS. In fact, Anaconda is designed to provide scientific libraries and dependencies in the Python programming language. It is a package manager used in scientific computing and data science.



This article covers how to install CUDA on Ubuntu 20.04.

To install CUDA on Ubuntu,  execute the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nvidia-cuda-toolkit

To Check your CUDA version, run the below command:

$ nvcc --version



This article covers Inkscape is an open source cross-platform vector graphics editor for Linux, Windows and Mac OS X. Inkscape basically supports SVG file generation and editing and supports PNG, OpenDocument Drawing, DXF, sk1, PDF, EPS and PostScript export formats. It comes with Color selector, Color picker, gradient editor, Pattern fills, Dashed strokes and Path markers.


How to Install Inkscape vector graphics editor on Ubuntu ?

1. You can download and Inkscape from the ubuntu software center or install it from the command line by adding its PPA. To install Inkscape via command line, open the terminal app and type and enter the below command:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:inkscape.dev/stable

2. Then run the below command to update your system:

$ sudo apt-get update

3. Now, run the below command to install Inkscape on Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt-get install inkscape



This article covers step-by-step installation procedure of the MariaDB server on Rocky Linux 8. In fact, MariaDB was developed as a "drop-in" replacement for MySQL. As such, both software packages are functionally equivalent and interchangeable.

To enable MariaDB service to start on boot time and start the service using the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl enable mariadb
$ sudo systemctl start mariadb

To verify the running status of MariaDB, run the below command:

$ sudo systemctl status mariadb



This article covers step by step procedure for installing the Cacti monitoring tool on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. In fact, Cacti is a free and open-source RRD tool-based network monitoring tool that monitors network devices such as servers, routers, and switches. Cacti uses the SNMP protocol to gather data from remote systems. Data gathered is then stored in a MySQL database. 

One of the most essential tasks that any IT operation team has to keep in mind is continuous monitoring of their IT infrastructure. The concept of monitoring ensures that systems such as servers are functioning and working as desired.



This article covers steps to Install and configure Webmin on Rocky Linux 8 using the automated installation script. Webmin web interface is used to set up user and disk management, Apache, DNS, PHP, MySQL, check CPU usage, system info, network config, and more.


How to Install Webmin using RPM package ?

It is also possible to install Webmin using the rpm package available on the download page of Webmin. This is the quickest way to get Webmin up and running on your Linux machine.

1. Install dependencies

Since Webmin is written in Perl, you need to install Perl and its dependencies:

$ sudo dnf install perl perl-Net-SSLeay perl-Data-Dumper perl-Encode-Detect

2. Download and Install Webmin RPM package

This will install the latest version of Webmin using the rpm package:

$ sudo dnf install https://www.webmin.com/download/rpm/webmin-current.rpm


How to uninstall Webmin ?

You can simply uninstall Webmin using the script /etc/webmin/uninstall.sh.



This article covers methods to install, configure, enable and then restart the Bluetooth service in the Ubuntu system. From time to time when you are using Ubuntu Linux and you want to use your Bluetooth headset to watch Netflix or YouTube videos you may experience some problems with the Bluetooth connection on Linux.


How to fix the issue "Bluetooth isn't available" when you wake up the system ?

When you put your system to sleep, there are chances Bluetooth won’t be available when you wake it up. In order to make everything work fine as before in most cases you will need to restart the system.

In order to fix this issue, we need to launch the Terminal and check whether we have the 4.48 version of Bluez. You can easily do that with this command:

$ dpkg --status bluez | grep '^Version:'

When you see the results, use the following commands to update to the latest version:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bluetooth/bluez
$ sudo apt-get update

After these commands, you will be able to update the Buez using:

$ sudo apt upgrade


How to fix the issue "Bluetooth headset won't play in A2DP (High Fidelity)" ?

In order to fix this issue, you will need to make your system detect the right type of Bluetooth device by adding a simple configuration file.

1. First, let's check whether we have all the dependencies installed:

$ sudo apt install pulseaudio pulseaudio-utils pavucontrol pulseaudio-module-bluetooth

2. When we verify it, we need to create or edit this audio config file:

$ sudo gedit /etc/bluetooth/audio.conf

Then, Include the next lines:

This section contains general options
[General]
Enable=Source,Sink,Media,Socket

3. Finally, save the file and start the Bluetooth service again:

$ sudo service bluetooth restart



This article covers how to install uTorrent via the command line on Ubuntu 20.04 system. µTorrent provides clients for Windows and macOS X, however it is installed as a server in Ubuntu Linux and provides a web UI for managing downloads.



This article covers different methods to determine the link speed of IP networks in Ubuntu. The link speed in a basic network refers to the maximum speed that a device can communicate with the wireless router. The link speed is expressed in bits/second and may vary depending on the device and the wireless access point.



This article covers how you can install Kubectl on your Linux system and use it to operate your Kubernetes clusters if you are fond of using the command-line interfaces. Infact, Kubectl tool is very efficient in terms of cluster management and application deployment. 

Kubectl is a command-line tool for Kubernetes. It allows us to execute Kubernetes operations via the API. We can use Kubectl to deploy apps, check logs as well as manage all the other resources of the cluster.

Kubernetes uses an HTTP-based REST API which is the actual Kubernetes user interface employed to manage it. This means that every Kubernetes operation is represented as an API endpoint and can be carried out based on an HTTP-request sent to the endpoint. 



This article covers different ways to check CPU is 64/32 Bit in Linux System. As a system administrator and IT professional, it is very important to know whether the system's CPU architecture is 32 bit or 64 bit.

To test whether your Linux computer has a 32-bit or 64-bit CPU and to see what version of Linux is installed, open your terminal, type the following command at the prompt, and then hit Enter:

$ lscpu


How to Determine if the Linux kernel is 32-bit or 64-bit ?

Using the uname command, you can determine if your Linux kernel is 32-bit or 64-bit by running the command below:

uname -a



This article covers steps to install PHP 8.0 in Rocky Linux. PHP is used to develop static or dynamic websites or web applications. Many popular CMS such as WordPress, Magento, and Joomla is written in PHP. Frameworks such as Laravel, Symfony, and CodeIgniter is also using PHP.

To list the available PHP version on your Linux terminal, run the command:

$ sudo dnf module list php

To verify PHP version, simply run the command:

$ php -v 

To install PHP packages and dependencies, run the command:

$ sudo apt install php php-cli php-fpm php-json php-common php-mysql php-zip php-gd php-mbstring php-curl php-xml php-pear php-bcmath


How to Install PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu ?

Installing PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu 19.04/18.04 is a bit different than 20.04. 1. To get started, update apt and add the required repositories:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt -y install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
$ sudo apt-get update

2. And begin the install.

$ sudo apt install php7.4

3. After the install is complete, you can check the version that is installed and in use.

$ php -v



This article covers steps to install Eclipse IDE on your LinuxMint 20 system. Eclipse is a well-known, widely used IDE (Integrated Development Environment) for developing Java applications and also developing applications in COBOL, Ada, C, C++, Perl, PHP, Python, R, Ruby, Clojure, Scala, Groovy, and Scheme. 

To launch eclipse from the terminal use the command :

$ eclipse



This article covers steps to Install and Set up Laravel Application on your Ubuntu Linux System. Laravel is a widely used open-source PHP framework for web application development. The MVC (Model-View-Controller) architectural pattern is implemented in Laravel.


How to Install  and Manage Apache Web Server on Ubuntu?

1. Update all available repositories on your system and install the Apache webserver using the apt command below:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install apache2

2. Start the Apache service and add it to the system boot:

$ systemctl start apache2
$ systemctl enable apache2

3. Now check the Apache service status using the following command:

$ systemctl status apache2



This article covers how to use the hwinfo command in Linux. hwinfo command reports information about CPU, RAM, keyboard, mouse, graphics card, sound, storage, network interface, disk, partition, bios, and bridge, etc,.


The hwinfo utility displays the following information:

  • CPU : manufacturer, model, frequency
  • Motherboard : manufacturer, model, BIOS version, on-board controller
  • RAM : RAM size, RAM type (FP, EDO, SDRAM, DDRAM)
  • Hard disk controller : SCSI, IDE, on-board/card, model, BIOS version, chipset
  • Hard disks : type, manufacturer, model, size, bus system (SCSI, IDE), partitioning
  • CD-ROM drives : type, manufacturer, model, speed, internal/external, parallel port?
  • Other media : CD writer, streamer (model, manufacturer, SCSI/EIDE/floppy streamer, capacity), ZIP drives, Jaz drives, MO drives, flopticals
  • Graphics card : model, manufacturer, chipset, memory (DRAM, VRAM), memory size
  • Other peripherals : printer, parallel ports, serial ports, modem, ISDN card



This article covers how to install AnyDesk on your Linux system which can be used as a remote desktop application for interacting with different devices and controlling them remotely. Anydesk application can be installed on Windows, Linux and macOS.



This article covers how you can install Brackets code editor on Ubuntu OS via either the command line or the GUI. Brackets is a powerful text editor focused on web development and especially on the frontend.


Features of Brackets code editor:
  • Cross-platform: It has binaries for Windows, Linux, and macOS. This makes the transition to Linux easy if you come from another system.
  • Open Source: With an open code, you can examine it. And above all, you will not have license problems.
  • Support extensions: Supports many different extensions that help even more with the functionality of the program.
  • Preprocessor Support: Work with preprocessors (LESS and SCSS) in a whole new way.
  • Live Preview: Get a real-time connection to your browser.
  • Inline Editors: Instead of jumping between file tabs, Brackets lets you Open a window into the code you care about most.



This article covers how to install Timeshift utility on Linux Mint system. Timeshift help in creating the backups of your precious data. Also,it is a fabulous tool that is used for the backup & restoration of the Linux operating system, it takes incremental backup after the first initial complete backup. TImeshit creates filesystem snapshots using Rsync or BTRFS. It has a nice GUI as well as support for CLI.



This article covers how to install and configure the latest Tor browser version on LinuxMint 20 system. In fact, now using the tor browser, you can browse privately and securely and visit all websites blocked by your ISP providers.


How to install Tor on Ubuntu 21.04 ?

1. We access the terminal in Ubuntu 21.04 and install Tor with the following command:

$ sudo apt install tor 

2. Install the browser itself with the following command:

$ sudo apt install torbrowser-launcher 


How to Remove Tor browser from Debian / Ubuntu / Linux Mint ?

If you are not happy with the Tor browser (installed via APT), you can remove it using the command below:

$ sudo apt purge torbrowser-launcher

If you installed it using Flatpak via software center, you can easily uninstall it from there. If you installed it from terminal, type in the following command:

$ flatpak uninstall com.github.micahflee.torbrowser-launcher



This article covers an easy procedure to install rkhunter, configure, scan the system and view log to identify actual backdoor, rootkits, and local exploits. In fact, Rkhunter (Rootkit Hunter) is an open-source Unix/Linux based scanner tool for Linux systems released under GPL that scans backdoors, rootkits, and local exploits on your systems. It scans hidden files, wrong permissions set on binaries, suspicious strings in the kernel, and so on. 

To scan the entire Linux  file system, run the Rkhunter command as a root user:

$ rkhunter --check



This article covers how to install PHP 8.0 on Debian 10. To verify the installed version of PHP, use the php command below:

$ php -v


How to install PHP 7.x extensions ?

The following syntax is used to install PHP 7.x extensions:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.x-extension

or

$ sudo apt-get install php-extension


To install the most commonly used PHP 7.x extensions by running the command in the terminal:

for PHP 7.4,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.4-mysql php7.4-mbstring php7.4-xml php7.4-bcmath php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-zip

for PHP 7.3,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.3-mysql php7.3-mbstring php7.3-xml php7.3-bcmath php7.3-curl php7.3-gd php7.3-zip

for PHP 7.2,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql php7.2-mbstring php7.2-xml php7.2-bcmath php7.2-curl php7.2-gd php7.2-zip

for PHP 7.1,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.1-mysql php7.1-mbstring php7.1-xml php7.1-bcmath php7.1-curl php7.1-gd php7.1-zip

for PHP 7.0,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.0-mysql php7.0-mbstring php7.0-xml php7.0-bcmath php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-zip



This article covers the practical use cases of the Linux IP command. IP stands for Internet Protocol. IP command is used to show or manipulate routing, devices, and tunnels. It is similar to ifconfig command but it is much more powerful with more functions and facilities attached to it. It can perform several other tasks like configuring and modifying the default and static routing, setting up tunnel over IP, listing IP addresses and property information, modifying the status of the interface, assigning, deleting and setting up IP addresses and routes.


Linux system commands:

  • arp — Manipulate the system ARP cache.
  • ifconfig — View or modify the configuration of network interfaces.
  • netstat — Print information about network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships.
  • route — Display and manipulate the IP routing table.
  • tcpdump — Capture raw network traffic.



This article covers how to install and use Logwatch on Ubuntu Linux System. Logwatch is a system log analyzer and send that report to email. It generates a summarized log report which contains sshd - authentication failures, sudo - sessions opened, vsftp failures, postfix, failed logins, disk space and more. To find more information, visit the Logwatch man page.

Logwatch can be installed simply from the Ubuntu repository. First update the system.

$ sudo apt-get update

To install Logwatch, execute the command:

$ apt-get install logwatch



This article covers how to install ROS Noetic on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. ROS (Robot Operating System) is an open-source project that provides a framework and tools for robotics applications. It helps to design complex software without knowing how certain hardware works.



This article covers how you can either use the direct download or the snap method to install Eclipse IDE on your Ubuntu system. Eclipse is a really powerful IDE that supports many programming languages. It provides numerous plugins and extensions for enhancing the functionality of your Eclipse such as source code version control (git, svn), class diagram generator, GUI builder.


How to install JRE (Java Runtime Environment) on your Ubuntu machine ?

In order to install JRE (Java Runtime Environment) on your Ubuntu machine, run the commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install openjdk-14-jre

To verify that Java was successfully installed, let's run:

$ java --version



This article covers the Installation process of Bluefish editor on Linux Mint. You can now use it for web development in a variety of different programming languages. 



This article covers how to easily install TeamViewer on AlmaLinux 8. With TeamViewer you can control computer systems running Linux, Windows and Mac OS remotely as if you were sitting right in front of that system. It also provides a spontaneous support to unattended computers such as servers.



This article covers to install and configuren Graylog in ubuntu. With this, you can work with the log using the Graylog server. Graylog is an open-source tool that offers an integrated platform for collecting, indexing, and analyzing log data. The system essentially consists of the Graylog web interface, the Graylog servers, the Elasticsearch nodes, and a Mongo database.


How to Access Graylog Web interface ?

Open a browser on your local system or remote that can access the Ubuntu 20.04 server Ip-address. And type the http://your-server-ipaddress:9000

Replace your-server-ip-address with the actual IP address of your Server where Graylog has been installed.



This article covers how to install Siege benchmarking tool on Ubuntu Linux System using two methods: using the APT and the tar.gz package. Siege allows you to test a web server with n number of users t number of times. Siege offers three modes of operation: Regression, internet simulation, and brute force.

Once the Siege is installed, you can verify the installed version of Siege using the following command:

$ siege --version



This article covers how to install and use Adobe acrobat reader to view PDF files on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.



This article covers method to set up OpenVPN on Ubuntu 20.04. OpenVPN is a full featured, open-source Transport Layer Security (TLS) VPN solution that accommodates a wide range of configurations. OpenVPN is an open-source, fast, popular program for creating a VPN (Virtual Private Network). It uses both the TCP and UDP transmission protocols, and VPN tunnels are secured with OpenVPN protocol with SSL/TLS authentication, certificates, credentials, and optionally MAC address lock as well as multi-factor authentication.

Here, you will set up OpenVPN on an Ubuntu 20.04 server, and then configure it to be accessible from a client machine.

To confirm that the OpenVPN service is up and running by checking its status using the following systemctl command:

$ sudo systemctl status openvpn



This article covers how to update firmware on Ubuntu using fwupd. Fwupd aims to make firmware update on Linux systems automatic, safe, and reliable. It is mainly used to update UEFI firmware. There are many companies that already support native firmware updates such as Dell, Lenovo, HP, Intel, and System76. 


To Install fwupd on Ubuntu, run the following command:

$ sudo apt install fwupd

To download and apply all updates for your system use the update option:

$ fwupdmgr update



This article covers the Installation process of NodeJS on Rocky Linux. Nodejs is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine and is designed to build scalable network applications.



This article covers how you can enjoy your TV shows and Movies using Netflix on Ubuntu 20.04. You can simply install Google Chrome and start watching Netflix without any additional tools and requirements.



This article covers how you can install Dropbox on the CentOS system and sync your local files and folders with Dropbox cloud storage. Dropbox is a useful file-sharing and syncing service that lets you sync files between different machines over the Internet for free. It's very useful for backing up your important documents, pictures, MP3 files, video files, and other data.



This article covers how to install Grafana on Ubuntu OS using two methods: using the APT repository and the .deb package. Grafana is multi-platform open-source analytics and interactive visualization web application that integrates with complex data from sources like Prometheus, InfluxDB, Graphite, and ElasticSearch. It provides charts, graphs, and alerts for the web when connected to supported data sources. It is expandable through a plug-in system.


Features of Grafana:

  • Data Visualization: Allows for fast and flexible visualization with many options and settings.
  • Dynamic Dashboards: Provides the ability to create dynamic and reusable panels with templated variables.
  • Metrics Exploration: Explore your data with ad-hoc queries and dynamic drill-down by splitting the view and comparing different time ranges and sources.
  • Data Logs: Provides tremendous opportunities to use data metrics in a log with labels and filters saved, which can be studied, viewed, and broadcasted.
  • Extensive Alert Capabilities: Visually define alert rules for your most important metrics. Grafana will continuously evaluate and send notifications to systems such as Slack, PagerDuty, VictorOps, and OpsGenie.
  • Mixed Data Sources: Mix different data sources on the same graph and for each query.



This article covers different use cases of using the usermod command. The usermod command in Linux is used to manage user properties at command line. The syntax of the usermod command is following:

$ usermod [option] [argument] username



This article covers the best PDF Viewers you can install on your Ubuntu / Debian Linux system. 

PDF viewer list on Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa Linux:

  • Evince PDF Viewer.
  • Okular PDF Viewer.
  • Atril PDF Viewer.
  • Adobe Reader PDF Viewer.
  • Zathura PDF viewer.
  • GNU gv PDF Viewer.


Okular is a default PDF viewer on Ubuntu 20.04 KDE Plasma Desktop. To install Okular PDF Viewer, simply run the command:

$ sudo apt install okular



This article covers different methods to Rename Files and Directories Using Linux Terminal. We can rename files and directories with rename and mv commands in the Linux Terminal. The mv command can only rename one file at a time, but the rename command can rename multiple files simultaneously.


How to Rename Files and Directories Using the mv Command ?

The mv command can rename files and directories. It is also used to move files and directories from one location to another.

Syntax of mv Command:

$ mv [OPTIONS] source destination

The source can be one or more files or directories, and the destination is always a single file or directory.



This article covers how to view / preserve or delete terminal history on Ubuntu Linux System. Terminal history can be a benefit in case you want to revisit/recall the past commands. But it can be a security risk because they can show system tools, configurations, and settings. 

The history mechanism in Ubuntu keeps track of terminal commands you executed.

To view your command line history, Open the Ubuntu terminal and Type :

$ history

This will display the list of previous bash commands you executed in the terminal.


To delete your Ubuntu terminal history, Type:

$ history -c

This will clear your Ubuntu terminal history. Also, you need to know that command line history is user independent, means every user has their own separate history. When you execute history -c command, it will only clear terminal history of the current user.



This article covers different methods to modify Ubuntu Desktop Background as well as updating your background by using the command prompt. When you first install and run Ubuntu Linux the first thing you see when you log in is the default desktop. It has the Ubuntu brown color scheme and panels at the top and bottom of the screen. There are two predominant desktop environments available with Linux - the GNOME desktop and the KDE desktop. Which is the best desktop is matter of preference and heated disagreement in the Linux community. Both are excellent, feature rich desktops.


How to Change the desktop background in Ubuntu ?

To change the image used for your backgrounds:

1. Open the Activities overview and start typing Background.

2. Click Background to open the panel. The currently selected wallpaper is shown at the top.

3. There are two ways to change the image used for your backgrounds:

i. Click one of the background images which are shipped with the system.

Some wallpapers change throughout the day. These wallpapers have a small clock icon in the bottom-right corner.

ii. Click Add Picture… to use one of your own photos. By default, the Pictures folder will be opened, since most photo management applications store photos there.

4. The settings are applied immediately.

For another way to set one of your own photos as the background, right-click on the image file in Files and select Set as Wallpaper, or open the image file in Image Viewer, click the menu button in the titlebar and select Set as Wallpaper.

5. Switch to an empty workspace to view your entire desktop.



This article covers how to install LAMP stack on Rocky Linux 8.4. You can now proceed to test or host your website and applications. A LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


How to Install  and configure Apache Web Server ?

1. First, we will start by installing the Apache web server. To complete the installation, use the following command:

$ yum install httpd httpd-tools

2. Once the installation is complete, enable Apache (to start automatically upon system boot), start the web server and verify the status using the commands below:

$ systemctl enable httpd
$ systemctl start httpd
$ systemctl status httpd

3. To make your pages available to public, you will have to edit your firewall rules to allow HTTP and HTTPS requests on your web server by using the following commands:

$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http 
$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https 
$ firewall-cmd --reload
4. Verify that the web server is running and accessible by accessing your server’s IP address:
$ echo "Hello there, Apache webserver is now running" > /var/www/html/index.html

5. And restart tht Web Server to reflect the changes made:

$ systemctl restart httpd

From your browser,

http://IP_address


How to Install PHP on CentOS ?

1. To install PHP on your RHEL 8 use the command below:

$ yum install -y php-mysqlnd php-dom php-simplexml php-xml php-xmlreader php-curl php-exif php-ftp php-gd php-iconv  php-json php-mbstring php-posix php-sockets php-tokenizer

2. Now restart your web server so that Apache knows that it will be serving PHP requests as well:

$ systemctl restart httpd



This article covers how to get the geographical information of a Linux server via the command line. IP addresses provide an easy way to track the location of the server in the world by using two useful APIs provided by ipinfo.io and ipvigilante.com to get the city, state, and country connected with a server.

To get the IP address geographic location of the server, we need to install curl command line downloader and jq command-line tool to process the JSON data from the geolocation APIs:

$ sudo apt install curl jq		#Ubuntu/Debian
$ sudo yum install curl jq #CentOS/RHEL
$ sudo dnf install curl jq #Fedora 22+
$ sudo zypper install curl jq #openSUSE

To get the server's public IP address, use the following curl command to make an API request to ipinfo.io in your terminal:

$ curl https://ipinfo.io/ip



This article covers the best methods to organize your directories in your Linux Mint system. Keeping an organized file system brings merit not only to system administrators, but regular users can also benefit from it.

To rename a directory on Linux, use the "mv" command and specify the directory to be renamed as well as the destination for your directory. To rename this directory, you would use the "mv" command and specify the two directory names.



This article covers how to install and configure OpenLiteSpeed webserver. OpenLiteSpeed is an easy-to-use, open-source web server. It offers unbeatable features and performance to your sites along with top-notch security. Also, it understands all the apache rewrite rules and has intelligent cache acceleration features that let you implement the fastest caching on your server. Apart from all these, you get to install a customized PHP processor that is optimized for the OpenLiteSpeed server.


OpenLiteSpeed server's Frontend (default page) is located at:

http://<your-server-public-IP>:8088

It's backend (admin console) is located at:

https://<your-server-public-IP>:7080



This article covers how to install the "bashtop" utility on your Linux Mint 20 system. Bashtop is a command-line based resource monitor written in bash, which depicts usage and statistics for the CPU processor(s), RAM, hard disks, network sources, and other running processes. It also contains a customizable menu and a fully responsive terminal user interface. 

Now, you will be able to use this utility for monitoring the resource usage statistics on your system. 


To Run or start Bashtop application, run one of the following commands.

# bashtop
# bpytop



This article covers the installation procedure of Gitea on a Linux Mint 20 system. With Gitea, you can track time, issues, repository branching, file locking, merging, etc.



This article covers the process of installing Brackets on a Linux Mint 20 system. Once this code editor is installed on your system, you can conveniently use it for professional-level frontend development. 

Brackets is a modern open-source code editor for HTML, CSS and JavaScript that’s built-in HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It has two great features: quick edit and live preview. It was created for front end developers and designers and has a very attractive interface. Brackets is developed by Adobe and is focused on web designers and front-end developers.


To Install Brackets Code Editor on Ubuntu:

1. make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install Brackets Code Editor.

$ sudo snap install brackets --classic



This article covers method to permanently disable SELinux on CentOS 7. SELinux, also known as Security-Enhanced Linux, is a security feature embedded in the Linux kernel. SELinux leverages Mandatory Access controls (MAC) to confine users to certain rules and policies and prevents them from performing unauthorized tasks on the Linux system as specified by the IT administrator

To Check SELinux status, simply run the command:

# sestatus



This article covers how to install Minikube on your Ubuntu 20.04 machine. Minikube is an open source tool that allows you to set up a single-node Kubernetes cluster on your local machine. The cluster is run inside a virtual machine and includes Docker, allowing you to run containers inside the node. 

Now, you can use the single-node Kubernetes with minikube to learn one of the most famous containers orchestration tools in the Cloud Native era. 


To enable and access kubernetes dashboard , run the command:

$ minikube dashboard

This will open the Kubernetes dashboard in the web browser.


To stop the minikube, run:

$ minikube stop

To delete the minikube, run:

$ minikube delete

To Start the minikube, run:

$ minikube start



This article covers how to use the tcpdump command for troubleshooting and analyzing the network on your Linux system. tcpdump is the world's premier network analysis tool—combining both power and simplicity into a single command-line interface.

Basically, tcpdump is a valuable tool for anyone looking to get into networking or information security.

The raw way it interfaces with traffic, combined with the precision it offers in inspecting packets make it the best possible tool for learning TCP/IP.

Protocol Analyzers like Wireshark are great, but if you want to truly master packet-fu, you must become one with tcpdump first.



This article covers how to install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Gitea is a self-facilitated open-source git worker written in Go. It is a fork of Gogs . Gitea incorporates a store record supervisor, venture issue following, clients administrations, notices, implicit wiki, and considerably more. 

To Install Git on Linux, run the commands: 

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

To Confirm Git Installation, execute the command: 

$ git --version



This article covers the installation of a puppet server on both master and client nodes and how to connect them. Ensure that you sign the puppet agent node certificate for both the master and client-side.

Puppet is a free and open-source automated administrative engine for Linux, Unix, and Windows operating systems. It is used for deploying, configuring, and managing servers and performs administrative tasks such as adding users, installing packages, and many more. It helps system admins to free up time and mental space by automating tasks on thousands of physical and virtual machines. It uses a client-server model. Where Puppet master controls configuration information for Puppet agents while Puppet agents talk to and pull down configuration profiles from the Puppet master.



This article covers how to Install Monit monitoring server on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Monit is an open-source utility used to supervise the processes and restart the services which are configured for it and have failed. Monit supervises the processes and restarts them on failure detection. Apart from the processes, Monit can also be used to monitor CPU, RAM, Disk, File Size and trigger alerts on out-of-bound values. It also shows how to trigger alert emails using custom templates. 

Now you can easily monitor your system using this lightweight tool.


To Install Monit on Ubuntu, run the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install monit



This article covers the best method of listing and cleaning the apt cache on your Ubuntu system. Ubuntu users can clean Apt archive cache using sudo apt-get clean and sudo apt-get autoclean commands. The apt-get is a APT package handling utility or the command-line tool for handling packages. These commands clears out the local repository. The autoclean command only removes packages and files that are no longer in use. Ubuntu users can also do the same task from Synaptic package manager. Open Synaptic, go to Settings > Preferences > File tab. Select to delete packages that are no longer in use.

To clean Apt archive cache folder on Ubuntu, run:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get clean
$ sudo apt-get autoclean


  • clean – clean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. It removes everything but the lock file from /var/cache/apt/archives/ and /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/.
  • autoclean – Like clean, autoclean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. The difference is that it only removes package files that can no longer be downloaded, and are largely useless. This allows a cache to be maintained over a long period without it growing out of control. The configuration option APT::Clean-Installed will prevent installed packages from being erased if it is set to off.



This article covers how to install and configure VNC Server on Ubuntu 20.04. Virtual Network Computing, or VNC, is a connection system that allows you to use your keyboard and mouse to interact with a graphical desktop environment on a remote server. It makes managing files, software, and settings on a remote server easier for users who are not yet comfortable with the command line.

After connecting to your server with SSH, update your list of packages:

$ sudo apt update

Now install Xfce along with the xfce4-goodies package, which contains a few enhancements for the desktop environment:

$ sudo apt install xfce4 xfce4-goodies

Once that installation completes, install the TightVNC server:

$ sudo apt install tightvncserver



This article covers how to install Swift on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Swift is a programming language developed from C and objective-C which uses variables to store and refer to values. Constants are used throughout.



This article covers the process of Installing qBittorrent on Ubuntu 20.04. For more information, visit their official site https://www.qbittorrent.org.


Main feautures of qBittorrent:

  • An interface similar to uTorrent
  • DHT, peer exchange, and complete encryption are all supported by this BitTorrent client.
  • It has a well-integrated search engine.
  • It also has UPnP port forwarding and NAT-PMP capabilities.
  • You can also use the qBittorrent Web interface to control it remotely.
  • A search engine that is well-integrated and expandable.
  • IPv6 compliant.



This article covers how to Install JFrog Artifactory on Ubuntu. JFrog Artifactory is the world’s most advanced repository manager designed to integrate with the majority of continuous integration and delivery tools. With JFrog Artifactory, delivering an end to end automated solution with artifacts tracking from development to production becomes a reality.

Jfrog provides you with an interactive, responsive user interface. It has more features than other artifactory management tools. For more information please visit the official site of JFrog. https://jfrog.com/open-source



This article covers the different methods to install GIMP on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Also, we have also elaborated on how to launch and remove GIMP from the system. With GIMP, you can perform almost any image editing task, from the simplest task to the most complex image manipulation technique.  Gimp can be used for photo retouching, image composition, and image authoring.


How to remove GIMP on Debian / Ubuntu ?

To completely remove the GIMP package from your system, run the following command:

$ sudo apt purge gimp
$ sudo apt clean

Next, remove the ~/.gimp directory in your home directory to get rid of the profile settings.



This article covers how you can install and uninstall the Emacs editor via different ways. Emacs is a free, open source, extensible and customizable text editor. It is multiplatform and we will find it available for Gnu / Linux, Windows and Mac.



This article covers methods of hardening SSH servers that help to avoid different security risks. With the advancements in technology, many business processes we carry out today heavily relies on the internet, online tools and connected devices. That is why taking the necessary precautions to ensure the network security has utmost importance. If an organization fails to secure their network, they are open to cyber attacks which can result in data breaches, losing digital assets, losing business and even going out of business.


How to secure SSH ?

If you want to make sure that your SSH server is impenetrable and secure, you should follow the steps below:

  • Set a custom SSH port. By default, SSH is set to be listening on port 22. Unfortunately, almost all cyber attackers know that. That is why changing it to something random like Port 821 offers an additional layer of security by obscurity.
  • Employ TCP wrappers. TCP Wrappers offer a host-based ACL protection that will allow you to sort out and filter who is able to access the SSH server.
  • Disable root login. Another default setting of the SSH server is that it allows root login on Unix and Linux operating systems. Since this feature can easily be exploited by the cyber attackers, we advise you to disable it.
  • Disable empty passwords. Again, in Unix and Linux operating systems, SSH server allows the users to create empty passwords which practically mean keeping the door open for intruders. Make sure that no user opts for an empty password by disabling the option.
  • Block SSH brute force attacks. In order to do so, you can opt for manually going through the system logs, detect the intruders and block them by using the firewall. Another (and much easier) method is using tools like Fail2ban, SSHGuard and such.



This article covers the process of Mounting and unmounting a drive or an ISO image in Linux. After creating disk partitions and formatting them properly, you may want to mount or unmount your drives.

On Linux, mounting drives is done via mountpoints on the virtual filesystem, allowing system users to navigate the filesystem as well as create and delete files on them.


How to List Mounted File Systems and Linux Drives ?

To display all currently attached file systems we will type:

$ mount

By default, the output will include all of the file systems including the virtual ones such as cgroup, sysfs, and others. Each line contains information about the device name, the directory to which the device is mounted, the filesystem type and the mount options.


How to install NFS client on Ubuntu and Debian ?

NFS stands for Network File System. To mount an NFS share you'll need to have the NFS client package installed on your Linux system.

1. To install NFS client on Ubuntu and Debian, type:

$ sudo apt install nfs-common

2. To install NFS client on CentOS and Fedora:

$ sudo yum install nfs-utils



This article covers how to run your own shell script as a systemd service. Basically, Systemd is a software application that provides an array of system components for Linux operating systems. It is the first service to initialize the boot sequence. This always runs with pid 1. This also helps use to manage system and application service on our Linux operating system.


How to Enable New Service in Linux?

1. To reload the systemctl daemon to read new file, execute:

$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload 

2. To enable the service to start on system boot, also start the service using the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl enable shellscript.service 
$ sudo systemctl start shellscript.service 

3. To verify the script is up and running as a systemd service:

$ sudo systemctl status shellscript.service



This article covers the best clock applications that work most efficiently on the Linux platforms and their distributions and are absolutely free, open-source, and reliable.

Alarms are one of the most required utilities in these times. It would not be wrong to say that if there are no alarms, suddenly there will be a giant halt to productivity. Many information technology firms and software solutions developers have proposed high-functioning clock platforms that not only offer a sleek, simple, and easy clock utility but also offer amazing and most efficient alarm features along with a list of other vast features enhancing overall user experience. 



This article covers the process to install duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 and how to use it. Duplicity is an open-source tool that helps people create backups of their data. It basically just encrypts the user's data and stores it into a remote server. It's a very convenient and smart way to back up data, as it does not only store the data but also any changes made to it in the long run. This attribute makes Duplicity very space-efficient.


To Install Duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS,

1. Update the Package Repository:

$ sudo apt-get update -y

2. After updating the repository, consider running the following command to install duplicity:

$ sudo apt-get install -y duplicity

3. Verify the Installation:

$ apt-cache policy duplicity



This article covers How to Install kdevelop in Ubuntu Linux System. KDevelop is a robust IDE that includes useful extensions, and also several high-quality features. KDevelop is a great option of IDE for Linux distributions due because of its stability and security.

To Install kdevelop software package in Ubuntu, run the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install kdevelop



This article covers how to Run Jenkins Server in Docker Container with Systemd. Jenkins is an opensource automation server that is designed to help software developers build, test and deploy applications and thereby streamline the continuous integration and delivery process. 

To create a system group for Jenkins, run the command:

$ sudo groupadd --system jenkins

Then create Jenkins system user:

$ sudo useradd -s /sbin/nologin --system -g jenkins jenkins

And finally add Jenkins user to docker group as shown:

$ sudo usermod -aG docker jenkins

To confirm that Jenkins user is added to the docker group, run the id command as shown:

$ id jenkins



This article covers how to change the ssh port on Ubuntu Linux server. You can easily change the SSH Port for Your Linux server. For better security, consider using SSH passwordless authentication with SSH public/private key pair.

The ssh port defined in sshd_config file. This file located in /etc/ssh/sshd_config location.

To open the new port run the following commands on Fedora/CentOS/RHEL/Oracle Linux using FirewallD:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-port=2222/tcp
$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload


How to Restart the sshd service ?

Type the following command on a CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux:

$ sudo service sshd restart

OR if you are using CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux with systemd:

$ sudo systemctl restart sshd

OR if you are using Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux:

$ sudo service ssh restart

OR if you are using Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux with systemd:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh

Or if you are using FreeBSD Unix, enter:

$ sudo service sshd restart



This article covers method to Install bluefish editor on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Bluefish is a text editor. It is used to write code in various programming languages like: C, C++, JAVA, Python, HTML etc.

It is cross-platform, lightweight and easy to learn. It provides many features of IDE to support development and designing of applications.


To Install Bluefish on Ubuntu:

1. Add PPA (Personal Package Archive)

Use the following command to add PPA in our system:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:klaus-vormweg/bluefish  

2. Update Repository

Use this command to update our local repository:

$ apt-get update  

3. Install Bluefish

After updating, now, use this command to install bluefish:

$ sudo apt-get install bluefish

4. Run Bluefish

Now, we can run bluefish either by using terminal or from the application manager.

Execute this command to open bluefish editor:

$ bluefish  



This article covers different methods of installation of brave browser software on Ubuntu. 


Main features of Brave web browser:

  • Search – Choose default search engine – Google, Bing, Yahoo, DuckDuckGo e.t.c.
  • Fast Browsing – According to its creators, Brave loads pages three times as fast out of the box with nothing to install, learn or manage.
  • Easy to switch to Brave – It's easy to import your settings from your old browser. You can do it during the welcome tour or later through the menus.
  • Support your favorite sites with Brave Rewards – with Brave Rewards activated, you can support the content creators you love at the amount that works for you.
  • Privacy and Security – Brave fights malware and prevents tracking, keeping your information safe and secure. Clearing of browsing data and a built-in password manager.
  • Form autofill which saves you time when working with forms.
  • Extensions/Plugins – Brave Desktop now supports most of the Chrome extensions in the chrome web store.



This article covers the three different methodologies of installing Thunderbird in Ubuntu. Thunderbird is available for various distributions like macOS, Linux, Microsoft Windows etc. thereby making it a cross platform application.

To Install Thunderbird through apt:

1. First update Ubuntu repository,

$ sudo apt update

2. Now, to install Thunderbird issue the following in terminal,

$ sudo apt install thunderbird

3. Lastly, Thunderbird can accessed either through System's main Menu or from terminal (Run "thunderbird" in terminal to run the application).



This article covers how to install harbor on Ubuntu. The process is the same for all the other distribution of Linux. Harbor is a component of vSphere with Kubernetes. Harbor provides an enterprise-class registry service. 

Harbor is deployed in a dedicated system namespace on the Supervisor Cluster and is composed of several vSphere Pods. 

Image registries provide a centralized repository for an organization to store container images. 

Public image registries can be used to store container images. However, for security reasons, it is better to use an on-premises image registry. 

You use an on-premises image registry for the following purposes: 

Store container images securely. 

Control access to container images. 

vSphere with Kubernetes is integrated with Harbor and is also compatible with other container image registries. 


Harbor key features includes:

  • Security and vulnerability analysis.
  • Content signing and validation.
  • Extensible API and web UI.
  • Image replication.
  • Role-based access control.
  • Multitenant.


After Harbor installation has succeeded, access Harbor web console on https://registry_domain.

Then Login with:

  • Username: admin
  • Password: Set-in-harbor.yml



This article covers Ansible features which you can use to write playbooks for server automation. Basically, Handlers are just like normal tasks in an Ansible playbook but they run only when if the Task contains a "notify" directive. It also indicates that it changed something. handlers will perform an action when listens for a notify event. If nothing notifies a handler, it will not run. Regardless of how many tasks notify a handler, it will run only once, after all of the tasks completed in a particular play. 



This article covers Both wget and curl which are the free and open-source command-line utilities used for the non-interactive downloading of files. Remember, although both the utilities can download files from the web; they do differ a lot in terms of functionalities.

url can be used to transfer data over a number of protocols. It supports many protocols including HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, TFTP, TELNET, SCP, etc. using Curl, you can download any remote files. It supports pause and resumes functions as well.

To Install curl,

Launch command line application in Ubuntu that is Terminal by pressing the Ctrl+Alt+T key combinations. Then enter the below command to install curl with sudo:

$ sudo apt install curl



This article covers the different methods to check your battery health monthly to keep its charging cycle and usage optimized. For this purpose, you can use the "acpi" command.

The acpi command shows battery status and other ACPI information in your Linux distribution.

You might need to install acpi command in some Linux distributions.

On Arch Linux and its derivatives:

$ sudo pacman -S acpi

To install acpi on Debian, Ubuntu and its derivatives:

$ sudo apt-get install acpi

On RHEL, CentOS, Fedora:

$ sudo yum install acpi

Or,

$ sudo dnf install acpi

Once acpi installed, run the following command:

$ acpi -V



This article covers the different methods of Installing Django on Ubuntu 20.04. With it, you can easily perform creation of Django applications, superuser creation, and removal of Django. 

Django is a full-featured Python web framework for developing dynamic websites and applications. Using Django, you can quickly create Python web applications and rely on the framework to do a good deal of the heavy lifting.


How to install Django from Ubuntu repositories ?

1. First, update your local package index with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, check which version of Python you have installed. 18.04 ships with Python 3.6 by default, which you can verify by typing:

$ python3 -V



This article covers the different methods to install Emacs on Debian OS. Emacs is a widely used open-source text editor for Linux. It exists for many years now and can be used for basic word processing, code editing, and scripting, etc.


How to Install Emacs editor on Debian ?

1. To start the installation process, login with root and update the package repository with the following command.

$ apt-get update

2. Next, run the following command on the terminal and wait for the operation to complete. This can take several minutes. When you are asked for confirmation, press Y from your keyboard.

$ apt-get install emacs



This article covers how to install notepadqq on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. Notepad is a similar copy of the most popular editor notepad++. Basically, Notepadqq is a text editor that is designed by developers for the developers. It supports more than 100 languages and useful to note down daily tasks.


How to Install Notepadqq on Debian / Ubuntu?

1. Add Repository

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:notepadqq-team/notepadqq  

2. Update Repository

$ sudo apt-get update  

3. Install Notepadqq

$ sudo apt-get install notepadqq  

4. After installation, we can access it either via terminal by typing notepadqq or by searching from the application manager. Run Notepadqq:

$ notepadqq 



This article covers the best photo editors for Linux users. If you are using a Linux operation system and looking for an efficient Linux photo editor that is not better than Lightroom or Photoshop, you may face some problems. With these software, you can perform basic and professional adjustments, retouch and organize your images, make color and lighting correction, manipulate size, converse or share the files.


Top Best Linux Photo Editors



This article covers how to install elasticsearch in the stable version of Ubuntu 20.04. Now you can use the hosted elasticsearch server for doing searches.

If your application generates a huge amount of data and the search procedures are slow, then using elasticsearch will be best.



This article covers the installation of Kazam on the Ubuntu system using the Sylvain Pineau PPA. Also, we also covered how to uninstall Kazam if for any reason you need to do that. Kazam is a simple screen recording program that captures the screencasts, screenshots, and records video files. Kazam records desktop video and multiple audio streams simultaneously with control over audio levels and the screen region being captured. 


Kazam keyboard shortcuts in Ubuntu:

  • Super+Ctrl+R: Start recording.
  • Super+Ctrl+P: Pause recording, press again for resuming the recording (The most important shortcut).
  • Super+Ctrl+F: Finish recording.
  • Super+Ctrl+Q: Quit recording.



This article covers how to Install putty on CentOS 8. With putty, you can easily connect your Linux system to a remote system. Putty is a free and open source ssh & telnet client. Putty is available for Windows, Linux, Unix and macOS. Using putty, we can access the remote servers and switches over ssh protocol. It can also be used to take serial console of remote systems.


How to perform Putty Installation on CentOS / RHEL / Fedora ?

Putty package is available in the default CentOS and RHEL repositories. So, to install putty run:

$ sudo yum install putty -y

Or

$ sudo dnfs install putty -y



This article covers methods to install Nmap on your CentOS machine. Nmap is a handy utility for network scanning and security auditing. Nmap contains variety of options for scanning remote hosts. Have a look at the 15 Mostly Used Nmap Commands for Scanning Remote Hosts.



How to Install Nmap on Debian / Ubuntu ?

1. Install Nmap on Ubuntu by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install nmap

2. The system prompts you to confirm the installation by typing y.

3. After the installation is finished, verify the installed version of Nmap by entering:

$ nmap –version



This article covers how to install Go on CentOS 8. Go language was designed to resolve the common criticisms of other languages while maintaining their positive characteristics and most widely used for writing servers these days.


Run the below command to see the version of the Go language:

$ go version



This article covers how to install GitLab on your local devices or server. Also, you will learn how to integrate the GitLab CE into our local Ubuntu system. GitLab CE, or Community Edition, is an open-source application primarily used to host Git repositories, with additional development-related features like issue tracking. It is designed to be hosted using your own infrastructure, and provides flexibility in deploying as an internal repository store for your development team, a public way to interface with users, or a means for contributors to host their own projects.



This article covers how to install the AnyDesk application on CentOS 8 system using the command-line approach. Once you've installed AnyDesk on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8, you’ll be able to access your Linux system from Windows, Mac, and other Linux based systems. You'll enjoy its simple and user-friendly set up and administration tools which enables you to easily manage remote system.



This article covers the installation of Apache NetBeans on the CentOS system. Here, you will learn the entire procedure for the installation of NetBeans that includes downloading, installation, and launching of NetBeans. At the end, you also learned to uninstall Apache NetBeans if you ever have to do that.

Apache NetBeans is a very powerful Integrated Development Environment (IDE) tool that enables you as a Developer create Desktop, Web and Mobile Applications from its modular framework. It supports Java, PHP, HTML, JavaScript, C, C++, Ajax, JSP, Ruby on Rails and other programming languages using extensions.