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This article covers how to install and configure the latest Tor browser version on LinuxMint 20 system. In fact, now using the tor browser, you can browse privately and securely and visit all websites blocked by your ISP providers.


How to install Tor on Ubuntu 21.04 ?

1. We access the terminal in Ubuntu 21.04 and install Tor with the following command:

$ sudo apt install tor 

2. Install the browser itself with the following command:

$ sudo apt install torbrowser-launcher 


How to Remove Tor browser from Debian / Ubuntu / Linux Mint ?

If you are not happy with the Tor browser (installed via APT), you can remove it using the command below:

$ sudo apt purge torbrowser-launcher

If you installed it using Flatpak via software center, you can easily uninstall it from there. If you installed it from terminal, type in the following command:

$ flatpak uninstall com.github.micahflee.torbrowser-launcher



This article covers an easy procedure to install rkhunter, configure, scan the system and view log to identify actual backdoor, rootkits, and local exploits. In fact, Rkhunter (Rootkit Hunter) is an open-source Unix/Linux based scanner tool for Linux systems released under GPL that scans backdoors, rootkits, and local exploits on your systems. It scans hidden files, wrong permissions set on binaries, suspicious strings in the kernel, and so on. 

To scan the entire Linux  file system, run the Rkhunter command as a root user:

$ rkhunter --check



This article covers how to install PHP 8.0 on Debian 10. To verify the installed version of PHP, use the php command below:

$ php -v


How to install PHP 7.x extensions ?

The following syntax is used to install PHP 7.x extensions:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.x-extension

or

$ sudo apt-get install php-extension


To install the most commonly used PHP 7.x extensions by running the command in the terminal:

for PHP 7.4,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.4-mysql php7.4-mbstring php7.4-xml php7.4-bcmath php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-zip

for PHP 7.3,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.3-mysql php7.3-mbstring php7.3-xml php7.3-bcmath php7.3-curl php7.3-gd php7.3-zip

for PHP 7.2,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql php7.2-mbstring php7.2-xml php7.2-bcmath php7.2-curl php7.2-gd php7.2-zip

for PHP 7.1,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.1-mysql php7.1-mbstring php7.1-xml php7.1-bcmath php7.1-curl php7.1-gd php7.1-zip

for PHP 7.0,

$ sudo apt-get install php7.0-mysql php7.0-mbstring php7.0-xml php7.0-bcmath php7.0-curl php7.0-gd php7.0-zip



This article covers the practical use cases of the Linux IP command. IP stands for Internet Protocol. IP command is used to show or manipulate routing, devices, and tunnels. It is similar to ifconfig command but it is much more powerful with more functions and facilities attached to it. It can perform several other tasks like configuring and modifying the default and static routing, setting up tunnel over IP, listing IP addresses and property information, modifying the status of the interface, assigning, deleting and setting up IP addresses and routes.


Linux system commands:

  • arp — Manipulate the system ARP cache.
  • ifconfig — View or modify the configuration of network interfaces.
  • netstat — Print information about network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships.
  • route — Display and manipulate the IP routing table.
  • tcpdump — Capture raw network traffic.



This article covers how to install and use Logwatch on Ubuntu Linux System. Logwatch is a system log analyzer and send that report to email. It generates a summarized log report which contains sshd - authentication failures, sudo - sessions opened, vsftp failures, postfix, failed logins, disk space and more. To find more information, visit the Logwatch man page.

Logwatch can be installed simply from the Ubuntu repository. First update the system.

$ sudo apt-get update

To install Logwatch, execute the command:

$ apt-get install logwatch



This article covers how to install ROS Noetic on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. ROS (Robot Operating System) is an open-source project that provides a framework and tools for robotics applications. It helps to design complex software without knowing how certain hardware works.



This article covers how you can either use the direct download or the snap method to install Eclipse IDE on your Ubuntu system. Eclipse is a really powerful IDE that supports many programming languages. It provides numerous plugins and extensions for enhancing the functionality of your Eclipse such as source code version control (git, svn), class diagram generator, GUI builder.


How to install JRE (Java Runtime Environment) on your Ubuntu machine ?

In order to install JRE (Java Runtime Environment) on your Ubuntu machine, run the commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install openjdk-14-jre

To verify that Java was successfully installed, let's run:

$ java --version



This article covers the Installation process of Bluefish editor on Linux Mint. You can now use it for web development in a variety of different programming languages. 



This article covers how to easily install TeamViewer on AlmaLinux 8. With TeamViewer you can control computer systems running Linux, Windows and Mac OS remotely as if you were sitting right in front of that system. It also provides a spontaneous support to unattended computers such as servers.



This article covers to install and configuren Graylog in ubuntu. With this, you can work with the log using the Graylog server. Graylog is an open-source tool that offers an integrated platform for collecting, indexing, and analyzing log data. The system essentially consists of the Graylog web interface, the Graylog servers, the Elasticsearch nodes, and a Mongo database.


How to Access Graylog Web interface ?

Open a browser on your local system or remote that can access the Ubuntu 20.04 server Ip-address. And type the http://your-server-ipaddress:9000

Replace your-server-ip-address with the actual IP address of your Server where Graylog has been installed.



This article covers how to install Siege benchmarking tool on Ubuntu Linux System using two methods: using the APT and the tar.gz package. Siege allows you to test a web server with n number of users t number of times. Siege offers three modes of operation: Regression, internet simulation, and brute force.

Once the Siege is installed, you can verify the installed version of Siege using the following command:

$ siege --version



This article covers how to install and use Adobe acrobat reader to view PDF files on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.



This article covers method to set up OpenVPN on Ubuntu 20.04. OpenVPN is a full featured, open-source Transport Layer Security (TLS) VPN solution that accommodates a wide range of configurations. OpenVPN is an open-source, fast, popular program for creating a VPN (Virtual Private Network). It uses both the TCP and UDP transmission protocols, and VPN tunnels are secured with OpenVPN protocol with SSL/TLS authentication, certificates, credentials, and optionally MAC address lock as well as multi-factor authentication.

Here, you will set up OpenVPN on an Ubuntu 20.04 server, and then configure it to be accessible from a client machine.

To confirm that the OpenVPN service is up and running by checking its status using the following systemctl command:

$ sudo systemctl status openvpn



This article covers how to update firmware on Ubuntu using fwupd. Fwupd aims to make firmware update on Linux systems automatic, safe, and reliable. It is mainly used to update UEFI firmware. There are many companies that already support native firmware updates such as Dell, Lenovo, HP, Intel, and System76. 


To Install fwupd on Ubuntu, run the following command:

$ sudo apt install fwupd

To download and apply all updates for your system use the update option:

$ fwupdmgr update



This article covers the Installation process of NodeJS on Rocky Linux. Nodejs is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine and is designed to build scalable network applications.



This article covers how you can enjoy your TV shows and Movies using Netflix on Ubuntu 20.04. You can simply install Google Chrome and start watching Netflix without any additional tools and requirements.



This article covers how you can install Dropbox on the CentOS system and sync your local files and folders with Dropbox cloud storage. Dropbox is a useful file-sharing and syncing service that lets you sync files between different machines over the Internet for free. It's very useful for backing up your important documents, pictures, MP3 files, video files, and other data.



This article covers how to install Grafana on Ubuntu OS using two methods: using the APT repository and the .deb package. Grafana is multi-platform open-source analytics and interactive visualization web application that integrates with complex data from sources like Prometheus, InfluxDB, Graphite, and ElasticSearch. It provides charts, graphs, and alerts for the web when connected to supported data sources. It is expandable through a plug-in system.


Features of Grafana:

  • Data Visualization: Allows for fast and flexible visualization with many options and settings.
  • Dynamic Dashboards: Provides the ability to create dynamic and reusable panels with templated variables.
  • Metrics Exploration: Explore your data with ad-hoc queries and dynamic drill-down by splitting the view and comparing different time ranges and sources.
  • Data Logs: Provides tremendous opportunities to use data metrics in a log with labels and filters saved, which can be studied, viewed, and broadcasted.
  • Extensive Alert Capabilities: Visually define alert rules for your most important metrics. Grafana will continuously evaluate and send notifications to systems such as Slack, PagerDuty, VictorOps, and OpsGenie.
  • Mixed Data Sources: Mix different data sources on the same graph and for each query.



This article covers different use cases of using the usermod command. The usermod command in Linux is used to manage user properties at command line. The syntax of the usermod command is following:

$ usermod [option] [argument] username



This article covers the best PDF Viewers you can install on your Ubuntu / Debian Linux system. 

PDF viewer list on Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa Linux:

  • Evince PDF Viewer.
  • Okular PDF Viewer.
  • Atril PDF Viewer.
  • Adobe Reader PDF Viewer.
  • Zathura PDF viewer.
  • GNU gv PDF Viewer.


Okular is a default PDF viewer on Ubuntu 20.04 KDE Plasma Desktop. To install Okular PDF Viewer, simply run the command:

$ sudo apt install okular



This article covers different methods to Rename Files and Directories Using Linux Terminal. We can rename files and directories with rename and mv commands in the Linux Terminal. The mv command can only rename one file at a time, but the rename command can rename multiple files simultaneously.


How to Rename Files and Directories Using the mv Command ?

The mv command can rename files and directories. It is also used to move files and directories from one location to another.

Syntax of mv Command:

$ mv [OPTIONS] source destination

The source can be one or more files or directories, and the destination is always a single file or directory.



This article covers how to view / preserve or delete terminal history on Ubuntu Linux System. Terminal history can be a benefit in case you want to revisit/recall the past commands. But it can be a security risk because they can show system tools, configurations, and settings. 

The history mechanism in Ubuntu keeps track of terminal commands you executed.

To view your command line history, Open the Ubuntu terminal and Type :

$ history

This will display the list of previous bash commands you executed in the terminal.


To delete your Ubuntu terminal history, Type:

$ history -c

This will clear your Ubuntu terminal history. Also, you need to know that command line history is user independent, means every user has their own separate history. When you execute history -c command, it will only clear terminal history of the current user.



This article covers different methods to modify Ubuntu Desktop Background as well as updating your background by using the command prompt. When you first install and run Ubuntu Linux the first thing you see when you log in is the default desktop. It has the Ubuntu brown color scheme and panels at the top and bottom of the screen. There are two predominant desktop environments available with Linux - the GNOME desktop and the KDE desktop. Which is the best desktop is matter of preference and heated disagreement in the Linux community. Both are excellent, feature rich desktops.


How to Change the desktop background in Ubuntu ?

To change the image used for your backgrounds:

1. Open the Activities overview and start typing Background.

2. Click Background to open the panel. The currently selected wallpaper is shown at the top.

3. There are two ways to change the image used for your backgrounds:

i. Click one of the background images which are shipped with the system.

Some wallpapers change throughout the day. These wallpapers have a small clock icon in the bottom-right corner.

ii. Click Add Picture… to use one of your own photos. By default, the Pictures folder will be opened, since most photo management applications store photos there.

4. The settings are applied immediately.

For another way to set one of your own photos as the background, right-click on the image file in Files and select Set as Wallpaper, or open the image file in Image Viewer, click the menu button in the titlebar and select Set as Wallpaper.

5. Switch to an empty workspace to view your entire desktop.



This article covers how to install LAMP stack on Rocky Linux 8.4. You can now proceed to test or host your website and applications. A LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


How to Install  and configure Apache Web Server ?

1. First, we will start by installing the Apache web server. To complete the installation, use the following command:

$ yum install httpd httpd-tools

2. Once the installation is complete, enable Apache (to start automatically upon system boot), start the web server and verify the status using the commands below:

$ systemctl enable httpd
$ systemctl start httpd
$ systemctl status httpd

3. To make your pages available to public, you will have to edit your firewall rules to allow HTTP and HTTPS requests on your web server by using the following commands:

$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http 
$ firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https 
$ firewall-cmd --reload
4. Verify that the web server is running and accessible by accessing your server’s IP address:
$ echo "Hello there, Apache webserver is now running" > /var/www/html/index.html

5. And restart tht Web Server to reflect the changes made:

$ systemctl restart httpd

From your browser,

http://IP_address


How to Install PHP on CentOS ?

1. To install PHP on your RHEL 8 use the command below:

$ yum install -y php-mysqlnd php-dom php-simplexml php-xml php-xmlreader php-curl php-exif php-ftp php-gd php-iconv  php-json php-mbstring php-posix php-sockets php-tokenizer

2. Now restart your web server so that Apache knows that it will be serving PHP requests as well:

$ systemctl restart httpd



This article covers how to get the geographical information of a Linux server via the command line. IP addresses provide an easy way to track the location of the server in the world by using two useful APIs provided by ipinfo.io and ipvigilante.com to get the city, state, and country connected with a server.

To get the IP address geographic location of the server, we need to install curl command line downloader and jq command-line tool to process the JSON data from the geolocation APIs:

$ sudo apt install curl jq		#Ubuntu/Debian
$ sudo yum install curl jq #CentOS/RHEL
$ sudo dnf install curl jq #Fedora 22+
$ sudo zypper install curl jq #openSUSE

To get the server's public IP address, use the following curl command to make an API request to ipinfo.io in your terminal:

$ curl https://ipinfo.io/ip



This article covers the best methods to organize your directories in your Linux Mint system. Keeping an organized file system brings merit not only to system administrators, but regular users can also benefit from it.

To rename a directory on Linux, use the "mv" command and specify the directory to be renamed as well as the destination for your directory. To rename this directory, you would use the "mv" command and specify the two directory names.



This article covers how to install and configure OpenLiteSpeed webserver. OpenLiteSpeed is an easy-to-use, open-source web server. It offers unbeatable features and performance to your sites along with top-notch security. Also, it understands all the apache rewrite rules and has intelligent cache acceleration features that let you implement the fastest caching on your server. Apart from all these, you get to install a customized PHP processor that is optimized for the OpenLiteSpeed server.


OpenLiteSpeed server's Frontend (default page) is located at:

http://<your-server-public-IP>:8088

It's backend (admin console) is located at:

https://<your-server-public-IP>:7080



This article covers how to install the "bashtop" utility on your Linux Mint 20 system. Bashtop is a command-line based resource monitor written in bash, which depicts usage and statistics for the CPU processor(s), RAM, hard disks, network sources, and other running processes. It also contains a customizable menu and a fully responsive terminal user interface. 

Now, you will be able to use this utility for monitoring the resource usage statistics on your system. 


To Run or start Bashtop application, run one of the following commands.

# bashtop
# bpytop



This article covers the installation procedure of Gitea on a Linux Mint 20 system. With Gitea, you can track time, issues, repository branching, file locking, merging, etc.



This article covers the process of installing Brackets on a Linux Mint 20 system. Once this code editor is installed on your system, you can conveniently use it for professional-level frontend development. 

Brackets is a modern open-source code editor for HTML, CSS and JavaScript that’s built-in HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It has two great features: quick edit and live preview. It was created for front end developers and designers and has a very attractive interface. Brackets is developed by Adobe and is focused on web designers and front-end developers.


To Install Brackets Code Editor on Ubuntu:

1. make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install Brackets Code Editor.

$ sudo snap install brackets --classic



This article covers method to permanently disable SELinux on CentOS 7. SELinux, also known as Security-Enhanced Linux, is a security feature embedded in the Linux kernel. SELinux leverages Mandatory Access controls (MAC) to confine users to certain rules and policies and prevents them from performing unauthorized tasks on the Linux system as specified by the IT administrator

To Check SELinux status, simply run the command:

# sestatus



This article covers how to install Minikube on your Ubuntu 20.04 machine. Minikube is an open source tool that allows you to set up a single-node Kubernetes cluster on your local machine. The cluster is run inside a virtual machine and includes Docker, allowing you to run containers inside the node. 

Now, you can use the single-node Kubernetes with minikube to learn one of the most famous containers orchestration tools in the Cloud Native era. 


To enable and access kubernetes dashboard , run the command:

$ minikube dashboard

This will open the Kubernetes dashboard in the web browser.


To stop the minikube, run:

$ minikube stop

To delete the minikube, run:

$ minikube delete

To Start the minikube, run:

$ minikube start



This article covers how to use the tcpdump command for troubleshooting and analyzing the network on your Linux system. tcpdump is the world's premier network analysis tool—combining both power and simplicity into a single command-line interface.

Basically, tcpdump is a valuable tool for anyone looking to get into networking or information security.

The raw way it interfaces with traffic, combined with the precision it offers in inspecting packets make it the best possible tool for learning TCP/IP.

Protocol Analyzers like Wireshark are great, but if you want to truly master packet-fu, you must become one with tcpdump first.



This article covers how to install Gitea on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Gitea is a self-facilitated open-source git worker written in Go. It is a fork of Gogs . Gitea incorporates a store record supervisor, venture issue following, clients administrations, notices, implicit wiki, and considerably more. 

To Install Git on Linux, run the commands: 

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

To Confirm Git Installation, execute the command: 

$ git --version



This article covers the installation of a puppet server on both master and client nodes and how to connect them. Ensure that you sign the puppet agent node certificate for both the master and client-side.

Puppet is a free and open-source automated administrative engine for Linux, Unix, and Windows operating systems. It is used for deploying, configuring, and managing servers and performs administrative tasks such as adding users, installing packages, and many more. It helps system admins to free up time and mental space by automating tasks on thousands of physical and virtual machines. It uses a client-server model. Where Puppet master controls configuration information for Puppet agents while Puppet agents talk to and pull down configuration profiles from the Puppet master.



This article covers how to Install Monit monitoring server on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Monit is an open-source utility used to supervise the processes and restart the services which are configured for it and have failed. Monit supervises the processes and restarts them on failure detection. Apart from the processes, Monit can also be used to monitor CPU, RAM, Disk, File Size and trigger alerts on out-of-bound values. It also shows how to trigger alert emails using custom templates. 

Now you can easily monitor your system using this lightweight tool.


To Install Monit on Ubuntu, run the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install monit



This article covers the best method of listing and cleaning the apt cache on your Ubuntu system. Ubuntu users can clean Apt archive cache using sudo apt-get clean and sudo apt-get autoclean commands. The apt-get is a APT package handling utility or the command-line tool for handling packages. These commands clears out the local repository. The autoclean command only removes packages and files that are no longer in use. Ubuntu users can also do the same task from Synaptic package manager. Open Synaptic, go to Settings > Preferences > File tab. Select to delete packages that are no longer in use.

To clean Apt archive cache folder on Ubuntu, run:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get clean
$ sudo apt-get autoclean


  • clean – clean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. It removes everything but the lock file from /var/cache/apt/archives/ and /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/.
  • autoclean – Like clean, autoclean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. The difference is that it only removes package files that can no longer be downloaded, and are largely useless. This allows a cache to be maintained over a long period without it growing out of control. The configuration option APT::Clean-Installed will prevent installed packages from being erased if it is set to off.



This article covers how to install and configure VNC Server on Ubuntu 20.04. Virtual Network Computing, or VNC, is a connection system that allows you to use your keyboard and mouse to interact with a graphical desktop environment on a remote server. It makes managing files, software, and settings on a remote server easier for users who are not yet comfortable with the command line.

After connecting to your server with SSH, update your list of packages:

$ sudo apt update

Now install Xfce along with the xfce4-goodies package, which contains a few enhancements for the desktop environment:

$ sudo apt install xfce4 xfce4-goodies

Once that installation completes, install the TightVNC server:

$ sudo apt install tightvncserver



This article covers how to install Swift on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Swift is a programming language developed from C and objective-C which uses variables to store and refer to values. Constants are used throughout.



This article covers the process of Installing qBittorrent on Ubuntu 20.04. For more information, visit their official site https://www.qbittorrent.org.


Main feautures of qBittorrent:

  • An interface similar to uTorrent
  • DHT, peer exchange, and complete encryption are all supported by this BitTorrent client.
  • It has a well-integrated search engine.
  • It also has UPnP port forwarding and NAT-PMP capabilities.
  • You can also use the qBittorrent Web interface to control it remotely.
  • A search engine that is well-integrated and expandable.
  • IPv6 compliant.



This article covers how to Install JFrog Artifactory on Ubuntu. JFrog Artifactory is the world’s most advanced repository manager designed to integrate with the majority of continuous integration and delivery tools. With JFrog Artifactory, delivering an end to end automated solution with artifacts tracking from development to production becomes a reality.

Jfrog provides you with an interactive, responsive user interface. It has more features than other artifactory management tools. For more information please visit the official site of JFrog. https://jfrog.com/open-source



This article covers the different methods to install GIMP on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Also, we have also elaborated on how to launch and remove GIMP from the system. With GIMP, you can perform almost any image editing task, from the simplest task to the most complex image manipulation technique.  Gimp can be used for photo retouching, image composition, and image authoring.


How to remove GIMP on Debian / Ubuntu ?

To completely remove the GIMP package from your system, run the following command:

$ sudo apt purge gimp
$ sudo apt clean

Next, remove the ~/.gimp directory in your home directory to get rid of the profile settings.



This article covers how you can install and uninstall the Emacs editor via different ways. Emacs is a free, open source, extensible and customizable text editor. It is multiplatform and we will find it available for Gnu / Linux, Windows and Mac.



This article covers methods of hardening SSH servers that help to avoid different security risks. With the advancements in technology, many business processes we carry out today heavily relies on the internet, online tools and connected devices. That is why taking the necessary precautions to ensure the network security has utmost importance. If an organization fails to secure their network, they are open to cyber attacks which can result in data breaches, losing digital assets, losing business and even going out of business.


How to secure SSH ?

If you want to make sure that your SSH server is impenetrable and secure, you should follow the steps below:

  • Set a custom SSH port. By default, SSH is set to be listening on port 22. Unfortunately, almost all cyber attackers know that. That is why changing it to something random like Port 821 offers an additional layer of security by obscurity.
  • Employ TCP wrappers. TCP Wrappers offer a host-based ACL protection that will allow you to sort out and filter who is able to access the SSH server.
  • Disable root login. Another default setting of the SSH server is that it allows root login on Unix and Linux operating systems. Since this feature can easily be exploited by the cyber attackers, we advise you to disable it.
  • Disable empty passwords. Again, in Unix and Linux operating systems, SSH server allows the users to create empty passwords which practically mean keeping the door open for intruders. Make sure that no user opts for an empty password by disabling the option.
  • Block SSH brute force attacks. In order to do so, you can opt for manually going through the system logs, detect the intruders and block them by using the firewall. Another (and much easier) method is using tools like Fail2ban, SSHGuard and such.



This article covers the process of Mounting and unmounting a drive or an ISO image in Linux. After creating disk partitions and formatting them properly, you may want to mount or unmount your drives.

On Linux, mounting drives is done via mountpoints on the virtual filesystem, allowing system users to navigate the filesystem as well as create and delete files on them.


How to List Mounted File Systems and Linux Drives ?

To display all currently attached file systems we will type:

$ mount

By default, the output will include all of the file systems including the virtual ones such as cgroup, sysfs, and others. Each line contains information about the device name, the directory to which the device is mounted, the filesystem type and the mount options.


How to install NFS client on Ubuntu and Debian ?

NFS stands for Network File System. To mount an NFS share you'll need to have the NFS client package installed on your Linux system.

1. To install NFS client on Ubuntu and Debian, type:

$ sudo apt install nfs-common

2. To install NFS client on CentOS and Fedora:

$ sudo yum install nfs-utils



This article covers how to run your own shell script as a systemd service. Basically, Systemd is a software application that provides an array of system components for Linux operating systems. It is the first service to initialize the boot sequence. This always runs with pid 1. This also helps use to manage system and application service on our Linux operating system.


How to Enable New Service in Linux?

1. To reload the systemctl daemon to read new file, execute:

$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload 

2. To enable the service to start on system boot, also start the service using the following commands:

$ sudo systemctl enable shellscript.service 
$ sudo systemctl start shellscript.service 

3. To verify the script is up and running as a systemd service:

$ sudo systemctl status shellscript.service



This article covers the best clock applications that work most efficiently on the Linux platforms and their distributions and are absolutely free, open-source, and reliable.

Alarms are one of the most required utilities in these times. It would not be wrong to say that if there are no alarms, suddenly there will be a giant halt to productivity. Many information technology firms and software solutions developers have proposed high-functioning clock platforms that not only offer a sleek, simple, and easy clock utility but also offer amazing and most efficient alarm features along with a list of other vast features enhancing overall user experience. 



This article covers the process to install duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 and how to use it. Duplicity is an open-source tool that helps people create backups of their data. It basically just encrypts the user's data and stores it into a remote server. It's a very convenient and smart way to back up data, as it does not only store the data but also any changes made to it in the long run. This attribute makes Duplicity very space-efficient.


To Install Duplicity on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS,

1. Update the Package Repository:

$ sudo apt-get update -y

2. After updating the repository, consider running the following command to install duplicity:

$ sudo apt-get install -y duplicity

3. Verify the Installation:

$ apt-cache policy duplicity



This article covers How to Install kdevelop in Ubuntu Linux System. KDevelop is a robust IDE that includes useful extensions, and also several high-quality features. KDevelop is a great option of IDE for Linux distributions due because of its stability and security.

To Install kdevelop software package in Ubuntu, run the following command:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install kdevelop



This article covers how to Run Jenkins Server in Docker Container with Systemd. Jenkins is an opensource automation server that is designed to help software developers build, test and deploy applications and thereby streamline the continuous integration and delivery process. 

To create a system group for Jenkins, run the command:

$ sudo groupadd --system jenkins

Then create Jenkins system user:

$ sudo useradd -s /sbin/nologin --system -g jenkins jenkins

And finally add Jenkins user to docker group as shown:

$ sudo usermod -aG docker jenkins

To confirm that Jenkins user is added to the docker group, run the id command as shown:

$ id jenkins



This article covers how to change the ssh port on Ubuntu Linux server. You can easily change the SSH Port for Your Linux server. For better security, consider using SSH passwordless authentication with SSH public/private key pair.

The ssh port defined in sshd_config file. This file located in /etc/ssh/sshd_config location.

To open the new port run the following commands on Fedora/CentOS/RHEL/Oracle Linux using FirewallD:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-port=2222/tcp
$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload


How to Restart the sshd service ?

Type the following command on a CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux:

$ sudo service sshd restart

OR if you are using CentOS/RHEL/Fedora Linux with systemd:

$ sudo systemctl restart sshd

OR if you are using Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux:

$ sudo service ssh restart

OR if you are using Ubuntu/Debian/Mint Linux with systemd:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh

Or if you are using FreeBSD Unix, enter:

$ sudo service sshd restart



This article covers method to Install bluefish editor on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Bluefish is a text editor. It is used to write code in various programming languages like: C, C++, JAVA, Python, HTML etc.

It is cross-platform, lightweight and easy to learn. It provides many features of IDE to support development and designing of applications.


To Install Bluefish on Ubuntu:

1. Add PPA (Personal Package Archive)

Use the following command to add PPA in our system:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:klaus-vormweg/bluefish  

2. Update Repository

Use this command to update our local repository:

$ apt-get update  

3. Install Bluefish

After updating, now, use this command to install bluefish:

$ sudo apt-get install bluefish

4. Run Bluefish

Now, we can run bluefish either by using terminal or from the application manager.

Execute this command to open bluefish editor:

$ bluefish  



This article covers different methods of installation of brave browser software on Ubuntu. 


Main features of Brave web browser:

  • Search – Choose default search engine – Google, Bing, Yahoo, DuckDuckGo e.t.c.
  • Fast Browsing – According to its creators, Brave loads pages three times as fast out of the box with nothing to install, learn or manage.
  • Easy to switch to Brave – It's easy to import your settings from your old browser. You can do it during the welcome tour or later through the menus.
  • Support your favorite sites with Brave Rewards – with Brave Rewards activated, you can support the content creators you love at the amount that works for you.
  • Privacy and Security – Brave fights malware and prevents tracking, keeping your information safe and secure. Clearing of browsing data and a built-in password manager.
  • Form autofill which saves you time when working with forms.
  • Extensions/Plugins – Brave Desktop now supports most of the Chrome extensions in the chrome web store.



This article covers the three different methodologies of installing Thunderbird in Ubuntu. Thunderbird is available for various distributions like macOS, Linux, Microsoft Windows etc. thereby making it a cross platform application.

To Install Thunderbird through apt:

1. First update Ubuntu repository,

$ sudo apt update

2. Now, to install Thunderbird issue the following in terminal,

$ sudo apt install thunderbird

3. Lastly, Thunderbird can accessed either through System's main Menu or from terminal (Run "thunderbird" in terminal to run the application).



This article covers how to install harbor on Ubuntu. The process is the same for all the other distribution of Linux. Harbor is a component of vSphere with Kubernetes. Harbor provides an enterprise-class registry service. 

Harbor is deployed in a dedicated system namespace on the Supervisor Cluster and is composed of several vSphere Pods. 

Image registries provide a centralized repository for an organization to store container images. 

Public image registries can be used to store container images. However, for security reasons, it is better to use an on-premises image registry. 

You use an on-premises image registry for the following purposes: 

Store container images securely. 

Control access to container images. 

vSphere with Kubernetes is integrated with Harbor and is also compatible with other container image registries. 


Harbor key features includes:

  • Security and vulnerability analysis.
  • Content signing and validation.
  • Extensible API and web UI.
  • Image replication.
  • Role-based access control.
  • Multitenant.


After Harbor installation has succeeded, access Harbor web console on https://registry_domain.

Then Login with:

  • Username: admin
  • Password: Set-in-harbor.yml



This article covers Ansible features which you can use to write playbooks for server automation. Basically, Handlers are just like normal tasks in an Ansible playbook but they run only when if the Task contains a "notify" directive. It also indicates that it changed something. handlers will perform an action when listens for a notify event. If nothing notifies a handler, it will not run. Regardless of how many tasks notify a handler, it will run only once, after all of the tasks completed in a particular play. 



This article covers Both wget and curl which are the free and open-source command-line utilities used for the non-interactive downloading of files. Remember, although both the utilities can download files from the web; they do differ a lot in terms of functionalities.

url can be used to transfer data over a number of protocols. It supports many protocols including HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, TFTP, TELNET, SCP, etc. using Curl, you can download any remote files. It supports pause and resumes functions as well.

To Install curl,

Launch command line application in Ubuntu that is Terminal by pressing the Ctrl+Alt+T key combinations. Then enter the below command to install curl with sudo:

$ sudo apt install curl



This article covers the different methods to check your battery health monthly to keep its charging cycle and usage optimized. For this purpose, you can use the "acpi" command.

The acpi command shows battery status and other ACPI information in your Linux distribution.

You might need to install acpi command in some Linux distributions.

On Arch Linux and its derivatives:

$ sudo pacman -S acpi

To install acpi on Debian, Ubuntu and its derivatives:

$ sudo apt-get install acpi

On RHEL, CentOS, Fedora:

$ sudo yum install acpi

Or,

$ sudo dnf install acpi

Once acpi installed, run the following command:

$ acpi -V



This article covers the different methods of Installing Django on Ubuntu 20.04. With it, you can easily perform creation of Django applications, superuser creation, and removal of Django. 

Django is a full-featured Python web framework for developing dynamic websites and applications. Using Django, you can quickly create Python web applications and rely on the framework to do a good deal of the heavy lifting.


How to install Django from Ubuntu repositories ?

1. First, update your local package index with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, check which version of Python you have installed. 18.04 ships with Python 3.6 by default, which you can verify by typing:

$ python3 -V



This article covers the different methods to install Emacs on Debian OS. Emacs is a widely used open-source text editor for Linux. It exists for many years now and can be used for basic word processing, code editing, and scripting, etc.


How to Install Emacs editor on Debian ?

1. To start the installation process, login with root and update the package repository with the following command.

$ apt-get update

2. Next, run the following command on the terminal and wait for the operation to complete. This can take several minutes. When you are asked for confirmation, press Y from your keyboard.

$ apt-get install emacs



This article covers how to install notepadqq on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. Notepad is a similar copy of the most popular editor notepad++. Basically, Notepadqq is a text editor that is designed by developers for the developers. It supports more than 100 languages and useful to note down daily tasks.


How to Install Notepadqq on Debian / Ubuntu?

1. Add Repository

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:notepadqq-team/notepadqq  

2. Update Repository

$ sudo apt-get update  

3. Install Notepadqq

$ sudo apt-get install notepadqq  

4. After installation, we can access it either via terminal by typing notepadqq or by searching from the application manager. Run Notepadqq:

$ notepadqq 



This article covers the best photo editors for Linux users. If you are using a Linux operation system and looking for an efficient Linux photo editor that is not better than Lightroom or Photoshop, you may face some problems. With these software, you can perform basic and professional adjustments, retouch and organize your images, make color and lighting correction, manipulate size, converse or share the files.


Top Best Linux Photo Editors



This article covers how to install elasticsearch in the stable version of Ubuntu 20.04. Now you can use the hosted elasticsearch server for doing searches.

If your application generates a huge amount of data and the search procedures are slow, then using elasticsearch will be best.



This article covers the installation of Kazam on the Ubuntu system using the Sylvain Pineau PPA. Also, we also covered how to uninstall Kazam if for any reason you need to do that. Kazam is a simple screen recording program that captures the screencasts, screenshots, and records video files. Kazam records desktop video and multiple audio streams simultaneously with control over audio levels and the screen region being captured. 


Kazam keyboard shortcuts in Ubuntu:

  • Super+Ctrl+R: Start recording.
  • Super+Ctrl+P: Pause recording, press again for resuming the recording (The most important shortcut).
  • Super+Ctrl+F: Finish recording.
  • Super+Ctrl+Q: Quit recording.



This article covers how to Install putty on CentOS 8. With putty, you can easily connect your Linux system to a remote system. Putty is a free and open source ssh & telnet client. Putty is available for Windows, Linux, Unix and macOS. Using putty, we can access the remote servers and switches over ssh protocol. It can also be used to take serial console of remote systems.


How to perform Putty Installation on CentOS / RHEL / Fedora ?

Putty package is available in the default CentOS and RHEL repositories. So, to install putty run:

$ sudo yum install putty -y

Or

$ sudo dnfs install putty -y



This article covers methods to install Nmap on your CentOS machine. Nmap is a handy utility for network scanning and security auditing. Nmap contains variety of options for scanning remote hosts. Have a look at the 15 Mostly Used Nmap Commands for Scanning Remote Hosts.



How to Install Nmap on Debian / Ubuntu ?

1. Install Nmap on Ubuntu by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install nmap

2. The system prompts you to confirm the installation by typing y.

3. After the installation is finished, verify the installed version of Nmap by entering:

$ nmap –version



This article covers how to install Go on CentOS 8. Go language was designed to resolve the common criticisms of other languages while maintaining their positive characteristics and most widely used for writing servers these days.


Run the below command to see the version of the Go language:

$ go version



This article covers how to install GitLab on your local devices or server. Also, you will learn how to integrate the GitLab CE into our local Ubuntu system. GitLab CE, or Community Edition, is an open-source application primarily used to host Git repositories, with additional development-related features like issue tracking. It is designed to be hosted using your own infrastructure, and provides flexibility in deploying as an internal repository store for your development team, a public way to interface with users, or a means for contributors to host their own projects.



This article covers how to install the AnyDesk application on CentOS 8 system using the command-line approach. Once you've installed AnyDesk on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8, you’ll be able to access your Linux system from Windows, Mac, and other Linux based systems. You'll enjoy its simple and user-friendly set up and administration tools which enables you to easily manage remote system.



This article covers the installation of Apache NetBeans on the CentOS system. Here, you will learn the entire procedure for the installation of NetBeans that includes downloading, installation, and launching of NetBeans. At the end, you also learned to uninstall Apache NetBeans if you ever have to do that.

Apache NetBeans is a very powerful Integrated Development Environment (IDE) tool that enables you as a Developer create Desktop, Web and Mobile Applications from its modular framework. It supports Java, PHP, HTML, JavaScript, C, C++, Ajax, JSP, Ruby on Rails and other programming languages using extensions.



This article covers the installation of Gradle on the Ubuntu system using different ways. Gradle is a free and open-source build tool primarily used for Java projects. Gradle helps you to automate, build and deliver software efficiently. Gradle uses Groovy object-oriented programming language instead of XML to define the project configurations. Gradle also supports many popular IDE platforms, such as Android Studio, Eclipse, IDEA, and NetBeans.


How to Install Java on Linux ?

Gradle needs Java to be installed on your system. You can install the latest version of Java by running the following command:

$ apt-get install default-jdk -y 

After installing Java, you can verify the Java with the following command:

$ java -version



This article covers how you can monitor the temperature of your CPU cores, hard drive and other components attached to the motherboard.

When your PC is overheating, consider disassembling your PC and blowing it with a blower to get rid of all the dust which might be blocking the ventilation vents.

Also, ensure your laptop is placed on a hard surface and not on a cushy surface such as on a bed where the vents can easily get blocked.

Lastly, enable power saving mode and close any unnecessary applications.



This article covers how to install vim, followed by some basics on using vim and then uninstalling it. Vim (Vi IMproved) is a text editor that is upwards compatible to Vi. It can be used to edit all kinds of plain text. It is especially useful for editing config files and programs written in shell, python, perl, c/c++ and more. 

Among the various text editors in the world of Linux, Vim (or Vi IMproved) stands out for its versatility and for the functions it offers. In fact, Vim is able to speed up code writing, providing some shortcuts to perform all the operations of modification, deletion or replacement of the text. 

Vim Text Editor also allows you to install different plugins through which transforming this simple text editor into a real IDE for programming in different languages.


How to Install vim using apt on Linux ?

1. Open terminal application. You can also press CTRL+ALT+T keyboard shortcut.

2. Update package database by typing the sudo apt update command.

3. Search for vim packages run: sudo apt search vim.

4. Install vim on Ubuntu Linux, type: sudo apt install vim.

5. Verify vim installation by typing the vim --version command.



This article covers some useful Linux commands to help you get started with working efficiently with Linux system. When operating a Linux OS, you need to use a shell — an interface that gives you access to the operating system’s services. Most Linux distributions use a graphic user interface (GUI) as their shell, mainly to provide ease of use for their users.

That being said, it's recommended to use a command-line interface (CLI) because it’s more powerful and effective. Tasks that require a multi-step process through GUI can be done in a matter of seconds by typing commands into the CLI.


How to use the cd command in Linux ?

To navigate through the Linux files and directories, use the cd command. It requires either the full path or the name of the directory, depending on the current working directory that you're in.

There are some shortcuts to help you navigate quickly:

  • cd .. (with two dots) to move one directory up.
  • cd to go straight to the home folder.
  • cd- (with a hyphen) to move to your previous directory.


How does the ls command works ?

The ls command is used to view the contents of a directory. By default, this command will display the contents of your current working directory.

There are variations you can use with the ls command:

  • ls -R will list all the files in the sub-directories as well.
  • ls -a will show the hidden files.
  • ls -al will list the files and directories with detailed information like the permissions, size, owner, etc.



This article covers how to set up UFW on Ubuntu 18.04 system. It advised to deny all the incoming connections except necessary ports. Uncomplicated Firewall or UFW is an interface to iptables that is designed to simplify the process of configuring a firewall. While iptables is a firm and flexible tool, it can be sometimes tricky for beginners to learn how to use it to properly configure a firewall. If a user is looking to get started securing his or her network, UFW may be the appropriate solution.


UFW is installed on Ubuntu by default. If it has been uninstalled for some reason, we can install it with the following command:

$ sudo apt install ufw

By default, UFW denies all incoming connections and allows all outgoing connections. It means that a client trying to reach our server would not be able to connect. When an application from our server tries to connect any other server outside, it will be allowed. The following commands serve the purpose:

$ sudo ufw default deny incoming
$ sudo ufw default allow outgoing



This article covers how to change own and another user account passwords. It's recommended that to change your password frequently and use a unique password for each account for security purpose. Basically, you will learn how to change a password on any Linux distribution, including Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOs.

To change a password on behalf of a user, first sign on or "su" to the "root" account. Then type, ``passwd user'' (where user is the username for the password you are changing). The system will prompt you to enter a password. Passwords do not echo to the screen when you enter them.

You can also change your own password, by typing ``passwd'' (without specifying a username). You will be prompted to enter your old password for verification, and then a new password.


How to Change a Password in Linux?

To change the password in Linux you need to open the terminal and type the following command:

$ sudo passwd

After executing the command, you will be asked to enter the new password twice. 



This article covers how to install and manage multiple Java versions on Debian 9 system. Also we described how to set default Java version and also how to uninstall Java once it is no longer needed.

Basically, the programming language Java and the Java virtual machine or JVM are used extensively and required for many kinds of software.


To install Default JRE/JDK Java on Debian.

1. First, update the package index.

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Next, install Java. Specifically, this command will install the Java Runtime Environment (JRE).

$ sudo apt-get install default-jre

When prompted, type y for yes to confirm the installation.

3. You can install the JDK with the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install default-jdk



This article covers how to Install Kdenlive video editor on a Linux Mint 20 system. Now you can use it very conveniently for producing professional quality edited videos. Kdenlive is a free and opensource video editing software, it is built on Qt and  KDE Framework libraries, and MLT Framework is used for video processing in Kdenlive and this is part of the official KDE project.


How to Install Kdenlive 20.04 in Ubuntu 20.04 / LinuxMint /Elementary OS ?

1. Add the official PPA

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:kdenlive/kdenlive-stable

2. Update the apt repository

$ sudo apt update

3. Install Kdenlive 20.04

$ sudo apt install kdenlive



This article covers how you can install Zoom on CentOS machine using two different methods i.e via RPM and via snap. The Zoom Client can be installed on Windows, Mac, Linux, iOS, Android, and H.323/SIP room systems.


How to Install Zoom Client on CentOS 8 / Fedora 33/32/31/30 ?

An RPM package is provided on the Downloads page for installation on CentOS / RHEL and Fedora System.

1. Download the latest release of Zoom Client:

$ sudo yum -y install wget
$ wget https://zoom.us/client/latest/zoom_x86_64.rpm

2. Then install Zoom Client on CentOS 8 Linux with yum command:

$ sudo yum localinstall zoom_x86_64.rpm

Hit the y key to start the installation.

The dependencies required and Zoom Client will be installed on CentOS 8.

3. You can check the version of Zoom Client installed on CentOS 8 / Fedora Desktop with the rpm command:

$ rpm -qi zoom 



This article covers the screen recording tools that are the best performing and yield the most optimal outcomes for Linux users. Cross-platform compatible screen recorders are discussed as well such as OBS Studio and Freeseer whereas Kazam, recordMyDesktop, and Simple Screen Recorder are especially and specifically designed to enhance the user experience of Linux users. Still, each discussed screen recording tool is most acclaimed and best-reviewed by Linux users and hence ensures a seamless user experience.

Screen recording is a need for every paradigm, from businesses to school management to chefs cooking meals in the restaurants and kitchens, everyone requires or wants to create tutorials. To create these tutorials, screen recording tools often pose different challenges and issues.

All of these open-source software tools for Linux let you record video of what's happening on your screen, and some let you live-stream it to YouTube or Facebook Live as well.



This article covers the best Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) that despite providing a coding environment, also provide assistance and support along with speed and efficiency to enhance the software developers’ overall coding experience. PhpStorm, Eclipse, BlueFish, VSCode, and Sublime Text – all IDEs are part of our list of top-performing IDEs. Each IDE is cross-platform compatible thereby enabling software developers across all the platforms, i.e. Windows, macOS, and Linux, and making development easy, efficient and equal for all.

Basically, Developing software solutions is a need and demand of many users, companies, and enterprises across the globe. In this advanced world of information technology, it has almost become impossible to expect advancements and improvements or even sustenance without relying on a software solution.



This article covers the top and best functioning time tracking tools capable of tracking, managing, and providing insights such as reporting, on different tasks the users or employees have spent their time on. Project Hamster, actiTime, TimeCamp, Hubstaff, and Kimai, all are the most acclaimed time tracking software by many reviewers and Linux users across the globe. Each of the discussed tools offers seamless time tracking and reporting functionalities that enable companies or freelancers to manage their time, budgets, and accounting processes and operations.

Linux users are though less in number than the other platforms, still holds a significant market, and most of the servers, mainframe computers, and supercomputers are based on Linux.



This article covers how to install Brave browser on a Linux Mint 20 system. Brave is a free to use and open-source web browser developed by Brave Software, Inc. Its source code is based on the Chromium browser. Brave is designed to block ads and website trackers by default and guarantee privacy.


How to Launch Brave Web Browser on Linux Mint 20 ?

After installation you can use the terminal or Desktop Environment Launcher to start brave web browser on Linux Mint 20 Desktop machine:

$ brave-browser



This article covers how to install Microsoft Teams on CentOS machine using different methods. You can either install Microsoft Teams by downloading and installing its RPM package from the official website or you can install the snap package. Microsoft Teams is a communication platform used for Chat, Calling, Meetings, and Collaboration. Generally, it is used by companies and individuals working on projects. Microsoft Teams is available for macOS, Windows, and Linux operating systems available now.


How to Install Microsoft Teams Linux on CentOS 8 ?

By default, Microsoft Teams Linux package is not available in the CentOS 8 default repository. You will need to download the RPM package for it. 

1. You can download it with the following command:

$ cd /tmp
$ wget https://packages.microsoft.com/yumrepos/ms-teams/teams-1.3.00.5153-1.x86_64.rpm

2. Once the package is downloaded, install the downloaded package with the following command:

$ dnf install teams-1.3.00.5153-1.x86_64.rpm


How to Remove Microsoft Teams from CentOS ?

1. To remove Microsoft Teams Linux from the CentOS 8, run the following command:

$ dnf remove teams

2. To remove Microsoft Teams Linux from the Ubuntu 18.04, run the following command:

$ dpkg -r teams



This article covers how to install Arduino IDE on CentOS machine either via the direct download method or the snap method. Also, you will learn how to uninstall Arduino. Arduino IDE stands for the "Arduino Integrated Development Environment". Arduino is used to create electronic devices that communicate with their environment using actuators and sensors. Arduino IDE contains an editor that is used for writing and uploading programs to the Arduino board. Before starting to create projects through Arduino, the user needs to set up an IDE for the programmable board.


How to Launch Arduino IDE on CentOS Linux System ?

Now, you will launch the Arduino IDE from the desktop. Click on 'Activities' and select show application form where you will launch Ardunio IDE to double click on the application icon.

You can also launch using the search bar, click on the 'Activities' where you can see a search bar. You will type 'Arduino' in the search bar.



This article covers how to install Android Studio using different methods. Also, you will learn how to remove Android Studio in case you don't need it anymore. Android Studio is the most widely used software for android mobile application development. Android Studio is developed by Google and it can run on different operating environments like Windows, macOS, and Linux. Most of the current popular android applications are developed on Android Studio. This tool has various built-in features that provide a stable and fast environment for developing applications.


How to Install Android Studio through snap ?

You can install the android studio using snap on your Ubuntu system using the following command:

$ sudo snap install android-studio --classic

You can also install android studio using the below-mentioned command:

$ sudo snap remove android-studio



This article covers how to Install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on Ubuntu 18.04 system. When developing a website or web application, many users need the functionality of a database system like MySQL. However, interacting with the system solely from the MySQL command-line client requires familiarity with Structured Query Language — more commonly referred to as SQL — which can present a major hurdle for some users. phpMyAdmin was created to allow users to interact with MySQL through an intuitive web interface, running alongside a PHP development environment. 


How to Secure phpMyAdmin with Let's Encrypt SSL ?

Before starting, you will need to install the Certbot client to download and install Let's Encrypt SSL.

1. First, add the Certbot repository with the following command:

$ add-apt-repository ppa:ahasenack/certbot-tlssni01-1875471

2. Next, update the repository and install the Certbot client using the following command:

$ apt-get update -y
$ apt-get install certbot python3-certbot-nginx -y

3. Once the Certbot has been installed, run the following command to download and install the Let's Encrypt SSL for your domain:

$ certbot --nginx -d phpmyadmin.domain.com



This article covers how to check OS version using different methods. You can get more information of Ubuntu releases at official site of the Ubuntu Releases.

If you are using Ubuntu 16.04 then you can Upgrade using this guide Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.

Ubuntu is a free, open-source Linux-based operating system, which has a long list of release versions. Finding out which Ubuntu version is running on your system can be important when troubleshooting issues or searching for installation guides.


To check the Ubuntu version, use the following command in terminal:

$ lsb_release -a

This will display you some details about your distribution including Ubuntu version:

Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description: Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
Release: 20.04
Codename: focal



This article covers how to install and configure VNC on Debian Linux System. Also, you will learn how to connect it from Linux, MacOS and Windows local system and manage your Debian 9 server easily using a graphic interface.
VNC (Virtual Network Computing) is a technology for remote desktop sharing. VNC enables the visual desktop display of one computer to be remotely viewed and controlled over a network connection. It is similar to MSTSC on windows. It uses the Remote Frame Buffer protocol (RFB) to remotely control another computer.


To install VNC and XFCE on Debian, run the following commands:

$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install xfce4 xfce4-goodies gnome-icon-theme tightvncserver


To Create a VNC User on Debian:
1. Create a user named vnc by using this command.

$ adduser vnc
2. Install sudo by executing this command. We will need to add vnc user to sudo group.
$ apt-get install sudo
3. Now, Add vnc user to sudo group, it will give permission to vnc user to act like a root user and execute root command.
$ gpasswd -a vnc sudo
Adding user vnc to group sudo
4. switch to a vnc user for further operations.
$ su - vnc



This article covers how to change timezone in Ubuntu 18.04. If you have set up your Ubuntu system to fetch Automatic Time Zone, it will sync your system through the internet so that it will have the time zone of your closest location.

Most modern distributions such as Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, Arch, CentOS v.7.x+, and other Unix-based systems use the timedatectl utility. This command allows you to control and edit time and date settings using the command line.


To display the current time and date information use the command:

$ timedatectl

You can set your Ubuntu system to synchronize to the NIST atomic clock:

$ timedatectl set-ntp yes

If you need to turn off NTP synchronizing to be able to adjust the time and date manually, use:

$ timedatectl set-ntp no



This article covers how to change the hostname on Ubuntu 18.04 system using multiple methods. HostName is also referred to as the computer name of your system. It is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication in the computer network. Hostname helps you to access local web pages and other authorized data on your system.

The host name or computer name is usually at system startup in /etc/hostname file.


How to change the computer name on Ubuntu Linux ?

1. Type the following command to edit /etc/hostname using nano or vi text editor:

$ sudo nano /etc/hostname

Delete the old name and setup new name.

2. Next Edit the /etc/hosts file:

$ sudo nano /etc/hosts

Replace any occurrence of the existing computer name with your new one.

3. Reboot the system to changes take effect:

$ sudo reboot



This article covers how to install nodejs and npm on your Debian system with different methods. Also, you will learn how to uninstall npm from your Debian system. Node.js is a JavaScript platform for general-purpose programming that allows users to build asynchronous network applications quickly. By leveraging JavaScript on both the front and backend, Node.js can make web application development more consistent and integrated.


To Install the Official Debian Node.js Package:

1. To get Node.js from the default Debian software repository, you can use the apt package manager. First, refresh your local package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the Node.js package, and npm the Node Package Manager:

$ sudo apt install nodejs npm

3. To verify that the install was successful, run the node command with the -v flag to get the version:

$ node -v


To Remove Node.js:

1. To remove either of these versions, type the following:

$ sudo apt remove nodejs

2. To uninstall a version of Node.js that you have enabled using nvm, first determine whether or not the version you would like to remove is the current active version:

$ nvm current

3. If the version you are targeting is not the current active version, you can run:

$ nvm uninstall node_version

This command will uninstall the selected version of Node.js.

4. If the version you would like to remove is the current active version, you must first deactivate nvm to enable your changes:

$ nvm deactivate



This article covers how to stop and disable FirewallD on your CentOS 7 system. Firewalld is a complete firewall solution that has been made available by default on all CentOS 7 servers. It is highly recommended that you have another firewall protecting your network or server before, or immediately after, disabling firewalld.


How to manage Firewalld ?

1. To disable firewalld, run the following command as root:

$ systemctl disable firewalld

2. To Stop Firewalld, execute the following command as root:

$ systemctl stop firewalld

3. To check the status of firewalld, run the following command as root:

$ systemctl status firewalld



This article covers how to install Skype on your Ubuntu 18.04 desktop system. Basically, Skype is the most popular platform to connect people through their computer systems. You can freely connect to anyone all around the world through text, voice, and video calls. You can also choose to call people on their telephones but that will not be free. 


To Install the Skype snap:

1. Enter the following command in order to refresh the list of available packages:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Since the Snap daemon comes by default in the latest versions of Ubuntu, we do not need to install it. If you are using an older version, you can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install snapd

3. Now type in the following command in order to install Skype Classic version:

$ sudo snap install skype --classic



This article covers how to change the hostname on Debian 9 system using different methods. Basically, the hostname is a label that is assigned during the initial server setup and it is used to identify and easily distinguish one server from another. 

To check your current hostname:

$ hostname

And to check your Fully Qualified Domain name (FQDN) you can run the following command instead:

$ hostname -f


How to Change your Debian hostname ?

1. To change your hostname, we can simply run the following command:

$ hostname new.hostname.com

2. So in order to change our hostname permanently, you will need to update this file. You can open it with your favorite text editor, for example:

$ nano /etc/hostname

3. Change the hostname, save the file and exit the text editor.



This article covers the best method of installing the Rhythmbox audio playing application on a Linux Mint 20 system. Rhythmbox is a free and open-source audio player that plays and helps organize digital audio files. the features of Rhythmbox like Music playback, gapless playback, music importing, audio CD burning and SoundCloud support. 


How to remove Rhythmbox from Ubuntu?

You can also remove it by downgrading the player via command window at the same time:

$ sudo apt-get install ppa-purge
$ sudo ppa-purge ppa:ubuntuhandbook1/apps

If it fails to remove, you can also remove it from the Software and Update utility on Ubuntu.


Main Features of Rhythmbox:

  • Fixed Critical Errors and Internal Bugs.
  • Fixed Rhythmbox crashed during import.
  • Command option added.
  • Very good layout and design.
  • Play queue UI improvements feature added.
  • Added Expand playing icon in the entry view
  • Fixed hangs for a special file type.
  • Fixed Open settings Crash for this app.
  • Fixed Keyboard navigation tab when searching an entry widget.



This article covers some useful SCP commands to copy files/folders between hosts in the network. Linux administrator should be familiar with CLI environment. Since GUI mode in Linux servers is not a common to be installed. SSH may the most popular protocol to enable Linux administrator to manage the servers via remote in secure way. Built-in with SSH command there is SCP command. SCP is used to copy file(s) between servers in secure way.



SCP Basic syntax:

scp [options] username1@source_host:/location1/file1 username2@destination_host:/location2/file2

Some common scp command options include:

  • –P – Specify server SSH port.
  • –p – Preserve the timestamp for modification and access (note the lower-case).
  • –q – Quiet mode, don’t display progress or messages (will still show errors).
  • –C – Compress the data during transmission.
  • –r – Recursive – include subdirectories and their contents.



This article covers the leading gaming distros for Linux. Pop!_OS tops our list of the best gaming distros available in the market for Linux operating system users. Ubuntu, being an efficient and overall optimal operating system that ensures execution of any task, comes second on our list. Whereas GamerOS, Fedora Games Spin, and Manjaro Gaming Edition follow the suit. The here listed paradigms are found and proven to be the best gaming distros for Linux by many reviewers and users. From Pop!_OS to Manjaro Gaming Edition, any adopted distro is ensured of providing an efficient, seamless, and enhanced gaming experience to the Linux gamers. 

However, many other distros too lead the market such as Drauger OS, Lakka, etc. Still, the distros listed in this guide have proven to outperform their peers numerous times and thereby are listed here as the top five best Linux Distros for Gaming.



This article covers the top-performing code repositories which are all Git-based. Git was created by Linus Torvalds in 2005 for the development of the Linux kernel, and henceforth it can be safely concluded that all the discussed source code repositories support and are compatible with not just Linux but the rest of the operating systems too. Any source code developed or created in any of the operating systems can seamlessly be managed in GitHub, BitBucket, SourceForge, Assembla, and CloudForge. Along with that, the paradigms are top-rated by users and many reviewers around the globe. 

Therefore, to manage the software application development processes, any of the discussed paradigms can be safely adopted and is assured of providing optimal performance and expected services.



This article covers how to install and configure the Unbound name resolution server in Ubuntu with basic configuration. Unbound is basically a recursive-only caching DNS server which can perform DNSSEC validation of results. Unbound is the best alternative for setting up a caching nameserver on your LAN or personal machine.


To install Unbound from official Repository, run the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install unbound -y



This article covers how to install PHP Composer on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Composer is a popular dependency management tool for PHP, created mainly to facilitate installation and updates for project dependencies. It will check which other packages a specific project depends on and install them for you, using the appropriate versions according to the project requirements. Composer is also commonly used to bootstrap new projects based on popular PHP frameworks, such as Symfony and Laravel.


To Install PHP Composer on Ubuntu:

1. Update your packages:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Install the curl utility:

$ sudo apt-get install curl

3. Download the installer:

$ sudo curl -s https://getcomposer.org/installer | php

4. Move the composer.phar file:

$ sudo mv composer.phar /usr/local/bin/composer

5. Use the composer command to test the installation. If Composer is installed correctly, the server will respond with a long list of help information and commands:

# composer



This article covers how to install Apache Cassandra on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Apache Cassandra is an open-source non-relational database that delivers high performance, linear scalability, and continuous availability. All these features make Cassandra an ideal platform for mission-critical data.

To learn more about Apache Cassandra, visit its official documentation site.


How to install Java on Ubuntu ?

1. To check whether Java is installed, run the command:

$ java -version

2. To install OpenJDK, execute the following apt command:

$ sudo apt install openjdk-8-jdk

3. Once again, confirm that Java is installed by running the command:

$ java -version


How to Install Apache Cassandra in Ubuntu ?

1. First, install the apt-transport-https package to allow access of repositories via the https protocol:

$ sudo apt install apt-transport-https

2. Next, Import the GPG key using following wget command as shown:

$ wget -q -O - https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS | sudo apt-key add -

3. Then add Apache Cassandra's repository to the system’s sources list file as shown:

$ sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/debian 311x main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/cassandra.list'

4. Before installing Apache Cassandra, you need to update the package list first:

$ sudo apt update

5. Then install the NoSQL database using the command:

$ sudo apt install cassandra

6. Usually, Apache Cassandra starts automatically. To confirm its status, run the following command:

$ sudo systemctl status cassandra

7. Additionally, you can verify the stats of your node by running the command:

$ sudo nodetool status



This article covers how to install and Enable SSH service on Ubuntu 18.04 system. You can now login remotely to your server using any SSH client from Linux or Windows system. To increase security of SSH connection by Changing default SSH port to custom one on you system. Get more details about SSH server from official SSH site.

When establishing a remote connection between a client and a server, a primary concern is ensuring security. For Linux users, the best practice of accessing and managing your server remotely is through the cryptographic protocol known as Secure Shell (SSH).


How to Enable SSH on Ubuntu ?

1. To install SSH, first update the package repository cache with:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Now install the OpenSSH software package by entering:

$ sudo apt-get install openssh-server

If prompted, type in your password and press y (yes) to permit the installation.

3. To verify the installation was successful and SSH is running use the command:

$ sudo service ssh status

The confirmation message that you are looking for is: Active: active (running).



This article covers how to change SSH port on your Linux system. SSH (Secure shell) is a cryptographic network protocol used to connect to a remote server securely and it transfer the data in encrypted form between the host and the client.

The default TCP port for SSH is 22, and by changing this default port to the other, it can prevent automated bots and malicious users from being brutally forced into the server.

Before changing the default SSH port number, can check the current port with the below command:

# netstat -ntlp | grep ssh


To change the SSH port:

1. Open the main SSH daemon configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config:

# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

2. Now search line begins with Port 22 and add hashtag (#) in front of that line. 

3. Then add a new Port line below with the custom port.

Note: Replace the sample port number with the custom port number that needs to be set.

4. Save and exit.


How to Restart the SSH daemon for the changes to take effect ?

Run the below commands to restart the SSH daemon and verify that the port changed:

# systemctl restart sshd
# netstat -ntlp | grep ssh



This article covers how to enable and disable root user account in Ubuntu system. Considered the most privileged account on a Unix system, root can perform any tasks needed for system administration.

Navigating a specific folder, killing any process or deleting a directory, root is so powerful that it has to be managed properly.


In order to change the root password, you have to use the "passwd" and specify the root account:

$ sudo passwd root

After changing your password, the account will be automatically unlocked.

In order to switch to the root account, you can use the well-known "su" command without any arguments (the default account is root):

$ su - 


To restart your SSH server for the modifications to be taken into account:

$ sudo systemctl restart sshd



This article covers how to install Git on your Debian server and how to Setting up Git. With versioning tools such as Git, you can track changes, revert to previous stages, and branch to create alternate versions of files and directories.


How to Install Git with Default Packages on Debian?

1. First, use the apt package management tools to update your local package index. 

After updating the system, you can download and install Git:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install git

2. You can confirm that you have installed Git correctly by running the following command:

git --version



This article covers how to use the 'os. getcwd()' method to easily get the python current working directory. When you run a Python script, the current working directory is set to the directory from which the script is executed.

The os python module provides a portable way to interact with the operating system. The module is part of the standard Python library and includes methods for finding and changing the current working directory.

Basically, In Python, you can get and change (set) the current working directory with os.getcwd() and os.chdir().

os module is included in the standard library, so no additional installation is required.

To Get the current working directory: os.getcwd()

To Change the current working directory: os.chdir()


How to Get the current working directory: os.getcwd() ?

1. os.getcwd() returns the absolute path of the working directory where Python is currently running as a string str.

2. getcwd stands for "get current working directory", and the Unix command pwd stands for "print working directory".



This article covers how to install Java Run-time Environment (JRE) and the Java Developer Kit (JDK) on Ubuntu 20.04. Java is one of the most popular programming languages. It is used for developing anything from lightweight mobile to desktop applications.

Oracle's licensing agreement for Java doesn’t allow automatic installation through package managers. To install the Oracle JDK, which is the official version distributed by Oracle, you must create an Oracle account and manually download the JDK to add a new package repository for the version you'd like to use. 


To install the Default JRE/JDK 

1. To install this version, first update the package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, check if Java is already installed:

$ java -version

If Java is not currently installed, you’ll see the following output:

Output
Command 'java' not found, but can be installed with:
apt install default-jre
apt install openjdk-11-jre-headless
apt install openjdk-8-jre-headless

3. Execute the following command to install the default Java Runtime Environment (JRE), which will install the JRE from OpenJDK 11:

$ sudo apt install default-jre

The JRE will allow you to run almost all Java software.

4. Verify the installation with:

java -version



This article covers how to install Certbot, to get let's encrypt certificates. SSL/TLS encryption is an integral part of the network infrastructure. Any web and mail server allows you to enable data encryption.

To begin, you must have a domain name. Its DNS A-record must contain the public address of your server. If the firewall is enabled, open access for HTTP and HTTPS traffic:

$ sudo ufw allow 80
$ sudo ufw allow 443


To Install the "Let's Encrypt" package on Ubuntu:

1. Run the command below to install Let's Encrypt.

$ sudo apt install letsencrypt

2. Check the "certbot.timer" utility for automatic certificate renewal.

$ sudo systemctl status certbot.timer



This article covers the PHP installation on Ubuntu 20.04 system.  Basically, popular Content Management platforms such as WordPress, Drupal, and Magento are based on PHP.


To Install PHP on Ubuntu 20.04:

1. Update your server.

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. Install PHP on Ubuntu 20.04, just run the following command.

$ apt-get install php

3. To verify if PHP is installed, run the following command.

php -v


To Install PHP 7.4 modules (extensions):

Run the command below.

apt-get install php-pear php-fpm php-dev php-zip php-curl php-xmlrpc php-gd php-mysql php-mbstring php-xml libapache2-mod-php

To check all the PHP modules available in Ubuntu, run:

$ apt-cache search --names-only ^php


How to install PHP 8.0 on Ubuntu 20.04 or 18.04 ?

1. First, update your Ubuntu server:

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. Add the PHP repository (by Ondřej Surý):

$ apt-get install software-properties-common
$ add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php

3. And finally, update your package list:

$ apt-get update

4. Install PHP 8.0 with the following command:

$ apt-get install php8.0

5. To check if PHP 8.0 is installed on your server, run the following command:

$ php -v

6. Install PHP 8.0 modules (extensions)

You may need additional packages and modules depending on your applications. The most commonly used modules can be installed with the following command:

$ apt-get install libapache2-mod-php8.0 php8.0-fpm libapache2-mod-fcgid php8.0-curl php8.0-dev php8.0-gd php8.0-mbstring php8.0-zip php8.0-mysql php8.0-xml


How to change the PHP version you're using ?

If you have multiple PHP versions installed on your Ubuntu server, you can change what version is the default one.

1. To set PHP 7.4 as the default, run:

$ update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php7.4

2. To set PHP 8.0 as the default, run:

$ update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php8.0

3. You can verify what version of PHP you’re using with the following command:

$ php -v



This article covers how to easily print out the uptime on any Linux distribution such as Debian and Ubuntu. You will learn how to easily perform an audit of your system's uptime. It's an important command for system administrators to know how long the system has been running. Uptime tool helps troubleshooting issues related to power and scheduling.


On any UNIX-like system, the uptime command will come pre-installed. That applies to Ubuntu as well. Verify the existence of the tool by running these commands:

$  which uptime
$ uptime --version


To check the system uptime, run the following command:

$ uptime



This article covers how to install Virt-Viewer on a Linux Mint 20 system. virt-viewer is a minimal tool for displaying the graphical console of a virtual machine. The console is accessed using the VNC or SPICE protocol. The viewer can connect to remote hosts to lookup the console information and then also connect to the remote console using the same network transport.


Functions of Virt Viewer: 

  • Connect to KVM virtual machines remotely via the SPICE remote desktop protocol.
  • Automatically adjust display resolution of the KVM virtual machines.
  • Use multiple monitors for the KVM virtual machines.
  • Passthrough USB devices from your computer to the KVM virtual machines.
  • Share folders from your computer to the KVM virtual machines.


To install Virt Viewer on Linux:

1. First, update the APT package repository cache with the following command:

$ sudo apt update

2. To install Virt Viewer on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, run the following command:

$ sudo apt install virt-viewer --no-install-recommends --no-install-suggests

Then, confirm the installation, press Y and then press <Enter>.



This article covers how You can play Tetris on your Linux Mint 20 system's terminal. A veritable stack of Tetris clones are available on Linux and other platforms. Never played Tetris? 

The concept of Tetris is: 

1. Rotate and reposition blocks as they fall to create horizontal rows (lines) which disappear and score you points when made. 

2. The more points you score the faster the blocks fall. 

3. When the stack gets too high the game is over.


To install Tint on Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Peppermint OS and other related distros run this command:

$ sudo apt install tint

To play the game run:

$ tint

Enter a number from 1-9 to pick a level (1 being easiest, 9 being hardest).



This article covers how to install PHP 7.3 on Ubuntu 18.04 server. Also, you will learn how to configure PHP with Apache and Nginx web servers. 


How to Install PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu ?

Use the following set of commands to enable PPA for PHP 7.4 in your Ubuntu system and install it. You can use this version for production use also.

$ sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install -y php7.4

Now use the following command to check installed php version on your system.

$ php -v 


How to Install PHP 7 Modules ?

You can install the required PHP modules on your system as below command:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql php7.2-curl php7.2-json php7.2-cgi php7.2-xsl



This article covers how to install certbot client, obtain Let's Encrypt SSL certificate and configured to Nginx to use the certificates. Also, you will learn how to set up a cronjob for automatic certificate renewal.

Let's Encrypt is a Certificate Authority (CA) that provides an easy way to obtain and install free TLS/SSL certificates, thereby enabling encrypted HTTPS on web servers. 


To Install Certbot on Ubuntu:

1. First, add the repository.

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot

You'll need to press ENTER to accept.

2. Install Certbot's Nginx package with apt:

$ sudo apt install python-certbot-nginx



This article covers how to create an Nginx server blocks to host multiple website on a single Ubuntu machine. When using the Nginx web server, server blocks (similar to the virtual hosts in Apache) can be used to encapsulate configuration details and host more than one domain off of a single server.



This article covers how to install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on CentOS 7 system. phpMyAdmin helps to handle the database administration of MySQL, MariaDB and Drizzle servers over the web. It basically provides the intuitive web interface and supports most of the MySQL features to create and drop databases, create/drop/alter tables, delete/edit/add columns, execute any SQL statement and to manage indexes on columns.


To install phpMyAdmin, run the following commands:

# yum install epel-release
# yum install phpmyadmin


To restart nginx, mariadb and php-fpm services, run the following commands:

# systemctl restart mariadb.service
# systemctl restart nginx.service
# systemctl restart php-fpm.service



This article covers how to install Nginx on your Debian 9 server. Now you can deploy your applications and use Nginx as a web or proxy server. Nginx is more resource-friendly than Apache in most cases and can be used as a web server or reverse proxy.


To install Nginx on Debian:

1. Update our local package index so that we have access to the most recent package listings:

$ sudo apt update

2. We can now install nginx:

$ sudo apt install nginx

When prompted to confirm the installation, hit Enter to proceed. After that, apt will install Nginx and any required dependencies to your server.


Profiles available for Nginx:

  • Nginx Full: This profile opens both port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic) and port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).
  • Nginx HTTP: This profile opens only port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic).
  • Nginx HTTPS: This profile opens only port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic).



This article covers how to install phpMyAdmin with Apache on Ubuntu 18.04 system. While many users need the functionality of a database management system like MySQL, they may not feel comfortable interacting with the system solely from the MySQL prompt. phpMyAdmin was created so that users can interact with MySQL through a web interface. 


Important php packages includes:

  • php-mbstring: A module for managing non-ASCII strings and convert strings to different encodings.
  • php-zip: This extension supports uploading .zip files to phpMyAdmin.
  • php-gd: Enables support for the GD Graphics Library.
  • php-json: Provides PHP with support for JSON serialization.
  • php-curl: Allows PHP to interact with different kinds of servers using different protocols.



This article covers how to install Let’s Encrypt SSL on Ubuntu 18.04 by using Certbot. Enabling an encrypted connection to the web server is fundamental because it allows you to use the secure HTTPS protocol for your website. Let's Encrypt, a Certification Authority issues a free certificate completely in line with the required security standards. Let's Encrypt simplifies the process for installing the security certificate to help even the less experienced user secure a website through the use of the Certbot client.


To Install Certbot client on Ubuntu:

1. First, add the Certbot repository:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot

You'll need to press ENTER to accept.

2. Install Certbot's Apache package with apt:

$ sudo apt install python-certbot-apache



This article covers how to create apache virtual host files to host multiple domains on a single Ubuntu server. Each website published on the Internet is hosted on a web server (host), connected to the network with a public IP address and able to manage requests for web pages on a browser (client) such as Chrome, Firefox or Internet Explorer.

If you need to host a website on your machine, first, install a web server. Among those available, one of the best known is Apache, an open source software compatible with both Unix and Windows systems. 


How to Install Apache on Ubuntu ?

1. To install Apache 2 through the official Ubuntu repositories, proceed by typing:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt install apache2

Since Apache communicates externally, it should be inserted among the exceptions of your Firewall. 

2. In case of using UFW, allow bidirectional communications between Apache and a Client by typing:

$ sudo ufw allow 'Apache Full'

3. Apache should already be running. To check its stateuse the command:

$ sudo systemctl status apache2



This article covers how to install MariaDB on Ubuntu 18.04 server. Also, you will learn how to secure and connect to MariaDB server. MariaDB is an open-source relational database management system, commonly used as an alternative for MySQL as the database portion of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. Basically, It is intended to be a drop-in replacement for MySQL.


How to Install MariaDB ?

1. To install it, update the package index on your server with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2, Then install the package:

$ sudo apt install mariadb-server



This article covers how to successfully install Apache on your Ubuntu 18.04 server. The Apache HTTP server is the most widely-used web server in the world. It provides many powerful features, including dynamically loadable modules, robust media support, and extensive integration with other popular software.


To install Apache on Ubuntu:

1. Update your local package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install the apache2 package:

$ sudo apt install apache2



This article covers method to easily configure Apache virtual hosts. You repeat same procedure for multiple domain.

You can use yum to install Apache through CentOS's default software repositories:

$ sudo yum -y install httpd

Next, enable Apache as a CentOS service so that it will automatically start after a reboot:

$ sudo systemctl enable httpd.service


How to Set Up Local Hosts File ?

If you are on a Mac or Linux computer, edit your local hosts file with administrative privileges by typing:

$ sudo nano /etc/hosts

The details that you need to add are the public IP address of your VPS followed by the domain that you want to use to reach that VPS:

127.0.0.1   localhost
127.0.1.1   guest-desktop
server_ip_address example.com
server_ip_address example2.com

This will direct any requests for example.com and example2.com on our local computer and send them to our server at server_ip_address.



This article covers how to archive and compress files using tar and zip commands with a few examples to show you how it works.

The tar command on Linux is often used to create .tar.gz or .tgz archive files, also called "tarballs".


How to Remove Files from a Tar Archive ?

Use the --delete operation to remove files from an archive.

The following example shows how to remove the file file1 from archive.tar:

$ tar --delete -f archive.tar file1



This article covers the installation procedure of Go language on a Linux Mint 20 system. Also, we dealt with an easy way to remove Go language from a Linux Mint 20 system.

To Verify Go Language Installation, run the command:

$ go version 


Features of Go Programming

  • Statically type and compiled programming language.
  • Concurrency support and Garbage collection.
  • Strong library and toolset.
  • Multiprocessing and High-performance networking.
  • Known for readability and usability (Like Python).



This article covers how to install WordPress on Ubuntu 20.04 with Nginx HTTP Server and Let's Encrypt wildcard SSL Certificates. WordPress is a free, open-source, and most popular content management system that allows you to create a blog on the Internet.


You can install nginx, MariaDB, PHP and all the required PHP extensions with the following command:

$ apt-get install nginx mariadb-server php php-curl php-mysql php-gd php-intl php-mbstring php-soap php-xml php-xmlrpc php-zip php-fpm -y

Once the LEMP server is installed, start the Nginx and MariaDB service with the following command:

$ systemctl start nginx
$ systemctl start mariadb


Nginx's inbuilt features includes:

  • Nginx is built to work on low memory usage.
  • It can support extremely high concurrency.
  • Is Ipv6 enabled.
  • Supports reverse proxy with efficient caching.
  • Provides an inbuilt load balancer.
  • Supports WebSockets.
  • Optimized handling of index files, static files and provides auto indexing.
  • Is accompanied with FastCGI for efficient caching.



This article covers the installation procedure of Discord on any Linux Distribution such as Linux Mint 20, Ubuntu 20.04, and Debian 10. Also, we explained a quick method of uninstalling this Discord platform from your Linux system.

You can either uninstall it from the software center or use this command in the terminal:

$ sudo apt remove discord


If you have enabled Snap support on your Linux distribution, you can use the following command to install it:

$ sudo snap install discord

If you want to remove it, you can use the snap command to uninstall it:

$ sudo snap remove discord



This article covers how to Install a LEMP Stack on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. LEMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. LEMP stands for Linux OS, with the Nginx (pronounced like "Engine-X") web server, Data store in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To install Nginx Web Server:

1.  Run the commands below to install Nginx.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nginx

2. Allow traffic on port 80.

$ sudo ufw allow 'Nginx HTTP'

You can verify the change by running:

$ sudo ufw status



This article covers step by step process to install a LAMP stack on an Ubuntu 18.04 server. LAMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to host dynamic websites. LAMP stands for Linux OS, with Apache web server, Data store in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To Install Apache and Update the Firewall.

1. Install Apache using Ubuntu’s package manager, apt:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install apache2

2. Allow incoming HTTP and HTTPS traffic for this profile:

$ sudo ufw allow in "Apache Full"



This article covers method to set up a static IP address on Ubuntu 20.04. Basically, in most network configurations, the IP address is assigned dynamically by the router DHCP server. 

The recommended way to assign a static IP address to a device on your LAN is to configure a Static DHCP on your router. Static DHCP or DHCP reservation is a feature found on most routers which makes the DHCP server to automatically assign the same IP address to a specific network device, each time the device requests an address from the DHCP server. This works by assigning a static IP to the device's unique MAC address.


To Get the name of network interface and the default gateway in Linux:

You can either use ip command or the network manager CLI like this:

$ nmcli d



This article covers how to install MySQL version 8.0 on an Ubuntu 20.04 server. By completing it, you will have a working relational database that you can use to build your next website or application.

MySQL is an open-source database management system, commonly installed as part of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. It implements the relational model and uses Structured Query Language (better known as SQL) to manage its data.


To install MySQL using the APT package repository:

1. Update the package index on your server if you've not done so recently:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the mysql-server package:

$ sudo apt install mysql-server

This will install MySQL, but will not prompt you to set a password or make any other configuration changes. 

Because this leaves your installation of MySQL insecure, we will address this next.



This article covers how to create a user with sudo privileges. You can now log in to your Ubuntu server with this user account and use sudo to run administrative commands.

Basically, The sudo command provides a mechanism for granting administrator privileges, ordinarily only available to the root user, to normal users. 



This article covers a review about Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver). You can find the Ubuntu 18.04 release notes on its official website.


Ubuntu 18.04.4 (Bionic Beaver) was released on February 12, 2020, the long-term support (LTS) release of the Ubuntu, this was the 4rd point release of the 18.04 LTS and it was available for desktop / laptop computers and servers. Ubuntu 18.04.4 desktop didn't support 32-bit CPU architecture, and is only available to install 64-bit (x86-64) versions. Compared to previous releases, this Ubuntu version includes security updates and fixed bugs.



This article covers methods to find out the processes that are listening to particular ports on your Linux system. A port is nothing but an endpoint of communication used in computer networks.

You have physical or wireless connections at the hardware level. At software or operating system level a port act as a logical construct that acts as communication port of network service such as SSH, HTTPD and more.

TCP and UDP are the most common port. TCP is an acronym for Transmission Control Protocol. UDP is an acronym for User Datagram Protocol.


How to Find Out Which Process Is Listening Upon a Port in Linux ?

1. netstat command or ss command – a command-line tool that displays network connections, routing tables, and a number of network interface statistics.

2. fuser command – a command line tool to identify processes using files or sockets.

3. lsof command – a command line tool to list open files under Linux / UNIX to report a list of all open files and the processes that opened them.

4. /proc/$pid/ file system – Under Linux /proc includes a directory for each running process (including kernel processes) at /proc/PID, containing information about that process, notably including the processes name that opened port.



This article covers how to clear the cache and buffer memory of the physical memory along with clearing the swap space when needed.

Every Linux System has three options to clear cache without interrupting any processes or services.


If you want to clear Swap space, you may like to run the below command.

$ swapoff -a && swapon -a


To Clear PageCache, dentries and inodes:

$ sync; echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches


To Clear PageCache only:

$ sync; echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches


To Clear dentries and inodes:

$ sync; echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches



This article covers how to install Duplicity on your Linux system. After doing that, you will be able to maintain the backups of your critical data and hence prevent data loss. Moreover, you can also easily remove this backup software tool from your Linux system.

If you are a system administrator and responsible for managing servers than backing up data is one of the most important tasks of you. 

So you must have enough knowledge of backup tools that makes your task easier.

Duplicity is a free, open-source and an advanced command-line backup utility built on top of librsync and GnuPG. It produces digitally signed, versioned and encrypted tar volumes for storage on a local or remote computer. 

Duplicity supports many protocols for connecting to a file server including, ssh/scp, rsync, ftp, DropBox, Amazon S3, Google Docs, Google Drive, local filesystem, OneDrive, WebDAV and many more.


To install and configure Duplicity to perform manually and automate backup on Ubuntu 20.04 server:

1. You can update all of them with the following command:

$ apt-get update -y

2. After updating all packages, you will also need to install some required dependencies on your server. You can install all of them by running the following command:

$ apt-get install ncftp python3-paramiko python-pycryptopp lftp python3-boto python3-dev librsync-dev -y

3. By default, Duplicity is available in the Ubuntu 20.04 default repository. You can install it by just running the following command:

$ apt-get install duplicity -y

4. Once installed, verify the installed version of Duplicity with the following command:

$ duplicity --version



This article covers how we can add and maintain swap space in the ubuntu system. Swap space can take the form of either a dedicated swap partition or a swap file. Typically, when running Ubuntu on a virtual machine, a swap partition is not present, and the only option is to create a swap file.


To Adjust the Swappiness Value:

Swappiness is a Linux kernel property that defines how often the system will use the swap space. It can have a value between 0 and 100. A low value will make the kernel to try to avoid swapping whenever possible, while a higher value will make the kernel to use the swap space more aggressively.

On Ubuntu, the default swappiness value is set to 60. You can check the current value by typing the following command:

$ cat /proc/sys/vm/swappiness


To Remove a Swap File:

1. First, deactivate the swap space:

$ sudo swapoff -v /swapfile

2. Next, remove the swap file entry /swapfile swap swap defaults 0 0 from the /etc/fstab file.

3. Finally, remove the actual swapfile file using the rm command:

$ sudo rm /swapfile



This article covers how to set up your network interface using Netplan and NMTUI. Setting up the network interfaces is one of the most basic step that every system administrator and server engineers have to do to make it accessible over the network.

Netplan is based on YAML based configuration system that makes configuration process very simple. Netplan has replaced the old configuration file /etc/network/interfaces that we previously used for configuring network interfaces in Ubuntu.


To Restart the network service

1. Once all the configurations are successfully applied, restart the Network-Manager service by running the following command:

$ sudo systemctl restart network-manager

2. If you are using a Ubuntu Server, instead use the following command:

$sudo systemctl restart system-networkd


To Verify IP address

Now to verify if the new configurations are successfully applied, run the following command to verify the IP address:

$ ip a


The Netplan default configuration file is under the directory /etc/netplan

You can find that using the following command:

$ ls /etc/netplan/

To view the content of Netplan network configuration file, run the following command:

$ cat /etc/netplan/*.yaml



This article covers how to create ZFS storage pools, how to destroy the pool, and specify the mount point. ZFS is a combined file system and logical volume manager.

If you are dealing with large amounts of data, or providing a backing filesystem for virtualization, ZFS is a great choice.


Features of ZFS includes:

1. Protection against data corruption

2. High storage capacity (256 ZiB)

3. Snapshots and copy-on-write clones and continuous integrity checking to name but a few. 


To Install ZFS on Ubuntu:

1. The main components of ZFS are maintained as a standard Ubuntu package, so to install simply run:

$ sudo apt install zfsutils-linux

2. After that, we can check if ZFS was installed correctly by running:

$ whereis zfs



This article covers the procedure of creating and using bash aliases. Running long and complex commands is usually tedious and time-consuming. Aliases provide much-needed relief by providing shortcuts to those complex commands.

These shortcuts can easily be called on the terminal and yield the same result as the complex command. 

This tutorial shows how to create and add aliases permanently to your bash shell on Linux and Unix-like systems.


To Create Bash Aliases

Creating aliases in bash is very straight forward. 

The syntax is as follows:

alias alias_name="command_to_run"

An alias declaration starts with the alias keyword followed by the alias name, an equal sign and the command you want to run when you type the alias. 



This article covers method to comfortably find and kill running process on a Linux system.

If you run an application, it runs some process in the background. If you want to close this application forcefully, you can kill the process associated to it.

To kill a process, you need to know the its process ID (PID). The next section tells you how to find the process ID of a program.


To Kill the process using the PID

1. Once you have the PID of the desired application, use the following command to kill the process:

$ sudo kill -9 process_id

2. If you have more than one process id, you can kill all of them together by providing all the PIDs.

$ sudo kill -9 process_id_1 process_id_2 process_id_3



This article covers how easy it is to install Geary on a Linux Mint 20 system. However, if you do not want to use this email client anymore, then you can remove it from your Linux system all the more conveniently.

Geary is a GTK-based mail app that lets you read, find and send email through a modern interface replete with GNOME Shell desktop integrations (notifications, GNOME Online Accounts, etc). 

One major reason for using Geary over, say, Mozilla Thunderbird or Evolution is that it's built around  “conversations” rather than individual mails.


To Install Geary on Ubuntu

Add the Geary Team PPA to your software sources:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:geary-team/releases
$ sudo apt install geary



This article covers how to use the shred command in Debian 10 Buster system along with various command line options.

You have seen that how the shred command overwrites and deletes the files, making them hard to recover using any recovery tools.

Shred old data files for the same reason you shred old paper documents. 


Commands included in the secure-delete bundle:

1. srm is a secure rm, used to erase files by deleting them and overwriting their hard drive space.

2. sfill is a tool to overwrite all free space on your hard drive.

3. sswap is used to overwrite and cleanse your swap space.

4. sdmem is used to cleanse your RAM.


How to Shred a Single FIle ?

To shred a single file, we can use the following command.

The options we are using are:

i. u: Deallocate and remove the file after overwriting.

ii. v: Verbose option, so that shred tells us what it is doing.

iii. z: Performs a final overwrite with zeroes.

$ shred -uvz test.txt_01.txt

Here, shred overwrites the file four times by default.

The first three passes use random data, and the final pass uses zeroes, as we requested.

It then removes the file and overwrites some of the metadata in the inode.



This article covers Data Backup Software for Linux. Data Backup and Protection are key concerns of many users, companies, and organizations. For this purpose, many data backup and data protection systems have been introduced and still many are being developed every day, deciding to choose and select the best and most suitable platform meeting needs and requirements. Each tool offers enhanced and state-of-the-art capabilities to provide the utmost data protection and data backup. 

All the listed and discussed backup software, i.e., Acronis, Nakivo, IDrive, MSP360, and Backblaze assure utmost performance and are acclaimed by its users.

However, the task of selecting one tool among the top five best-listed backup software solely depends on user requirements and expectations from the backup tool along with the cost one is willing to spend on the backup software. 

Other than that, each tool listed provides commendable features and data protection services.


What to look for when choosing backup software for an enterprise?

Make sure the following features are supported backup software you deploy:

1. Open source software – You must use software for which the original source code is made freely available and may be and modified. This ensures that you can recover your data in case vendor/project stopped working on software or refused to provide patches.

2. Cross-platform support – Make sure backup software works well on the OS deployed on all desktop and server operating systems.

3. Data format – Open data format ensures that you can recover data in case vendor or project stopped working on software.

4. Autochangers – Autochangers are nothing but a variety of backup devices, including library, near-line storage, and autoloader. Autochangers allows you to automate the task of loading, mounting, and labeling backup media such as tape.

5. Backup media – Make sure you can backup data on tape, disk, DVD and in cloud storage such as AWS.

6. Encryption datastream – Make sure all client-to-server traffic will be encrypted to ensure transmission integrity over the LAN/WAN/Internet.

7. Database support – Make sure backup software can backup database server such as MySQL or Oracle.

8. Backup span multiple volumes – Backup software can split each backup (dumpfile) into a series of parts, allowing for different parts to existing on different volumes. This ensures that large backups (such as 100TB file) can be stored on larger than a single backup device such as disk or tape volume.

9. VSS (Volume Shadow Copy) – It is Microsoft's Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) and it is used to create snapshots of data that is to be backed up. Make sure backup software support VSS for MS-Windows client/server.

10. Deduplication – It is a data compression technique for eliminating duplicate copies of repeating data (for example, images).

11.  License and cost – Make sure you understand and use of open source license under which the original backup software is made available to you.

12. Commercial support – Open source software can provide community based (such as email list or fourm) or professional (such as subscriptions provided at additional cost) based support. You can use paid professional support for training and consulting purpose.

13. Reports and alerts – Finally, you must able to see backup reports, current job status, and get alert when something goes wrong while making backups.



This article covers different methods to install and launch Minecraft on Ubuntu OS. Also, you can remove Minecraft in case you need to do so.

Minecraft is a game about placing blocks and going on adventures. It's set in infinitely-generated worlds of wide open terrain – icy mountains, swampy bayous, vast pastures and much more – filled with secrets, wonders and peril!


To Install Minecraft on Ubuntu:

1. Open the Terminal application either through the system Application Launcher search bar or by using the Ctrl+Alt+T shortcut.

Then, enter the following command in order to download the file Minecraft.deb from the Mojang website:

$ wget -o ~/Minecraft.deb https://launcher.mojang.com/download/Minecraft.deb

2. The most feasible way to install software from the .deb package is through the gdebi tool. If you do not have gdebi installed on your system, you can install is through the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt install gdebi-core

3. Run the gdebi command as follows in order to install the Minecraft .deb package:

$ sudo gdebi ~/Minecraft.deb


How to Remove Minecraft from Ubuntu ?

You can completely remove Minecraft from your system along with all the configurations you might have made, through the following command:

$ sudo apt-get --purge remove minecraft launcher

You will be presented with a y/n option. Enter y and the Minecraft Launcher, and the downloaded game will be removed from your system.



This article covers how to force a user to change their password in any Linux Distribution.

If we create a user account with the default password, we can use this trick to force the user to change their account's default password when they first login to their account. 

This will hopefully improve the security of their account. 

We can achieve this in two ways.

1. Using passwd command

2. Using chage command



This article covers how to check the system or hardware details of your Ubuntu 20.04 system.

If you want to check all the above details for Debian 10, click here. While to check system or hardware details for CentOS, click here


For the command line tool, inxi is available to check:

i. Audio/sound card(s), driver, sound server.

ii. System battery info

iii. CPU output

iv. Hard Disk info

v. Graphics card, driver, display server, resolution, renderer, OpenGL version.

vi. vii. General info, including processes, uptime, memory, IRC client or shell type, inxi version.

vii. Memory (RAM) data (Require root)

viii. Network card, driver.

ix. system info, partition info, sensors output, USB data, and more.


To install inxi in Ubuntu, simply run command:

$ sudo apt-get install inxi

Then run man inxi to get a list of command options, or run inxi -F to get a brief output containing system or hardware details.



This article covers how to easily install Visual Studio code on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. Visual Studio Code is an open-source cross-platform code editor developed by Microsoft.

It has a built-in debugging support, embedded Git control, syntax highlighting, code completion, integrated terminal, code refactoring and snippets.


To Install Visual Studio Code on Ubuntu:

1. First, update the packages index and install the dependencies by typing:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install software-properties-common apt-transport-https wget

2. Next, import the Microsoft GPG key using the following wget command :

$ wget -q https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -

And enable the Visual Studio Code repository by typing:

$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb [arch=amd64] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/vscode stable main"

3. Once the apt repository is enabled , install the latest version of Visual Studio Code with:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install code



This article covers how to install Composer on your Linux system and use it for handling the packages and dependencies of the PHP programming language. Composer is a dependency manager for PHP (similar to npm for Node.js or pip for Python ).

With Composer, you can specify the PHP libraries your project depends on, and it will pull and manage all libraries and dependencies for you. 

Composer is used in all modern PHP frameworks and platforms such as Laravel, Symfony, Drupal, and Magento.


To install PHP Composer on Ubuntu:

1. Ensure that you have all the necessary requirements installed on your system:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install wget php-cli php-zip unzip

2. Composer offers an installer written in PHP that we’ll use to install Composer. Use wget to download the installer:

$ wget -O composer-setup.php https://getcomposer.org/installer

The command above will save the file as composer-setup.php in the current working directory .

3. Run the following command to install Composer in the /usr/local/bin directory:

$ sudo php composer-setup.php --install-dir=/usr/local/bin --filename=composer

4. To install composer locally enter:

$ sudo php composer-setup.php --install-dir=/path/to/project

5. When a new Composer version is available, you can update your installation using the following command:

$ sudo composer self-update 



This article covers how To Reset Gnome Desktop Settings To Default. 


To Reset Gnome Desktop in Ubuntu 20.04, Fedora, & Other Linux:

1. First install Gnome Tweaks (if you don’t have it) from your system package manager. Then launch the tool, go to menu -> Reset to Defaults.

2. Ubuntu's default Settings offers a button on header-bar to reset all keyboard shortcuts.

3. And you can reset most Gnome database to default via dconf command. Simply open terminal and run:

$ dconf reset -f /org/gnome/

4. Some changes need a restart to apply.


To install Gnome Tweaks.

Run the command below:

$ sudo apt install gnome-tweaks

After running the command you'll need to restart the session (logout/login).



This article covers an overview about Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver). Also we covered in details the main features of this Ubuntu release.

The Ubuntu operating system's latest Long Term Support (LTS) release, Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic Beaver), was released on April 26, 2018. 


To upgrade an Ubuntu system of version 16.04 or later to Ubuntu 18.04:

1. Back Up Your System.

2. Update Currently Installed Packages

Begin by updating the package list:

$ sudo apt-get update

3. Next, upgrade installed packages to their latest available versions:

$ sudo apt-get upgrade

4. Now, use the dist-upgrade command with apt-get, which will perform any additional upgrades that involve changing dependencies, adding or removing new packages as necessary.

$ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade



This article covers method to Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04. If you are still using Ubuntu version 16.04, you may want to consider updating to the latest Long Term Support release, version 18.04.


What does LTS or Long Term Support Release Mean?

A Long Term Support release or LTS release, means that Ubuntu will support the version for five years. 

If you are running a production environment, you will likely want to use a Long-Term Support version of your preferred server operating system.


What is New in Ubuntu Version 18.04:

1. Depending on when you installed Ubuntu version 16.04, the Linux kernel used would have been anywhere from version 4.4 to 4.10. Version 18.04 uses Linux kernel 4.15 at launch.

2. Linux kernel 4.5 now includes new features like CPU controller for the cgroup v2 interface, AMD secure memory encryption support, the latest MD driver with software RAID enhancements, and improved power management for systems with SATA Link Power Management.

3. The new kernel also includes some Ubuntu-specific updates, Linux security module stacking support, and the signing of POWER host and NV kernels is now supported.

18.04 does not install Python 2 default, and it updated Python version 3 to version 3.6.

4. Apache updates to version 2.4.29 and supports HTTP/2.

5. Nginx updates to version 1.14.0.

6. PHP updates from version 7.1 to 7.2.

7. The ifupdown network manager is removed on new installs and is deprecated. netplan.io is the new network configuration manager.

8. OpenSSH now refuses to use RSA keys smaller than 1024 bits. This command can report the length of a key.

ssh-keygen -l -f /path/to/key.pub

32-bit PowerPC support has been dropped.

9. The Subuquity server installer brings live sessions and fast installs of Ubuntu Desktop to server users.

10. Ubuntu 18.04 ships with LXD system container manager version 3.0. Version 3.0 of LXD allows for clustering of LXD servers, adds support of NVIDIA run-time pass-through, and lxd-p2c is a new tool that turns existing systems into LXD containers.


To Upgrade Ubuntu from 16.04 to 18.04:

1.  Create a backup of your environment.

2. Run the command below to update and upgrade the packages.

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

3. To add the Update Manager to your server add command below to your terminal.

$ sudo apt install update-manager-core

4. Now that you have created a backup installed package updates and have the upgrade manager you are ready to upgrade Ubuntu.

$ sudo do-release-upgrade

5. To check what version of Ubuntu is currently installed use the command below.

$ lsb_release -a



This article covers steps To Install Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) stack on Ubuntu Linux System. PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor, and it’s a script-based server-side programming language. PHP is often used to automate server tasks. It handles tasks like dynamic content, database requests, and processing and displaying data.

A "LAMP" stack is a group of open source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. 

This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. 

The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To Install PHP 7.2 with Apache on Ubuntu:

1. Ensure you are using the latest Ubuntu updates by entering the following command into a terminal window:

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. To install PHP 7.2, enter the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install php libapache2-mod-php

Confirm the installation by hitting Enter. The system will download and install PHP from the software repositories. This command also installs dependencies and modules for use with Apache.

3. Verify PHP was installed, with the command:

$ php -v



This article covers how to install an Apache web server on your Ubuntu 20.04 server.

Apache or Apache HTTP server is a free and open source web server, developed and maintained by the Apache Software Foundation.

Apache allows website developers to serve their content over the web. It serves as a delivery man by delivering files requested by users when they enter a domain name in their browser's address bar.


To Install Apache 2 on Ubuntu Linux:

1. You can download the latest version of a software by first updating the local package index of Ubuntu repositories. Open the Terminal and enter the following command in order to do so:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, enter the following command as sudo in order to install Apache2 and its required dependencies:

$ sudo apt install apache2

You may be prompted with a y/n option to continue installation. Please enter Y, after which the installation procedure will begin.

3. When the installation is complete, you can check the version number and thus verify that Apache2 is indeed installed on your system by entering the following command:

$ apache2 -version


Apache Server Logs Location:

1. /var/log/apache2/access.log: By default, every request to your web server is recorded in this log file unless Apache is configured to do otherwise.

2. /var/log/apache2/error.log: By default, all errors are recorded in this file.

The LogLevel directive in the Apache configuration specifies how much detail the error logs will contain.



This article covers method to Secure Apache with Let's Encrypt on Ubuntu 20.04. Let's Encrypt is a certificate authority created by the Internet Security Research Group (ISRG).

It provides free SSL certificates via a fully automated process designed to eliminate manual certificate creation, validation, installation, and renewal.

Certificates issued by Let's Encrypt are valid for 90 days from the issue date and trusted by all major browsers today.<