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Configure Static IP Addresses on Ubuntu 18.04 Server - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers method to set up a static IP address on Ubuntu 20.04. Basically, in most network configurations, the IP address is assigned dynamically by the router DHCP server. 

The recommended way to assign a static IP address to a device on your LAN is to configure a Static DHCP on your router. Static DHCP or DHCP reservation is a feature found on most routers which makes the DHCP server to automatically assign the same IP address to a specific network device, each time the device requests an address from the DHCP server. This works by assigning a static IP to the device's unique MAC address.


To Get the name of network interface and the default gateway in Linux:

You can either use ip command or the network manager CLI like this:

$ nmcli d


Download Ubuntu 18.04 LTS ISO File – Desktop & Server

This article covers a review about Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver). You can find the Ubuntu 18.04 release notes on its official website.


Ubuntu 18.04.4 (Bionic Beaver) was released on February 12, 2020, the long-term support (LTS) release of the Ubuntu, this was the 4rd point release of the 18.04 LTS and it was available for desktop / laptop computers and servers. Ubuntu 18.04.4 desktop didn't support 32-bit CPU architecture, and is only available to install 64-bit (x86-64) versions. Compared to previous releases, this Ubuntu version includes security updates and fixed bugs.


Install Visual Studio Code on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to easily install Visual Studio code on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. Visual Studio Code is an open-source cross-platform code editor developed by Microsoft.

It has a built-in debugging support, embedded Git control, syntax highlighting, code completion, integrated terminal, code refactoring and snippets.


To Install Visual Studio Code on Ubuntu:

1. First, update the packages index and install the dependencies by typing:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install software-properties-common apt-transport-https wget

2. Next, import the Microsoft GPG key using the following wget command :

$ wget -q https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc -O- | sudo apt-key add -

And enable the Visual Studio Code repository by typing:

$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb [arch=amd64] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/vscode stable main"

3. Once the apt repository is enabled , install the latest version of Visual Studio Code with:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install code


Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) Release

This article covers an overview about Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver). Also we covered in details the main features of this Ubuntu release.

The Ubuntu operating system's latest Long Term Support (LTS) release, Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic Beaver), was released on April 26, 2018. 


To upgrade an Ubuntu system of version 16.04 or later to Ubuntu 18.04:

1. Back Up Your System.

2. Update Currently Installed Packages

Begin by updating the package list:

$ sudo apt-get update

3. Next, upgrade installed packages to their latest available versions:

$ sudo apt-get upgrade

4. Now, use the dist-upgrade command with apt-get, which will perform any additional upgrades that involve changing dependencies, adding or removing new packages as necessary.

$ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade


Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers method to Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04. If you are still using Ubuntu version 16.04, you may want to consider updating to the latest Long Term Support release, version 18.04.


What does LTS or Long Term Support Release Mean?

A Long Term Support release or LTS release, means that Ubuntu will support the version for five years. 

If you are running a production environment, you will likely want to use a Long-Term Support version of your preferred server operating system.


What is New in Ubuntu Version 18.04:

1. Depending on when you installed Ubuntu version 16.04, the Linux kernel used would have been anywhere from version 4.4 to 4.10. Version 18.04 uses Linux kernel 4.15 at launch.

2. Linux kernel 4.5 now includes new features like CPU controller for the cgroup v2 interface, AMD secure memory encryption support, the latest MD driver with software RAID enhancements, and improved power management for systems with SATA Link Power Management.

3. The new kernel also includes some Ubuntu-specific updates, Linux security module stacking support, and the signing of POWER host and NV kernels is now supported.

18.04 does not install Python 2 default, and it updated Python version 3 to version 3.6.

4. Apache updates to version 2.4.29 and supports HTTP/2.

5. Nginx updates to version 1.14.0.

6. PHP updates from version 7.1 to 7.2.

7. The ifupdown network manager is removed on new installs and is deprecated. netplan.io is the new network configuration manager.

8. OpenSSH now refuses to use RSA keys smaller than 1024 bits. This command can report the length of a key.

ssh-keygen -l -f /path/to/key.pub

32-bit PowerPC support has been dropped.

9. The Subuquity server installer brings live sessions and fast installs of Ubuntu Desktop to server users.

10. Ubuntu 18.04 ships with LXD system container manager version 3.0. Version 3.0 of LXD allows for clustering of LXD servers, adds support of NVIDIA run-time pass-through, and lxd-p2c is a new tool that turns existing systems into LXD containers.


To Upgrade Ubuntu from 16.04 to 18.04:

1.  Create a backup of your environment.

2. Run the command below to update and upgrade the packages.

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

3. To add the Update Manager to your server add command below to your terminal.

$ sudo apt install update-manager-core

4. Now that you have created a backup installed package updates and have the upgrade manager you are ready to upgrade Ubuntu.

$ sudo do-release-upgrade

5. To check what version of Ubuntu is currently installed use the command below.

$ lsb_release -a


Install PHP On Ubuntu 18.04 | 16.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers steps To Install Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) stack on Ubuntu Linux System. PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor, and it’s a script-based server-side programming language. PHP is often used to automate server tasks. It handles tasks like dynamic content, database requests, and processing and displaying data.

A "LAMP" stack is a group of open source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. 

This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. 

The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.


To Install PHP 7.2 with Apache on Ubuntu:

1. Ensure you are using the latest Ubuntu updates by entering the following command into a terminal window:

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. To install PHP 7.2, enter the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install php libapache2-mod-php

Confirm the installation by hitting Enter. The system will download and install PHP from the software repositories. This command also installs dependencies and modules for use with Apache.

3. Verify PHP was installed, with the command:

$ php -v


Use Let's Encrypt To Secure Apache2 On Ubuntu - How to do it ?

This article covers method to Secure Apache with Let's Encrypt on Ubuntu 20.04. Let's Encrypt is a certificate authority created by the Internet Security Research Group (ISRG).

It provides free SSL certificates via a fully automated process designed to eliminate manual certificate creation, validation, installation, and renewal.

Certificates issued by Let's Encrypt are valid for 90 days from the issue date and trusted by all major browsers today.


To install Certbot on Ubuntu:

Certbot is a command-line tool that automates the tasks for obtaining and renewing Let’s Encrypt SSL certificates. 

The certbot package is included in the default Ubuntu repositories. 

Update the packages list and install certbot using the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install certbot

Before enabling the configuration files, make sure both mod_ssl and mod_headers are enabled by issuing:

$ sudo a2enmod ssl
$ sudo a2enmod headers

Next, enable the SSL configuration files by running the following commands:

$ sudo a2enconf letsencrypt
$ sudo a2enconf ssl-params

Enable the HTTP/2 module, which will make your sites faster and more robust:

$ sudo a2enmod http2

Reload the Apache configuration for changes to take effect:

$ sudo systemctl reload apache2


Install NetBeans on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers the different methods for the installation of NetBeans on Ubuntu OS.

NetBeans is an open source integrated development environment that comes with good cross-platform support. 

You can configure this tool to support a wide array of development objectives. 

Practically, you can develop Web, Desktop and Mobile Applications without leaving this platform.

Besides this, the user can add a wide array of known languages such as PHP, C, C++, HTML, Ajax, JavaScript, JSP, Ruby on Rails  and so on.


To install Netbeans IDE on any Linux distribution using Snap.

Snap is a universal package manager and if you have enabled Snap on your distribution, you can install it using the following command:

$ sudo snap install netbeans --classic


Install GNOME Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers methods to Install GNOME Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Most Ubuntu servers are run on CLI (Command-Line Interface) mode.

But in some cases, one may need to have a desktop to install some applications with GUI (Grapich User Interface) mode.

To Update Repositories and Packages on Ubuntu:
Start by updating the repositories and package lists:

# sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

Press Y and hit enter when asked if you want to continue.

To Install Gnome on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa:
1. First, make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade
$ sudo apt install tasksel

2. To install GNOME desktop vanilla version execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install gnome-session gdm3

3. To Install Full Gnome Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04:

$ sudo tasksel install ubuntu-desktop


Install Visual Studio Code on CentOS 8 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install the VS code package on CentOS 8 using the command line application. Visual Studio Code is a free and open-source, cross-platform IDE or code editor that enables developers to develop applications and write code using a myriad of programming languages such as C, C++, Python, Go and Java to mention a few.


To Install Visual Studio Code on Debian, Ubuntu and Linux Mint:

1. Update your system by running the command.

$ sudo apt update

2. Once updated, proceed and install dependencies required by executing.

$ sudo apt install software-properties-common apt-transport-https

3. Next, using the wget command, download the repository and import Microsoft’s GPG key as shown:

$ wget -qO- https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc | gpg --dearmor > packages.microsoft.gpg
$ sudo install -o root -g root -m 644 packages.microsoft.gpg /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/
$ sudo sh -c 'echo "deb [arch=amd64 signed-by=/etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/packages.microsoft.gpg] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/vscode stable main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/vscode.list'

4. Once you’ve enabled the repository, update the system and install Visual Studio Code by running the command:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install code


Install Python 3.9 on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install and compile Python3.9 using different methods, using PPA repo, compiling it from the source code, and installing it using the Linuxbrew tool.

We can now start using Python 3.9 for our projects.

Python is a high-level programming language, mostly used to write scripting and automation. It is a very popular language known for its simplicity and easy syntax. 

Python one of the best language for for artificial intelligence (AI).


To Install Python 3.9 on Ubuntu 20.04 using APT:

1. Update package list, type:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install software-properties-common package to easily manage distribution and independent software vendor software sources:

$ sudo apt install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa

3. Now install python 3.9 using apt command:

$ sudo apt-get install python3.9

4. The following command can help to identify the proper install location of Python:

$ which python3

The execution of the above command produces the following output on console:

/usr/bin/python3


Install FileZilla on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install FileZilla on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. Also we mentioned the steps to remove FileZilla in case you need to so.

FileZilla is a ftp client for both windows & linux operating system. It is a powerful client for plain FTP, FTP over SSL/TLS (FTPS) and the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). 


To Install FileZilla from command line on Ubuntu / Debian:

Use the following commands.

$sudo apt-get update
$sudo apt-get install filezilla

First command synchronizes the configured repositories.

This command is used to ensure that always the latest version of the software is installed.


Install VMware Workstation Player on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step Process ?

This article covers how to install VMware Workstation on your instance of Ubuntu 20.04. With a virtual machine application like VMware, you can run another operating system inside your current operating system.


To Install VMware in Ubuntu:

1. Install required build packages

Open a terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and use the command below to install required build packages and Linux Kernel headers:

$ sudo apt install build-essential

2. Download VMware Workstation Player

Next step is to download the VMware Workstation Player from their website.

https://www.vmware.com/products/workstation-player.html

3. Install VMware Player

4. Use the command below to make the file executable:

$ chmod +x ~/Downloads/VMware-Player*

5. And then run the installation file:

$ sudo ~/Downloads/VMware-Player*

This will open an installation window.


To Uninstall VMware Player from Ubuntu:

If, for some reasons, you want to uninstall VMware Player, use the following command:

$ sudo /usr/bin/vmware-installer -u vmware-player

Press "Enter" and VMware Player will be removed from your system.


Install Skype on Ubuntu 20.04 - Step by Step process to perform it ?

This article covers the different methods to install Skype on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS including both the GUI and the command line. 


To install the Skype snap, open your terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and run the following command:

$ sudo snap install skype --classic

That's it. You have installed Skype on your Ubuntu machine, and you can start using it.


How to install Skype with apt on Ubuntu ?

Skype is available from the official Microsoft Apt repositories. To install it, follow the steps below:

1. Open your terminal and download the latest Skype .deb package using the following wget command:

$ wget https://go.skype.com/skypeforlinux-64.deb

2. Once the download is complete, install Skype by running the following command as a user with sudo privileges :

$ sudo apt install ./skypeforlinux-64.deb

You will be prompted to enter your password.

3. When a new version is released, you can update the Skype package through your desktop standard Software Update tool or by running the following commands in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update

$ sudo apt upgrade


Configure NFS Server and Client on Linux Mint 20 - Step by Step process to do it ?

This article covers how to setup the NFS server and client on Mint. You will learn how to install the NFS server and client, configure and share NFS export directories, and mount/unmount the NFS shares on the client.

Network File System (NFS), is a distributed file system that allows various remote systems to access a file share. We all know that files should be stored on a central server for security and ease of backup. NFS provides us with a file sharing service that is easily managed and controls client access to resources.


To Install the NFS Client on the Client Systems:

1. Install the NFS-Common Package. As is the norm, begin by updating the system packages and repositories before anything else.

2. Create a NFS Mount Point on Client.

3. Mount NFS Share on Client System.

4. Testing the NFS Share on Client System.


A Network File System (NFS) allows remote hosts to mount file systems over a network and interact with those file systems as though they are mounted locally. This enables system administrators to consolidate resources onto centralized servers on the network.


Benefits of setting up an NFS server:

1. Enables multiple computers to use the same files, so everyone on the network can access the same data.

2. Reduces storage costs by having computers share applications instead of needing local disk space for each user application.


Modify the Date, Time, and Timezone in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - How to do it ?

This article will guide you on the different methods to modify the date, time, and Timezone of your #Ubuntu 20.04 system. 

However, if you have attempted to change these entities just for the sake of demonstration, then it is highly recommended to activate the #NTP Service again once you are done so that your system can again synchronize itself with NIST atomic clock. 

This can be done by running the “timedatectl set-ntp yes” command.

To change the time zone in Linux systems use the sudo timedatectl set-timezone command followed by the long name of the time zone you want to set.


To change the hostname in #Linux:

1. Type the following command to edit /etc/hostname using nano or vi text editor: sudo nano /etc/hostname. Delete the old name and setup new name.

2. Next Edit the /etc/hosts file: sudo nano /etc/hosts.

3. Reboot the system to changes take effect: sudo reboot.


#NTP server sync date and time in Linux by:

i. On the Linux machine, log in as root.

ii. Run the ntpdate -u <ntpserver> command to update the machine clock. For example, ntpdate -u ntp-time.

iii. Open the /etc/ntp. conf file and add the NTP servers used in your environment.

iv. Run the service ntpd start command to start the NTP service and implement you configuration changes.


Install VirtualBox on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Step by step process ?

This article will guide you on the different methods to #install #VirtualBox on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Now, you can create your first guest Linux machine or Windows environment on your Ubuntu system. 

#Xen is a popular, open-source virtual machine application that is officially supported by #Ubuntu. 

It provides high performance, but only supports a small number of host and guest operating systems. 

Ubuntu is supported as both a host and guest operating system, and Xen is available in the universe software channel.

If you want to explore more about the working of the Virtualbox then, you can visit the Official documentation of Virtualbox use from this page .

VirtualBox can be installed on #Windows, Linux, macOS, Solaris, and FreeBSD.


To find the #Linux version:

1. Open the terminal application (#bash shell).

2. For remote server login using the ssh: ssh user@server-name.

3. Type any one of the following command to find os name and version in Linux: cat /etc/os-release. lsb_release -a. hostnamectl.

4. Type the following command to find Linux kernel version: uname -r.


Step by step process to install Zimbra on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on how to #install Zimbra on Ubuntu. Zimbra is an open-source #mail server that offers several features. It is recommended to install it in a #machine that has enough memory, processor, and disk space available. 

To install and configure #Zimbra mail server:

1. Install System Packages.

2. Configure System #Hostname.

3. Add a Static IP Address.

4. Disable Unwanted Services.

5. Install Zimbra Collaboration Suite Open Source Edition.

6. Zimba Initial Configuration.


Steps to install Google Chrome in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on the different methods to #install #Google #Chrome on #Ubuntu 20.04 system using two different ways using the command line and graphical methods. We have executed different commands on the terminal for the installation.

To Install Google Chrome on Ubuntu Graphically:

1. Click on Download Chrome.

2. Download the DEB file.

3. Save the DEB file on your #computer.

4. Double click on the downloaded DEB file.

5. Click Install button.

6. Right click on the deb file to select and open with Software Install.

7. Google Chrome installation finished.


Steps to start, stop or restart services in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you steps on how you stop, start, or restart a #service in #Ubuntu 20.04. service operates on the files in /etc/init. d and was used in conjunction with the old init system. #systemctl operates on the files in /lib/systemd . If there is a file for your service in /lib/systemd it will use that first and if not it will fall back to the file in /etc/init. To list all loaded services on your system (whether active; running, exited or failed, use the list-units subcommand and --type switch with a value of service. To Check running process in #Linux: 1. Open the #terminal #window on Linux. 2. For remote Linux server use the ssh command for log in purpose. 3. Type the ps aux command to see all running process in Linux. 4. Alternatively, you can issue the top command or htop command to view running process in Linux.


Steps to Install GCC on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS ?

This article will guide you on the steps to install #GCC on Ubuntu 20.04. Also you will learn the method of running a basic C program by making use of this #compiler. To install GCC on #Ubuntu: 1. Start by updating the packages list: sudo apt update. 2. Install the build-essential package by typing: sudo apt install build-essential. 3. To validate that the GCC compiler is successfully installed, use the gcc --version command which prints the GCC version: gcc --version.