This article covers the different methods of Installing Django on Ubuntu 20.04. With it, you can easily perform creation of Django applications, superuser creation, and removal of Django. 

Django is a full-featured Python web framework for developing dynamic websites and applications. Using Django, you can quickly create Python web applications and rely on the framework to do a good deal of the heavy lifting.

How to install Django from Ubuntu repositories ?

1. First, update your local package index with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, check which version of Python you have installed. 18.04 ships with Python 3.6 by default, which you can verify by typing:

$ python3 -V

This article covers how to install elasticsearch in the stable version of Ubuntu 20.04. Now you can use the hosted elasticsearch server for doing searches.

If your application generates a huge amount of data and the search procedures are slow, then using elasticsearch will be best.

This article covers methods to install Nmap on your CentOS machine. Nmap is a handy utility for network scanning and security auditing. Nmap contains variety of options for scanning remote hosts. Have a look at the 15 Mostly Used Nmap Commands for Scanning Remote Hosts.

How to Install Nmap on Debian / Ubuntu ?

1. Install Nmap on Ubuntu by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install nmap

2. The system prompts you to confirm the installation by typing y.

3. After the installation is finished, verify the installed version of Nmap by entering:

$ nmap –version

This article covers how to install GitLab on your local devices or server. Also, you will learn how to integrate the GitLab CE into our local Ubuntu system. GitLab CE, or Community Edition, is an open-source application primarily used to host Git repositories, with additional development-related features like issue tracking. It is designed to be hosted using your own infrastructure, and provides flexibility in deploying as an internal repository store for your development team, a public way to interface with users, or a means for contributors to host their own projects.

This article covers how to install the AnyDesk application on CentOS 8 system using the command-line approach. Once you've installed AnyDesk on CentOS 8 / RHEL 8, you’ll be able to access your Linux system from Windows, Mac, and other Linux based systems. You'll enjoy its simple and user-friendly set up and administration tools which enables you to easily manage remote system.

This article covers the installation of Gradle on the Ubuntu system using different ways. Gradle is a free and open-source build tool primarily used for Java projects. Gradle helps you to automate, build and deliver software efficiently. Gradle uses Groovy object-oriented programming language instead of XML to define the project configurations. Gradle also supports many popular IDE platforms, such as Android Studio, Eclipse, IDEA, and NetBeans.

How to Install Java on Linux ?

Gradle needs Java to be installed on your system. You can install the latest version of Java by running the following command:

$ apt-get install default-jdk -y 

After installing Java, you can verify the Java with the following command:

$ java -version

This article covers how to set up UFW on Ubuntu 18.04 system. It advised to deny all the incoming connections except necessary ports. Uncomplicated Firewall or UFW is an interface to iptables that is designed to simplify the process of configuring a firewall. While iptables is a firm and flexible tool, it can be sometimes tricky for beginners to learn how to use it to properly configure a firewall. If a user is looking to get started securing his or her network, UFW may be the appropriate solution.

UFW is installed on Ubuntu by default. If it has been uninstalled for some reason, we can install it with the following command:

$ sudo apt install ufw

By default, UFW denies all incoming connections and allows all outgoing connections. It means that a client trying to reach our server would not be able to connect. When an application from our server tries to connect any other server outside, it will be allowed. The following commands serve the purpose:

$ sudo ufw default deny incoming
$ sudo ufw default allow outgoing

This article covers how to install Android Studio using different methods. Also, you will learn how to remove Android Studio in case you don't need it anymore. Android Studio is the most widely used software for android mobile application development. Android Studio is developed by Google and it can run on different operating environments like Windows, macOS, and Linux. Most of the current popular android applications are developed on Android Studio. This tool has various built-in features that provide a stable and fast environment for developing applications.

How to Install Android Studio through snap ?

You can install the android studio using snap on your Ubuntu system using the following command:

$ sudo snap install android-studio --classic

You can also install android studio using the below-mentioned command:

$ sudo snap remove android-studio

This article covers how to Install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on Ubuntu 18.04 system. When developing a website or web application, many users need the functionality of a database system like MySQL. However, interacting with the system solely from the MySQL command-line client requires familiarity with Structured Query Language — more commonly referred to as SQL — which can present a major hurdle for some users. phpMyAdmin was created to allow users to interact with MySQL through an intuitive web interface, running alongside a PHP development environment. 

How to Secure phpMyAdmin with Let's Encrypt SSL ?

Before starting, you will need to install the Certbot client to download and install Let's Encrypt SSL.

1. First, add the Certbot repository with the following command:

$ add-apt-repository ppa:ahasenack/certbot-tlssni01-1875471

2. Next, update the repository and install the Certbot client using the following command:

$ apt-get update -y
$ apt-get install certbot python3-certbot-nginx -y

3. Once the Certbot has been installed, run the following command to download and install the Let's Encrypt SSL for your domain:

$ certbot --nginx -d phpmyadmin.domain.com

This article covers how to check OS version using different methods. You can get more information of Ubuntu releases at official site of the Ubuntu Releases.

If you are using Ubuntu 16.04 then you can Upgrade using this guide Upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.

Ubuntu is a free, open-source Linux-based operating system, which has a long list of release versions. Finding out which Ubuntu version is running on your system can be important when troubleshooting issues or searching for installation guides.

To check the Ubuntu version, use the following command in terminal:

$ lsb_release -a

This will display you some details about your distribution including Ubuntu version:

Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description: Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
Release: 20.04
Codename: focal

This article covers how to change timezone in Ubuntu 18.04. If you have set up your Ubuntu system to fetch Automatic Time Zone, it will sync your system through the internet so that it will have the time zone of your closest location.

Most modern distributions such as Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, Arch, CentOS v.7.x+, and other Unix-based systems use the timedatectl utility. This command allows you to control and edit time and date settings using the command line.

To display the current time and date information use the command:

$ timedatectl

You can set your Ubuntu system to synchronize to the NIST atomic clock:

$ timedatectl set-ntp yes

If you need to turn off NTP synchronizing to be able to adjust the time and date manually, use:

$ timedatectl set-ntp no

This article covers how to change the hostname on Ubuntu 18.04 system using multiple methods. HostName is also referred to as the computer name of your system. It is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication in the computer network. Hostname helps you to access local web pages and other authorized data on your system.

The host name or computer name is usually at system startup in /etc/hostname file.

How to change the computer name on Ubuntu Linux ?

1. Type the following command to edit /etc/hostname using nano or vi text editor:

$ sudo nano /etc/hostname

Delete the old name and setup new name.

2. Next Edit the /etc/hosts file:

$ sudo nano /etc/hosts

Replace any occurrence of the existing computer name with your new one.

3. Reboot the system to changes take effect:

$ sudo reboot

This article covers how to install Skype on your Ubuntu 18.04 desktop system. Basically, Skype is the most popular platform to connect people through their computer systems. You can freely connect to anyone all around the world through text, voice, and video calls. You can also choose to call people on their telephones but that will not be free. 

To Install the Skype snap:

1. Enter the following command in order to refresh the list of available packages:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Since the Snap daemon comes by default in the latest versions of Ubuntu, we do not need to install it. If you are using an older version, you can use the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install snapd

3. Now type in the following command in order to install Skype Classic version:

$ sudo snap install skype --classic

This article covers how to install PHP Composer on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Composer is a popular dependency management tool for PHP, created mainly to facilitate installation and updates for project dependencies. It will check which other packages a specific project depends on and install them for you, using the appropriate versions according to the project requirements. Composer is also commonly used to bootstrap new projects based on popular PHP frameworks, such as Symfony and Laravel.

To Install PHP Composer on Ubuntu:

1. Update your packages:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Install the curl utility:

$ sudo apt-get install curl

3. Download the installer:

$ sudo curl -s https://getcomposer.org/installer | php

4. Move the composer.phar file:

$ sudo mv composer.phar /usr/local/bin/composer

5. Use the composer command to test the installation. If Composer is installed correctly, the server will respond with a long list of help information and commands:

# composer

This article covers how to install Apache Cassandra on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Apache Cassandra is an open-source non-relational database that delivers high performance, linear scalability, and continuous availability. All these features make Cassandra an ideal platform for mission-critical data.

To learn more about Apache Cassandra, visit its official documentation site.

How to install Java on Ubuntu ?

1. To check whether Java is installed, run the command:

$ java -version

2. To install OpenJDK, execute the following apt command:

$ sudo apt install openjdk-8-jdk

3. Once again, confirm that Java is installed by running the command:

$ java -version

How to Install Apache Cassandra in Ubuntu ?

1. First, install the apt-transport-https package to allow access of repositories via the https protocol:

$ sudo apt install apt-transport-https

2. Next, Import the GPG key using following wget command as shown:

$ wget -q -O - https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS | sudo apt-key add -

3. Then add Apache Cassandra's repository to the system’s sources list file as shown:

$ sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/debian 311x main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/cassandra.list'

4. Before installing Apache Cassandra, you need to update the package list first:

$ sudo apt update

5. Then install the NoSQL database using the command:

$ sudo apt install cassandra

6. Usually, Apache Cassandra starts automatically. To confirm its status, run the following command:

$ sudo systemctl status cassandra

7. Additionally, you can verify the stats of your node by running the command:

$ sudo nodetool status

This article covers how to install and Enable SSH service on Ubuntu 18.04 system. You can now login remotely to your server using any SSH client from Linux or Windows system. To increase security of SSH connection by Changing default SSH port to custom one on you system. Get more details about SSH server from official SSH site.

When establishing a remote connection between a client and a server, a primary concern is ensuring security. For Linux users, the best practice of accessing and managing your server remotely is through the cryptographic protocol known as Secure Shell (SSH).

How to Enable SSH on Ubuntu ?

1. To install SSH, first update the package repository cache with:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Now install the OpenSSH software package by entering:

$ sudo apt-get install openssh-server

If prompted, type in your password and press y (yes) to permit the installation.

3. To verify the installation was successful and SSH is running use the command:

$ sudo service ssh status

The confirmation message that you are looking for is: Active: active (running).

This article covers how to install Java Run-time Environment (JRE) and the Java Developer Kit (JDK) on Ubuntu 20.04. Java is one of the most popular programming languages. It is used for developing anything from lightweight mobile to desktop applications.

Oracle's licensing agreement for Java doesn’t allow automatic installation through package managers. To install the Oracle JDK, which is the official version distributed by Oracle, you must create an Oracle account and manually download the JDK to add a new package repository for the version you'd like to use. 

To install the Default JRE/JDK 

1. To install this version, first update the package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, check if Java is already installed:

$ java -version

If Java is not currently installed, you’ll see the following output:

Command 'java' not found, but can be installed with:
apt install default-jre
apt install openjdk-11-jre-headless
apt install openjdk-8-jre-headless

3. Execute the following command to install the default Java Runtime Environment (JRE), which will install the JRE from OpenJDK 11:

$ sudo apt install default-jre

The JRE will allow you to run almost all Java software.

4. Verify the installation with:

java -version

This article covers how to install Certbot, to get let's encrypt certificates. SSL/TLS encryption is an integral part of the network infrastructure. Any web and mail server allows you to enable data encryption.

To begin, you must have a domain name. Its DNS A-record must contain the public address of your server. If the firewall is enabled, open access for HTTP and HTTPS traffic:

$ sudo ufw allow 80
$ sudo ufw allow 443

To Install the "Let's Encrypt" package on Ubuntu:

1. Run the command below to install Let's Encrypt.

$ sudo apt install letsencrypt

2. Check the "certbot.timer" utility for automatic certificate renewal.

$ sudo systemctl status certbot.timer

This article covers the PHP installation on Ubuntu 20.04 system.  Basically, popular Content Management platforms such as WordPress, Drupal, and Magento are based on PHP.

To Install PHP on Ubuntu 20.04:

1. Update your server.

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. Install PHP on Ubuntu 20.04, just run the following command.

$ apt-get install php

3. To verify if PHP is installed, run the following command.

php -v

To Install PHP 7.4 modules (extensions):

Run the command below.

apt-get install php-pear php-fpm php-dev php-zip php-curl php-xmlrpc php-gd php-mysql php-mbstring php-xml libapache2-mod-php

To check all the PHP modules available in Ubuntu, run:

$ apt-cache search --names-only ^php

How to install PHP 8.0 on Ubuntu 20.04 or 18.04 ?

1. First, update your Ubuntu server:

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. Add the PHP repository (by Ondřej Surý):

$ apt-get install software-properties-common
$ add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php

3. And finally, update your package list:

$ apt-get update

4. Install PHP 8.0 with the following command:

$ apt-get install php8.0

5. To check if PHP 8.0 is installed on your server, run the following command:

$ php -v

6. Install PHP 8.0 modules (extensions)

You may need additional packages and modules depending on your applications. The most commonly used modules can be installed with the following command:

$ apt-get install libapache2-mod-php8.0 php8.0-fpm libapache2-mod-fcgid php8.0-curl php8.0-dev php8.0-gd php8.0-mbstring php8.0-zip php8.0-mysql php8.0-xml

How to change the PHP version you're using ?

If you have multiple PHP versions installed on your Ubuntu server, you can change what version is the default one.

1. To set PHP 7.4 as the default, run:

$ update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php7.4

2. To set PHP 8.0 as the default, run:

$ update-alternatives --set php /usr/bin/php8.0

3. You can verify what version of PHP you’re using with the following command:

$ php -v

This article covers how to install PHP 7.3 on Ubuntu 18.04 server. Also, you will learn how to configure PHP with Apache and Nginx web servers. 

How to Install PHP 7.4 on Ubuntu ?

Use the following set of commands to enable PPA for PHP 7.4 in your Ubuntu system and install it. You can use this version for production use also.

$ sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install -y php7.4

Now use the following command to check installed php version on your system.

$ php -v 

How to Install PHP 7 Modules ?

You can install the required PHP modules on your system as below command:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql php7.2-curl php7.2-json php7.2-cgi php7.2-xsl

This article covers how to create an Nginx server blocks to host multiple website on a single Ubuntu machine. When using the Nginx web server, server blocks (similar to the virtual hosts in Apache) can be used to encapsulate configuration details and host more than one domain off of a single server.

This article covers how to install phpMyAdmin with Nginx on CentOS 7 system. phpMyAdmin helps to handle the database administration of MySQL, MariaDB and Drizzle servers over the web. It basically provides the intuitive web interface and supports most of the MySQL features to create and drop databases, create/drop/alter tables, delete/edit/add columns, execute any SQL statement and to manage indexes on columns.

To install phpMyAdmin, run the following commands:

# yum install epel-release
# yum install phpmyadmin

To restart nginx, mariadb and php-fpm services, run the following commands:

# systemctl restart mariadb.service
# systemctl restart nginx.service
# systemctl restart php-fpm.service

This article covers how to install phpMyAdmin with Apache on Ubuntu 18.04 system. While many users need the functionality of a database management system like MySQL, they may not feel comfortable interacting with the system solely from the MySQL prompt. phpMyAdmin was created so that users can interact with MySQL through a web interface. 

Important php packages includes:

  • php-mbstring: A module for managing non-ASCII strings and convert strings to different encodings.
  • php-zip: This extension supports uploading .zip files to phpMyAdmin.
  • php-gd: Enables support for the GD Graphics Library.
  • php-json: Provides PHP with support for JSON serialization.
  • php-curl: Allows PHP to interact with different kinds of servers using different protocols.

This article covers how to install Let’s Encrypt SSL on Ubuntu 18.04 by using Certbot. Enabling an encrypted connection to the web server is fundamental because it allows you to use the secure HTTPS protocol for your website. Let's Encrypt, a Certification Authority issues a free certificate completely in line with the required security standards. Let's Encrypt simplifies the process for installing the security certificate to help even the less experienced user secure a website through the use of the Certbot client.

To Install Certbot client on Ubuntu:

1. First, add the Certbot repository:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot

You'll need to press ENTER to accept.

2. Install Certbot's Apache package with apt:

$ sudo apt install python-certbot-apache

This article covers how to install MariaDB on Ubuntu 18.04 server. Also, you will learn how to secure and connect to MariaDB server. MariaDB is an open-source relational database management system, commonly used as an alternative for MySQL as the database portion of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. Basically, It is intended to be a drop-in replacement for MySQL.

How to Install MariaDB ?

1. To install it, update the package index on your server with apt:

$ sudo apt update

2, Then install the package:

$ sudo apt install mariadb-server

This article covers how to successfully install Apache on your Ubuntu 18.04 server. The Apache HTTP server is the most widely-used web server in the world. It provides many powerful features, including dynamically loadable modules, robust media support, and extensive integration with other popular software.

To install Apache on Ubuntu:

1. Update your local package index:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install the apache2 package:

$ sudo apt install apache2

This article covers how to Install a LEMP Stack on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. LEMP stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. LEMP stands for Linux OS, with the Nginx (pronounced like "Engine-X") web server, Data store in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.

To install Nginx Web Server:

1.  Run the commands below to install Nginx.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install nginx

2. Allow traffic on port 80.

$ sudo ufw allow 'Nginx HTTP'

You can verify the change by running:

$ sudo ufw status

This article covers method to set up a static IP address on Ubuntu 20.04. Basically, in most network configurations, the IP address is assigned dynamically by the router DHCP server. 

The recommended way to assign a static IP address to a device on your LAN is to configure a Static DHCP on your router. Static DHCP or DHCP reservation is a feature found on most routers which makes the DHCP server to automatically assign the same IP address to a specific network device, each time the device requests an address from the DHCP server. This works by assigning a static IP to the device's unique MAC address.

To Get the name of network interface and the default gateway in Linux:

You can either use ip command or the network manager CLI like this:

$ nmcli d

This article covers how to install MySQL version 8.0 on an Ubuntu 20.04 server. By completing it, you will have a working relational database that you can use to build your next website or application.

MySQL is an open-source database management system, commonly installed as part of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. It implements the relational model and uses Structured Query Language (better known as SQL) to manage its data.

To install MySQL using the APT package repository:

1. Update the package index on your server if you've not done so recently:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the mysql-server package:

$ sudo apt install mysql-server

This will install MySQL, but will not prompt you to set a password or make any other configuration changes. 

Because this leaves your installation of MySQL insecure, we will address this next.

This article covers how we can add and maintain swap space in the ubuntu system. Swap space can take the form of either a dedicated swap partition or a swap file. Typically, when running Ubuntu on a virtual machine, a swap partition is not present, and the only option is to create a swap file.

To Adjust the Swappiness Value:

Swappiness is a Linux kernel property that defines how often the system will use the swap space. It can have a value between 0 and 100. A low value will make the kernel to try to avoid swapping whenever possible, while a higher value will make the kernel to use the swap space more aggressively.

On Ubuntu, the default swappiness value is set to 60. You can check the current value by typing the following command:

$ cat /proc/sys/vm/swappiness

To Remove a Swap File:

1. First, deactivate the swap space:

$ sudo swapoff -v /swapfile

2. Next, remove the swap file entry /swapfile swap swap defaults 0 0 from the /etc/fstab file.

3. Finally, remove the actual swapfile file using the rm command:

$ sudo rm /swapfile

This article covers how to create ZFS storage pools, how to destroy the pool, and specify the mount point. ZFS is a combined file system and logical volume manager.

If you are dealing with large amounts of data, or providing a backing filesystem for virtualization, ZFS is a great choice.

Features of ZFS includes:

1. Protection against data corruption

2. High storage capacity (256 ZiB)

3. Snapshots and copy-on-write clones and continuous integrity checking to name but a few. 

To Install ZFS on Ubuntu:

1. The main components of ZFS are maintained as a standard Ubuntu package, so to install simply run:

$ sudo apt install zfsutils-linux

2. After that, we can check if ZFS was installed correctly by running:

$ whereis zfs

This article covers how to install Composer on your Linux system and use it for handling the packages and dependencies of the PHP programming language. Composer is a dependency manager for PHP (similar to npm for Node.js or pip for Python ).

With Composer, you can specify the PHP libraries your project depends on, and it will pull and manage all libraries and dependencies for you. 

Composer is used in all modern PHP frameworks and platforms such as Laravel, Symfony, Drupal, and Magento.

To install PHP Composer on Ubuntu:

1. Ensure that you have all the necessary requirements installed on your system:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install wget php-cli php-zip unzip

2. Composer offers an installer written in PHP that we’ll use to install Composer. Use wget to download the installer:

$ wget -O composer-setup.php https://getcomposer.org/installer

The command above will save the file as composer-setup.php in the current working directory .

3. Run the following command to install Composer in the /usr/local/bin directory:

$ sudo php composer-setup.php --install-dir=/usr/local/bin --filename=composer

4. To install composer locally enter:

$ sudo php composer-setup.php --install-dir=/path/to/project

5. When a new Composer version is available, you can update your installation using the following command:

$ sudo composer self-update 

This article covers how To Reset Gnome Desktop Settings To Default. 

To Reset Gnome Desktop in Ubuntu 20.04, Fedora, & Other Linux:

1. First install Gnome Tweaks (if you don’t have it) from your system package manager. Then launch the tool, go to menu -> Reset to Defaults.

2. Ubuntu's default Settings offers a button on header-bar to reset all keyboard shortcuts.

3. And you can reset most Gnome database to default via dconf command. Simply open terminal and run:

$ dconf reset -f /org/gnome/

4. Some changes need a restart to apply.

To install Gnome Tweaks.

Run the command below:

$ sudo apt install gnome-tweaks

After running the command you'll need to restart the session (logout/login).

This article covers steps To Install Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) stack on Ubuntu Linux System. PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor, and it’s a script-based server-side programming language. PHP is often used to automate server tasks. It handles tasks like dynamic content, database requests, and processing and displaying data.

A "LAMP" stack is a group of open source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. 

This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. 

The site data is stored in a MySQL database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.

To Install PHP 7.2 with Apache on Ubuntu:

1. Ensure you are using the latest Ubuntu updates by entering the following command into a terminal window:

$ apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

2. To install PHP 7.2, enter the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install php libapache2-mod-php

Confirm the installation by hitting Enter. The system will download and install PHP from the software repositories. This command also installs dependencies and modules for use with Apache.

3. Verify PHP was installed, with the command:

$ php -v

This article covers how to install an Apache web server on your Ubuntu 20.04 server.

Apache or Apache HTTP server is a free and open source web server, developed and maintained by the Apache Software Foundation.

Apache allows website developers to serve their content over the web. It serves as a delivery man by delivering files requested by users when they enter a domain name in their browser's address bar.

To Install Apache 2 on Ubuntu Linux:

1. You can download the latest version of a software by first updating the local package index of Ubuntu repositories. Open the Terminal and enter the following command in order to do so:

$ sudo apt update

2. Next, enter the following command as sudo in order to install Apache2 and its required dependencies:

$ sudo apt install apache2

You may be prompted with a y/n option to continue installation. Please enter Y, after which the installation procedure will begin.

3. When the installation is complete, you can check the version number and thus verify that Apache2 is indeed installed on your system by entering the following command:

$ apache2 -version

Apache Server Logs Location:

1. /var/log/apache2/access.log: By default, every request to your web server is recorded in this log file unless Apache is configured to do otherwise.

2. /var/log/apache2/error.log: By default, all errors are recorded in this file.

The LogLevel directive in the Apache configuration specifies how much detail the error logs will contain.

This article covers method to Secure Apache with Let's Encrypt on Ubuntu 20.04. Let's Encrypt is a certificate authority created by the Internet Security Research Group (ISRG).

It provides free SSL certificates via a fully automated process designed to eliminate manual certificate creation, validation, installation, and renewal.

Certificates issued by Let's Encrypt are valid for 90 days from the issue date and trusted by all major browsers today.

To install Certbot on Ubuntu:

Certbot is a command-line tool that automates the tasks for obtaining and renewing Let’s Encrypt SSL certificates. 

The certbot package is included in the default Ubuntu repositories. 

Update the packages list and install certbot using the following commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install certbot

Before enabling the configuration files, make sure both mod_ssl and mod_headers are enabled by issuing:

$ sudo a2enmod ssl
$ sudo a2enmod headers

Next, enable the SSL configuration files by running the following commands:

$ sudo a2enconf letsencrypt
$ sudo a2enconf ssl-params

Enable the HTTP/2 module, which will make your sites faster and more robust:

$ sudo a2enmod http2

Reload the Apache configuration for changes to take effect:

$ sudo systemctl reload apache2

This article covers methods to install WordPress on Ubuntu Linux System. WordPress is undoubtedly one of the most popular Content Management Systems (CMS) available in the market. You can easily install WordPress on Ubuntu 18.04 because it is configured to work with Apache or NGINIX, MySql, PHP in a LAMP or a LEMP stack. 

It also features an extensive plugin framework, and theme system that allows site owners to use the simple and powerful publishing tools.

To Configure Maximum File Size Upload Setting to Allow Larger Files on Ubuntu:

By default, PHP restricts web uploads to under two megabytes.

To allow larger file uploads through the web interface, configure the upload_max_filesize setting in php.ini:

Apache: /etc/php/7.2/apache2/php.ini.
NGINX: /etc/php/7.2/fpm/php.ini.

; Maximum allowed size for uploaded files.

; http://php.net/upload-max-filesize

upload_max_filesize = 2M

This article covers the different methods for the installation of NetBeans on Ubuntu OS.

NetBeans is an open source integrated development environment that comes with good cross-platform support. 

You can configure this tool to support a wide array of development objectives. 

Practically, you can develop Web, Desktop and Mobile Applications without leaving this platform.

Besides this, the user can add a wide array of known languages such as PHP, C, C++, HTML, Ajax, JavaScript, JSP, Ruby on Rails  and so on.

To install Netbeans IDE on any Linux distribution using Snap.

Snap is a universal package manager and if you have enabled Snap on your distribution, you can install it using the following command:

$ sudo snap install netbeans --classic

This article covers how to install Imagemagick on your system very conveniently and use it for editing your images.
However, you can also uninstall this tool from your system very easily at any time by following the tip that we have shared.
ImageMagick is a free and open-source application through which we can manage (i.e. create/edit/convert etc.) raster graphics. ImageMagick is typically used from command line.
Also we can use it from any programming language by using its interface like Magick.NET (.Net),IMagick (PHP), PerlMagick (Perl) etc.

To Install ImageMagick on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS:
1. First, make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade

2. Install ImageMagick on Ubuntu system.

$ sudo apt install imagemagick

This article covers steps to install Cinnamon desktop on your Ubuntu 20.04 system.
Want to try out the Cinnamon Desktop Environment?

Without installing Linux Mint, you can get the desktop packages in Ubuntu via a few commands.
Cinnamon is available in Ubuntu main repositories, though the package version is however a little old.
Ensure to enable universe repository and then use this command to install Cinnamon on Ubuntu 20.04:

$ sudo apt install cinnamon

This article covers how to run Xrdp over Xorg protocol, which far most secure and recommended over the XVNC protocols.
Also, we covered the sessions manager that how you can manage your remote connections by tweaking its configuration parameters which sometimes come in a challenging phase.

This article covers methods to Install GNOME Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Most Ubuntu servers are run on CLI (Command-Line Interface) mode.

But in some cases, one may need to have a desktop to install some applications with GUI (Grapich User Interface) mode.

To Update Repositories and Packages on Ubuntu:
Start by updating the repositories and package lists:

# sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

Press Y and hit enter when asked if you want to continue.

To Install Gnome on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa:
1. First, make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running these following apt commands in the terminal:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt upgrade
$ sudo apt install tasksel

2. To install GNOME desktop vanilla version execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install gnome-session gdm3

3. To Install Full Gnome Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04:

$ sudo tasksel install ubuntu-desktop

This article covers how to Install NextCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 with Apache (LAMP Stack). You can now upload your files and collaborate with your team members on NextCloud. This way you have full control of your data.
Nextcloud, a fork of ownCloud, is a file sharing server that permits you to store your personal content, like documents and pictures, in a centralized location, much like Dropbox.
The difference with Nextcloud is that all of its features are open-source.
It also returns the control and security of your sensitive data back to you, thus eliminating the use of a third-party cloud hosting service.

To install Nextcloud on Ubuntu:

1. To download the Nextcloud snap package and install it on the system, type:

$ sudo snap install nextcloud

2. The Nextcloud package will be downloaded and installed on your server. You can confirm that the installation process was successful by listing the changes associated with the snap:

$ snap changes nextcloud

This article covers how to install the Zabbix Agent on a Ubuntu 20.04 system very conveniently.
You can ensure the successful installation of the Zabbix Agent by checking its Active status on your system. However, you can also uninstall it anytime you want.
Zabbix agent is installed on the remote host (target) to monitor the hard drive, memory processor, etc. The agent collects data and sends back to Zabbix Server.
Zabbix agents can use passive or active checks to pass information.
In passive check, Zabbix server (poller) requests an agent for certain information, and the agent sends back a value.
In the active check, the agent process all data and pushes it to the Zabbix server.
However, agent periodically connects the server to collect metric which needs to be monitored.

To Configure Zabbix agent:
Make necessary changes on the Zabbix Agent configuration file "/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf".
After making changes, Save the changes and exit the file.
Then restart Zabbix agent service to the changes to be effected.

$ sudo systemctl restart zabbix-agent

To Configure the firewall on Zabbix agent:
1. If you have UFW firewall enables, execute the commands:

$ sudo ufw allow 10050/tcp

2. Then reload the firewall

$ sudo ufw reload

3. And verify that the port has been opened or allowed on the firewall.

$ sudo ufw status

This article covers method to install Apache Solr on a Ubuntu 20.04 system. Once this search platform is installed on your Ubuntu 20.04 system, it will facilitate you with its exceptional search features.

To Access Apache Solr on Ubuntu:
You can access the Apache Solr web interface using the URL http://your-server-ip:8983/solr.
You should see the Apache Solr web interface.

To install Apache Solr 8.6 on Ubuntu 20.04:
1. You can update your system with the following command:

$ apt-get update -y
$ apt-get upgrade -y

2. Java must be installed in your system. If not installed you can install it by running the following command:

$ apt-get install default-jdk -y

3. After installing Java, you can verify the Java installation using the following command:

$ java -version

4. To get the latest version of Apache Solr is 8.6.0, You can download it with the following command:

$ wget https://archive.apache.org/dist/lucene/solr/8.6.0/solr-8.6.0.tgz

Once downloaded, extract the downloaded file with the following command:

$ tar xzf solr-8.6.0.tgz

5. Next, install the Apache Solr by executing the Solr installation script:

$ bash solr-8.6.0/bin/install_solr_service.sh solr-8.6.0.tgz

6. Apache Solr is installed and listening on port 8983.

You can verify it with the following command:

$ netstat -tunelp | grep 8983

This article covers how you can  seamlessly install phpMyAdmin on your Ubuntu Linux system.

Working with a database can sometimes be intimidating, but PhpMyAdmin can simplify tasks by providing a control panel to view or edit your MySQL or MariaDB database.

To Install phpMyAdmin on Ubuntu:
1. Update the apt package tool to ensure we are working with the latest and greatest.

$ apt update && upgrade

2. Install PhpMyAdmin and PHP extensions for managing non-ASCII string and necessary tools.

$ apt install phpmyadmin php-mbstring php-gettext

During this installation you’ll be asked for the web server selection, we will select Apache2 and select ENTER.
Here, you have the option for automatic setup or to create the database manually.
For us, we will do the automatic installation by pressing ENTER for yes.
3. At this setup, you'll be asked to set the PhpMyAdmin password.
Specifically for the PhpMyAdmin user, phpmyadmin,  you'll want to save this in a secure spot for later retrieval.
4. Enable PHP extension.

phpenmod mbstring

5. Restart the Apache service to recognize the changes made to the system.

# systemctl restart apache2

This article covers methods to Install AnyDesk on Ubuntu 20.04/18.04 Linux.

AnyDesk is a remote server management tool which provides powerful Linux-based connectivity for smooth and seamless remote access to any computer. 

AnyDesk can be used comfortably for both individual, teams and in professional organizations offering remote support to customers.

To Install AnyDesk on Ubuntu:

1. Start by ensuring your system is updated.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt -y upgrade

2. Import AnyDesk GPG key for signing APT packages.

$ wget -qO - https://keys.anydesk.com/repos/DEB-GPG-KEY | sudo apt-key add -

3. Then add AnyDesk repository content to your Ubuntu system.

$ echo "deb http://deb.anydesk.com/ all main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/anydesk-stable.list

4. Finally update apt cache and install the latest release of AnyDesk on Ubuntu.

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install anydesk

5. After installation, use the Desktop Applications launcher to start AnyDesk on Ubuntu.

$ anydesk

This article covers how you can access Google drive on Ubuntu. Now you can easily access your Google Drive files directly from the File Manager.

The process involves adding your online Google account to your Gnome Online Accounts list. This configuration then lets you mount your Google Drive account to your Nautilus File Manager. 

After mounting, you can access your online files, edit them, and add new files directly from your Ubuntu to your Google Drive.

To Install and Open Gnome Online Accounts:

1. Open the Ubuntu command line, the Terminal, either through the system Dash or the Ctrl+Alt+T shortcut. 

2. Once the Terminal application opens, enter the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt install gnome-online-accounts

Please remember that only an authorized user can add, remove and configure software on Ubuntu.

3.  Once the utility is installed on your system, you can open it through one of the following methods:

By entering the following command in your Terminal:
$ gnome-control-center online-accounts

This article covers how to install and configure Ansible on Ubuntu 20.04. Ansible is a widely used automation tool in DevOps and used by thousands of developers and sysadmins to configure and deploy applications on servers.

It saves time and minimizes the effort required to handle a multitude of servers in a complex IT infrastructure. 

To install Ansible on Ubuntu:

1. First, refresh your system’s package index with:

# sudo apt update

2. Following this update, you can install the Ansible software with:

$ sudo apt install ansible

Press Y when prompted to confirm installation.

To check if Ansible is able to connect to these servers and run commands via SSH:

From your local machine or Ansible control node, run:

$ ansible all -m ping -u root

This command will use Ansible's built-in ping module to run a connectivity test on all nodes from your default inventory, connecting as root.

The ping module will test:

i. if hosts are accessible;

ii. if you have valid SSH credentials;

iii. if hosts are able to run Ansible modules using Python.

This article covers how to install and compile Python3.9 using different methods, using PPA repo, compiling it from the source code, and installing it using the Linuxbrew tool.

We can now start using Python 3.9 for our projects.

Python is a high-level programming language, mostly used to write scripting and automation. It is a very popular language known for its simplicity and easy syntax. 

Python one of the best language for for artificial intelligence (AI).

To Install Python 3.9 on Ubuntu 20.04 using APT:

1. Update package list, type:

$ sudo apt update

2. Install software-properties-common package to easily manage distribution and independent software vendor software sources:

$ sudo apt install software-properties-common
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa

3. Now install python 3.9 using apt command:

$ sudo apt-get install python3.9

4. The following command can help to identify the proper install location of Python:

$ which python3

The execution of the above command produces the following output on console:


This article covers how to install ansible AWX on Ubuntu 20.04. You have got a basic idea about managing hosts, inventories, and projects from AWX ansible.

Ansible AWX is an open source tool which provides a web-based user interface, REST API, and task engine for easy and collaborative management of Ansible Playbooks and Inventories.

AWX allows you to centrally manage Ansible playbooks, inventories, Secrets, and scheduled jobs from a web interface. 

To Install Ansible on Ubuntu:

Run the following commands,

# sudo apt update
# sudo apt install ansible

This article covers how to install PyCharm on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. 

PyCharm is a cross-platform IDE that provides consistent experience on the Windows, macOS, and Linux operating systems. Also, you can also remove it any time from your Ubuntu 20.04 system by following the steps outlined in this guide. 

Main features of PyCharm IDE:

1. Syntax highlighting

2. Auto-Indentation and code formatting

3. Code completion

4. Line and block commenting

5. On-the-fly error highlighting

6. Code snippets

7. Code folding

8. Easy code navigation and search

9. Code analysis

10. Configurable language injections

11. Python refactoring

12. Documentation

To Install PyCharm in Ubuntu and other Linux using Snap:

1. Use the snap command to install the PyCharm Community Edition:

$ sudo snap install pycharm-community --classic

2. To remove PyCharm, you may use this command:

$ sudo snap remove pycharm-community

This article covers how to install MongoDB on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS using either the apt package manager or by downloading and installing through the archive. For more information, visit MongoDB's official documentation.

MongoDB is an open-source and cross-platform document-oriented database system written in C++. It stores data in collections of JSON-like, flexible documents and used to create powerful websites and applications. 

Due to its scalability and high performance, it is used for building modern applications that require powerful, mission-critical and high-availability databases.

To Configure MongoDB on Ubuntu:

MongoDB default configuration file is located at /etc/mongod.conf

By default, each user will have access to all databases and perform any action. 

For production environments, it is recommended to enable the MongoDB authentication.

i. You can do it by editing the file /etc/mongod.conf:

$ nano /etc/mongod.conf

2. Add the following lines:

  authorization: enabled

3. Save and close the file then restart the MongoDB service to apply the changes:

$ systemctl restart mongod

Advantages of MongoDB:

1. Absence of a schema

2. Based on the collections of various documents

3. A clear structure of every object

4. Highly scalable

5. Internal memory is used to store data, which lets us get data faster.

6. Data is stored as JSON objects.

7. MongoDB supports document-based queries

This article covers the installation of Postfix on the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Also, We perform the configuration to send and receive the emails in an accurate manner.
Postfix was originally designed as a replacement for Sendmail – the traditional SMTP server on Unix. In comparison, Postfix is more secure and easier to configure.
It is compatible with Sendmail, so if you uninstall Sendmail and replace it with Postfix, your existing scripts and programs will continue to work seamlessly.

To install Postfix on Ubuntu:
Postfix is included in Ubuntu's default repositories, so you can install it with APT.
1. To begin, update your local apt package cache:

$ sudo apt update

2. Then install the postfix package with the following command. Note that here we pass the DEBIAN_PRIORITY=low environmental variable into this installation command. This will cause the installation process to prompt you to configure some additional options:

$ sudo DEBIAN_PRIORITY=low apt install postfix

Note: If you need to ever return to change Postfix settings, you can do so by running:

$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure postfix

This article covers different methods to install Nmap on Ubuntu. If you want to learn how to use nmap, visit our guide on 15 Mostly Used Nmap Commands for Scanning Remote Hosts .

Nmap works by sending data packets on a specific target (by IP) and by interpreting the incoming packets to determine what posts are open/closed, what services are running on the scanned system, whether firewalls or filters are set up and enabled, and finally what operating system is running.

To install Nmap on Ubuntu:

1. Make sure the software packages on your Ubuntu system are up-to-date with the command:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. To install NMAP on Ubuntu, run the command:

$ sudo apt-get install nmap

The system prompts you to confirm and continue by typing y and pressing Enter.

3. To verify the installation was successful and to determine the current version of Nmap:

$ nmap --version

This article covers how to install FileZilla on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. Also we mentioned the steps to remove FileZilla in case you need to so.

FileZilla is a ftp client for both windows & linux operating system. It is a powerful client for plain FTP, FTP over SSL/TLS (FTPS) and the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). 

To Install FileZilla from command line on Ubuntu / Debian:

Use the following commands.

$sudo apt-get update
$sudo apt-get install filezilla

First command synchronizes the configured repositories.

This command is used to ensure that always the latest version of the software is installed.

This article covers methods to easily install Apache Maven on the Ubuntu system. You will also learn how to uninstall Apache Maven from Ubuntu if you ever need to do so.

Apache Maven is a free and open-source project management tool primarily for Java projects. It is based on POM and also used to build and manage projects written in C#, Ruby, Scala, and others.

To Install Apache Maven on Ubuntu:

1. Apache Maven is based on Java. So Java must be installed in your server. You can install the Java using the following command:

$ apt-get install default-jdk -y

2. By default, Apache Maven is available in the Ubuntu 20.04 default repository. You can install it with the following command:

$ apt-get install maven -y

3. Once the installation is completed, you can verify the Apache Maven version with the following command:

$ mvn -version

This article covers how to install TeamViewer on Ubuntu 20.04 via the command-line and GUI. You can also explore our related how-tos for Debian  and CentOS .

TeamViewer is a cross-platform solution that can be used for remote control, desktop sharing and file transfer between computers.

To Install TeamViewer on Ubuntu:

1. Open your terminal either by using the Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut or by clicking on the terminal icon.

Download the latest TeamViewer .deb package with the following wget command:

$ wget https://download.teamviewer.com/download/linux/teamviewer_amd64.deb

2. Install TeamViewer

Install the TeamViewer .deb package by issuing the following command as a user with sudo privileges:

$ sudo apt install ./teamviewer_amd64.deb

At the prompt Do you want to continue? [Y/n], type Y to continue the installation.

To Uninstall TeamViewer from Ubuntu System:

1. In order to uninstall TeamViewer from your system without removing any configurations you might have made, enter the following command as sudo:

$ sudo apt remove teamviewer

The system will prompt you with a Y/n option in order to begin the uninstall procedure. Please enter Y and hit Enter to begin. TeamViewer will then be removed from your system.

2. If you have made any configurations, you can remove TeamViewer and all those by using the following command:

$ sudo apt purge teamviewer

This article covers the installing and configuring the Redis server on Ubuntu 20.04. #Redis is an in-memory key-value store known for its flexibility, performance, and wide language support. You can use it as a Memcached alternative to store simple key-value pairs. 

To Install and Configure Redis on Ubuntu:

In order to get the latest version of Redis, we will use apt to install it from the official Ubuntu repositories.

1. Update your local apt package cache and install Redis by typing:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install redis-server

This will download and install Redis and its dependencies. 

2. Following this, there is one important configuration change to make in the Redis configuration file, which was generated automatically during the installation.

Open this file with your preferred text editor:

$ sudo nano /etc/redis/redis.conf

Inside the file, find the supervised directive. This directive allows you to declare an init system to manage Redis as a service, providing you with more control over its operation. The supervised directive is set to no by default. Since you are running Ubuntu, which uses the systemd init system, change this to systemd.

3. Start by checking that the Redis service is running:

$ sudo systemctl status redis

4. If, however, you prefer to start up Redis manually every time your server boots, you can configure this with the following command:

$ sudo systemctl disable redis

5. To test that Redis is functioning correctly, connect to the server using the command-line client:

$ redis-cli

6. To restart Redis:

$ sudo systemctl restart redis.service

This article covers how to flush the DNS cache on Ubuntu. If the sites are not loading properly or you are receiving outdated sites, try to flush the DNS cache to see if the issue resolves. 

Remember, after the DNS cache is flushed, sites will first load slightly slower. 

But once the DNS cache is re-populated, sites will be loaded faster.

Facts about flushing DNS cache on Ubuntu:

1. DNS cache is a temporary database that stores information about previous DNS lookups. 

2. Whenever you visit a website, your OS and web browser will keep a record for the domain and the corresponding IP address. 

3. Flushing DNS cache eliminates the need for repetitive queries to the remote DNS servers and allows your OS or browser to resolve the website's URL quickly.

How to use dns-clean to flush DNS-Cache ?

You can clear the DNS cache is by starting the dns-clean utility. Run the following command in your Terminal to do so:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/dns-clean start

This article covers how to install Dropbox on your Ubuntu 20.04 system. Dropbox online storage provides us support for Ubuntu Linux. 

Dropbox provides us online storage to store or backup our data automatically. We use Dropbox to backup our contents with some security and peace of mind. 

In the event of our PCs crash, Our data will be saved and ready to be restored onto server.

To install Dropbox from Command Line on Ubuntu:

1. Install the wget package using the apt command,

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install wget

2. Dropbox cli version is available for both 32 and 64 bit editions, we will download Dropbox upon out version.

For 32-bit,

$ cd ~ && wget -O - "https://www.dropbox.com/download?plat=lnx.x86" | tar xzf -

For 64-bit, 

$ cd ~ && wget -O - "https://www.dropbox.com/download?plat=lnx.x86_64" | tar xzf -

3. Run the following command to start the Dropbox from .dropbox-dist folder.

$ ~/.dropbox-dist/dropboxd

To manage Dropbox service:

1. Enable dropbox service using command below.

$ sudo systemctl enable dropbox

2. Start dropbox service using command below.

$ sudo systemctl start dropbox

3. Check running of the service using command below.

$ sudo systemctl status dropbox

This article covers R installation on Ubuntu 20.04 system. R is an open-source programming language, R is widely used for performing data analysis and statistical computing. Supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing, it is an increasingly popular and extensible language with an active community. R offers many user-generated packages for specific areas of study, which makes it applicable to many fields.

To Install R on Ubuntu:

1. Add the relevant GPG key,

$ sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys E298A3A825C0D65DFD57CBB651716619E084DAB9

2. Add the repository,

$ sudo add-apt-repository 'deb https://cloud.r-project.org/bin/linux/ubuntu focal-cran40/'

3. Run update after this in order to include package manifests from the new repository.

$ sudo apt update

4. Install R with the following command:

$ sudo apt install r-base

If prompted to confirm installation, press y to continue.

This article covers setup WordPress — including Apache, MySQL, and PHP, on the Ubuntu Linux server. WordPress is the most popular CMS (content management system) on the internet. It allows you to easily set up flexible blogs and websites on top of a MySQL backend with PHP processing. WordPress has seen incredible adoption and is a great choice for getting a website up and running quickly. After setup, almost all administration can be done through the web frontend.

How to install PHP Extensions on Ubuntu?

1. You can download and install some of the most popular PHP extensions for use with WordPress by executing the commands:

$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install php-curl php-gd php-mbstring php-xml php-xmlrpc php-soap php-intl php-zip

2. Then restart Apache to load these new extensions in the next section. 

If you are returning here to install additional plugins, you can restart Apache now by running:

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

To install WordPress on Ubuntu:

1. Change into a writable directory and then download the compressed release by typing:

$ cd /tmp
$ curl -O https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

2. Extract the compressed file to create the WordPress directory structure:

$ tar xzvf latest.tar.gz

3. Add a dummy .htaccess file so that this will be available for WordPress to use later.

Create the file by typing:

$ touch /tmp/wordpress/.htaccess

4. Copy over the sample configuration file to the filename that WordPress actually reads:

$ cp /tmp/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /tmp/wordpress/wp-config.php

5. Create the upgrade directory, so that WordPress won't run into permissions issues when trying to do this on its own following an update to its software:

$ mkdir /tmp/wordpress/wp-content/upgrade

6. Copy the entire contents of the directory into our document root:

$ sudo cp -a /tmp/wordpress/. /var/www/wordpress

This article covers both the CLI and GUI based methods of changing the hostname on Ubuntu 20.04. 

To change the hostname on Ubuntu Linux:

1. Type the following command to edit /etc/hostname using nano or vi text editor: $ sudo nano /etc/hostname. Delete the old name and setup new name.

2. Next Edit the /etc/hosts file: sudo nano /etc/hosts.

3. Reboot the system to changes take effect: sudo reboot.

To change the hostname on Ubuntu:

1. To change the hostname invoke the hostnamectl command with the set-hostname argument followed by the new hostname. 

2. Only the root or a user with sudo privileges can change the system hostname. 

3. The hostnamectl command does not produce output.

To change the localhost hostname (static name in the hostname file)?

1. You can also set the static hostname manually by editing /etc/hostname

2. This file contains exactly one line by default. 

3. If you have not changed the hostname yet, then that line probably reads localhost. localdomain .

To display the current Ubuntu hostname:

Simply type the following command:

$ hostnamectl

To change Ubuntu LTS hostname permanently:

1. Type the hostnamectl command :

$ sudo hostnamectl set-hostname newNameHere

2. Delete the old name and setup new name.

3. Next Edit the /etc/hosts file:

$ sudo nano /etc/hosts

Replace any occurrence of the existing computer name with your new one.

4. Reboot the system to changes take effect:

$ sudo reboot

To change hostname on Ubuntu without a system restart:

1. Let us see current setting just type the following command:

$ hostnamectl

2. Next change hostname from localhost to linuxapt, enter:

$ hostnamectl set-hostname linuxapt

3. Verify new changes:

$ hostnamectl

This article covers the installation of the Plex media server on Ubuntu. Using the Plex, you can save all your favorite Tv shows, movies, videos, and photos in a single place. You can approach them from anywhere to any device. 

To install Plex Media Server on Ubuntu:

1. Download the .deb package

2. run sudo dpkg -i plexmediaserver_1.19.4.2935-79e214ead_amd64.deb (replacing the last filename with the name of the package you downloaded)

3. To setup Plex Media Server, on the same machine you installed the server on, open a browser window, and go to

To Enable and start Plex media server on Ubuntu:

Execute the following command as sudo: $ sudo systemctl start plexmediaserver.service.

This article covers how to install and configure Apache Kafka on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS machine. Apache Kafka is a distributed events streaming platform which has the ability to handle the high-performance data pipelines. It was originally developed by Linkedin then to be public as an open-source platform and used by many IT companies in the world.

Terms related to Apache Kafka Infrastructure:

1. Topic: A topic is a common name used to store and publish a particular stream of data. For example if you would wish to store all the data about a page being clicked, you can give the Topic a name such as "Added Customer".

2. Partition: Every topic is split up into partitions ("baskets"). When a topic is created, the number of partitions need to be specified but can be increased later as need arises. Each message gets stored into partitions with an incremental id known as its Offset value.

3. Kafka Broker: Every server with Kafka installed in it is known as a broker. It is a container holding several topics having their partitions.

4. Zookeeper: Zookeeper manages Kafka's cluster state and configurations.

Main advantages of using Apache Kafka:

1. Message Broking: In comparison to most messaging systems Kafka has better throughput, built-in partitioning, replication, and fault-tolerance which makes it a good solution for large scale message processing applications

2. Website Activity Tracking

3. Log Aggregation: Kafka abstracts away the details of files and gives a cleaner abstraction of log or event data as a stream of messages.

4. Stream Processing: capturing data in real-time from event sources; storing these event streams durably for later retrieval; and routing the event streams to different destination technologies as needed

5. Event Sourcing: This is a style of application design where state changes are logged as a time-ordered sequence of records.

6. Commit Log: Kafka can serve as a kind of external commit-log for a distributed system. The log helps replicate data between nodes and acts as a re-syncing mechanism for failed nodes to restore their data.

7. Metrics: This involves aggregating statistics from distributed applications to produce centralized feeds of operational data.

To install Apache Kafka on Ubuntu:

1. Update your fresh Ubuntu 20.04 server and get Java installed as illustrated below.

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
$ sudo apt install default-jre wget git unzip -y
$ sudo apt install default-jdk -y

2. Fetch Kafka on Ubuntu 20.04.

$ cd ~
$ wget https://downloads.apache.org/kafka/2.6.0/kafka_2.13-2.6.0.tgz
$ sudo mkdir /usr/local/kafka-server && cd /usr/local/kafka-server
$ sudo tar -xvzf ~/kafka_2.13-2.6.0.tgz --strip 1

3. Create Kafka and Zookeeper Systemd Unit Files

i. Let us begin with Zookeeper service.

$ sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/zookeeper.service
Description=Apache Zookeeper Server
Requires=network.target remote-fs.target
After=network.target remote-fs.target
ExecStart=/usr/local/kafka-server/bin/zookeeper-server-start.sh /usr/local/kafka-server/config/zookeeper.properties

ii. Then for Kafka service. Make sure your JAVA_HOME configs are well inputted or Kafka will not start.

$ sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/kafka.service
Description=Apache Kafka Server
ExecStart=/usr/local/kafka-server/bin/kafka-server-start.sh /usr/local/kafka-server/config/server.properties

iii. Reload the systemd daemon to apply changes and then start the services. 

$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload
$ sudo systemctl enable --now zookeeper
$ sudo systemctl enable --now kafka
$ sudo systemctl status kafka zookeeper

4. Install Cluster Manager for Apache Kafka (CMAK) | Kafka Manager.

$ cd ~
$ git clone https://github.com/yahoo/CMAK.git

5. Configure CMAK on Ubuntu.

This article covers how to install Nginx on the Ubuntu system. Also, you will learn how to configure the firewall and manage Nginx services. 

Finally, you will see how to uninstall Nginx in case you no longer need it in your system.

Nginx is a free, open-source Linux application for web servers. It works as a reverse proxy server by directing web traffic to specific servers.

Also, Nginx is used for security and load-balancing, but can also function independently as a web server.

To Install Nginx From Ubuntu Repositories:

1. Update Software Repositories

It is important to refresh the repository lists before installing new software. This helps make sure that the latest updates and patches are installed.

Open a terminal window and enter the following:

$ sudo apt-get update

2. Nginx is included in the Ubuntu 20.04 default repositories. Install it by entering the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install nginx

How to manage Nginx on Ubuntu ?

The behavior of Nginx can be adjusted. Use this to start or stop Nginx, or to enable or disable Nginx at boot.

Start by checking the status of the Nginx service:

$ sudo systemctl status nginx

If the status displays active (running), Nginx has already been started. 

Press CTRL+z to exit the status display.

If Nginx is not running, use the following command to launch the Nginx service:

$ sudo systemctl start nginx

To set Nginx to load when the system starts, enter the following:

$ sudo systemctl enable nginx

To stop the Nginx service, enter the following:

$ sudo systemctl stop nginx

To prevent Nginx from loading when the system boots:

$ sudo systemctl disable nginx

To reload the Nginx service (used to apply configuration changes):

$ sudo systemctl reload nginx

For a hard restart of Nginx:

$ sudo systemctl restart nginx

To Test the Configuration

$ sudo nginx –t

The system should report that the configuration file syntax is OK, and that the configuration file test is successful.

This article covers methods to install Emacs editor in the Ubuntu 20.04 system. Emacs is a text editor designed for POSIX operating systems and available on Linux, BSD, macOS, Windows, and so on.

Emacs is an open-source, cross-platform editor that is highly customizable and provides a user-friendly interface to its users. 

It Provide features like multiple editing modes, full Unicode support for scripts, text manipulation tools, and integration with numerous external tools like the shell and git clearly gives an indication of how powerful it is.

To Install Emacs on Linux:

You can check if your Linux system has emacs installed by simply running the following command:

$ emacs

If you get an error message such as "-bash: -bash:: command not found", then you need to install it.

To install the emacs packages, run the command:

$ yum install emacs

On Ubuntu, execute:

$ apt-get install emacs

To install Emacs using Snap on Ubuntu:

Execute the following command in the command line:

$ sudo snap install emacs --classic

Once this is done, you can find Emacs in your list of installed applications.

This article covers how to assign multiple IP addresses to a single interface in Mint OS. By following our guide carefully, you can either assign the IP address temporarily or permanently to your network interface.

NIC stands for network interface controller or network interface (controller) card. WNIC is wireless network interface controller or wireless network interface (controller) card. IP Addresses belong to network interfaces, not to the computer itself.

To Restart network service using command:

# systemctl restart network

To Verify the new IP address using command:

# ip addr

How configure multiple IP address in CentOS ?

Now, in order to add additional IP addresses you'll need to edit the configuration file (from hereon called “config file”) for this specific interface. On CentOS 7, the interface config files are located in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ and they are all prefixed with ifcfg-.

How remove secondary IP address Linux?

To add or remove additional IP adresses and keep the configuration persistent, we need to Edit the corresponding /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth[x] configuration file and add/remove as many additional IPADDR[n] and PREFIX[n] entries as additional IP addresses are required.

To configure a static IP address on CentOS  / RHEL :

1. Create a file named /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 as follows:






2. Restart network service: systemctl restart network.

How do I login as a different user in Linux?

To change to a different user and create a session as if the other user had logged in from a command prompt, type "su -" followed by a space and the target user's username. Type the target user's password when prompted.

What is Nmcli in Linux?

nmcli is a command-line tool which is used for controlling NetworkManager. nmcli commnad can also be used to display network device status, create, edit, activate/deactivate, and delete network connections. Typical Uses: Scripts: Instead of manually managing the network connections it utilize NetworkMaager via nmcli.

Difference between the output of ifconfig and ipconfig:

Functionality: The ipconfig command displays all the currently connected network interfaces whether they are active or not. 

On the other hand, the ifconfig command displays only the enabled network interfaces that are connected to the system.

This article covers how to assign and remove multiple IP addresses to and from a single NIC. Based on your preferences, you can either assign the multiple IP addresses temporarily or permanently.

There's no simple command that you can run to determine whether the IP address on a Linux system is assigned by DHCP or static. 

If it changes when the system restarts, it's clearly dynamically assigned, but even a dynamic address has some resistance to change. 

The best way is to look at the configuration file.

To add a static route in Linux:

1. Use the route command with the –p option to add a persistent route: # route -p add default ip-address.

2. Use the route command with the –name option to add a persistent route by specifying a name rather than destination and gateway: # route -p add destination-address gateway-address -name name.

What is ip route command in Linux?

ip route is used to manipulate entries in the kernel routing tables. 

Route types: 

1. unicast - the route entry describes real paths to the destinations covered by the route prefix. 

2. unreachable - these destinations are unreachable. 

Packets are discarded and the ICMP message host unreachable is generated.

This article covers how to install MariaDB on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. Also you will learn how to secure it by configuring some security options and then, in the end, we have tested the connection to MariaDB. The #Ubuntu server should have a non-root administrative user and a firewall configured with UFW.

By following the above simple steps, you can easily setup MariaDB on your ubuntu system. 

For more information, visit MariaDB's official documentation .

MariaDB is one of the most widely used and open-source database management systems. 

MariaDB is considered as a replacement for #MySQL and has much more features and capabilities that you cannot find in MySQL.

To install #MariaDB on Debian:

1. Update your package index using apt;

$ sudo apt update

2. Install the mariadb-server package using apt. The package also pulls in related tools to interact with MariaDB;

$ sudo apt install mariadb-server

3. Run the included mysql_secure_installation security script to restrict access to the server;

$ sudo mysql_secure_installation

This article will guide you on how to configure the NTP server on the #Ubuntu machine and then sync a clock of NTP client machine. Now you can easily set up NTP server and connect multiple client machines with it for time synchronization.

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a networking protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks.

NTP is intended to synchronize all participating computers to within a few milliseconds of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

How do I start #NTP on Linux?

In order to add command line options to the ntpd service (/etc/init. d/ntpd), one has to edit /etc/sysconfig/ntpd file and add the desired option to the OPTIONS variable, and restart the service via 'service ntpd restart'.

What port does NTP use?

NTP time servers work within the TCP/IP suite and rely on User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port 123. NTP servers are normally dedicated NTP devices that use a single time reference to which they can synchronize a network. 

This time reference is most often a Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) source.

To Sync NTP client with server via command line:

1. Edit the /etc/ntp.

2. Search for the lines beginning server .

3. Replace the server entries with the IP address or hostname of the NTP server or servers with which you want to synchronize.

4. Save the file.

5. Configure the NTP client service to start at run level 3 when the appliance boots.

This article will guide you on the different methods to modify the date, time, and Timezone of your #Ubuntu 20.04 system. 

However, if you have attempted to change these entities just for the sake of demonstration, then it is highly recommended to activate the #NTP Service again once you are done so that your system can again synchronize itself with NIST atomic clock. 

This can be done by running the “timedatectl set-ntp yes” command.

To change the time zone in Linux systems use the sudo timedatectl set-timezone command followed by the long name of the time zone you want to set.

To change the hostname in #Linux:

1. Type the following command to edit /etc/hostname using nano or vi text editor: sudo nano /etc/hostname. Delete the old name and setup new name.

2. Next Edit the /etc/hosts file: sudo nano /etc/hosts.

3. Reboot the system to changes take effect: sudo reboot.

#NTP server sync date and time in Linux by:

i. On the Linux machine, log in as root.

ii. Run the ntpdate -u <ntpserver> command to update the machine clock. For example, ntpdate -u ntp-time.

iii. Open the /etc/ntp. conf file and add the NTP servers used in your environment.

iv. Run the service ntpd start command to start the NTP service and implement you configuration changes.

This article will guide you on how to assign multiple IP addresses to a single NIC in Ubuntu OS. Now you can allocate multiple IP addresses to a single NIC.

To change your IP address on #Linux, use the "ifconfig" command followed by the name of your network interface and the new IP #address to be changed on your computer. 

To assign the subnet mask, you can either add a "netmask" clause followed by the subnet mask or use the CIDR notation directly.

The ifconfig command can be used from the #command line either to assign an address to a #network interface or to configure or display the current network interface configuration information. 

The ifconfig command must be used at system startup to define the network address of each interface present on a machine.

To determine my IP address in Linux :

1. ifconfig -a.

2. ip addr (ip a).

3. hostname -I | awk '{print $1}'.

4. ip route get 1.2.

5. nmcli -p device show.

To add secondary IP address permanently on Ubuntu system, just edit /etc/network/interfaces file and add the requires IP details. 

Verify the newly added IP address. # ifconfig eth0

This article will guide you on the different methods to #install #VirtualBox on Ubuntu 20.04 system. Now, you can create your first guest Linux machine or Windows environment on your Ubuntu system. 

#Xen is a popular, open-source virtual machine application that is officially supported by #Ubuntu. 

It provides high performance, but only supports a small number of host and guest operating systems. 

Ubuntu is supported as both a host and guest operating system, and Xen is available in the universe software channel.

If you want to explore more about the working of the Virtualbox then, you can visit the Official documentation of Virtualbox use from this page .

VirtualBox can be installed on #Windows, Linux, macOS, Solaris, and FreeBSD.

To find the #Linux version:

1. Open the terminal application (#bash shell).

2. For remote server login using the ssh: ssh user@server-name.

3. Type any one of the following command to find os name and version in Linux: cat /etc/os-release. lsb_release -a. hostnamectl.

4. Type the following command to find Linux kernel version: uname -r.

This article will guide you on how to add MongoDB’s official #repository and install the latest stable release of MongoDB #NoSQL in the #Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system. 

Also, you will learn how to completely uninstall from the system in case you no longer need it.

MongoDB stores data in db folder within data folder. But, since this data folder is not created automatically, you have to create it manually. 

Remember that data directory should be created in the root (/).

To get stats about #MongoDB server, type the command db. stats() in MongoDB client. 

This will show the database name, number of collection and documents in the database.

In MongoDB, data is stored as documents. 

These documents are stored in MongoDB in JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) format. 

#JSON documents support embedded fields, so related data and lists of data can be stored with the document instead of an external table.

This article will guide you on how to install and configure the Zabbix server on #Linux. You have also learned how to install and configure the Zabbix agent on the Zabbix server and the client #machines. Now you can easily keep track of the servers and monitor their health.

Zabbix server is the central process of #Zabbix software. The server performs the polling and trapping of data, it calculates triggers, sends notifications to users.

The server can itself remotely check networked services (such as web servers and mail servers) using simple service checks.

You can now start the Zabbix server and agent by running the commands:

sudo systemctl start zabbix-server.

sudo systemctl start zabbix-agent.

This article will guide you on different installation methods for the VLC. We have also seen how we can uninstall this streaming #software from the system when it is not needed.

VLC Media Player is one of the most well known and arguably best media players available for any platform, including Windows. #VLC can also help you convert video files from one format to another, save YouTube videos for offline playback, and record your own videos using your webcam.

Using #Linux #Terminal to Install VLC in #Ubuntu:

1. Click on Show Applications.

2. Search for and launch Terminal.

3. Type the command: sudo snap install VLC .

4. Provide the sudo password for authentication.

VLC will be downloaded and installed automatically.

This article will guide you on how to easily shut down your #Ubuntu 20.04 system. Here you will learn different methods will eventually cause your Ubuntu 20.04 #system to shut down.

There's nothing different in running sudo #reboot in a instance versus on your own server. This action shouldn't cause any problems. I believe the author was worried if the disk is persistent or not. Yes you can shutdown/start/reboot the instance and your data will persist.

If your system fails to boot for whatever reason, it may be useful to boot it into recovery mode. This mode just loads some basic services and drops you into command line mode. You are then logged in as root (the superuser) and can repair your system using command line tools.

To remove all #files from a directory in #Linux:

1. Open the terminal #application.

2. To delete everything in a #directory run: rm /path/to/dir/*

3. To remove all sub-directories and files: rm -r /path/to/dir/*

This article will guide you on steps to #install and configure #Apache on #Linux server.

Apache is one of the most popular web servers that allows you to run a secure website without too much of a headache.

#HTTPD is a program that is (essentially) a program known as Apache Web server. The only difference I can think of is that on Ubuntu/Debian the binary is called apache2 instead of httpd which is generally what it is referred to as on RedHat/CentOS. Functionally they are both 100% the same thing.

Apache server root will be located in /etc/httpd. The path to the apache #program will be /usr/sbin/httpd. In the document root three directories are created: cgi-bin, html and icons.

By default, Apache web server is instructed to listen for incoming connection and bind on port 80. If you opt for the TLS configuration, the server will listen for secure connections on port 443.

To start Apache server on Debian / Ubuntu Linux Specific Commands to Start/Stop/Restart Apache:

1. Restart Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 restart. $ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart.

2. To stop Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 stop.

3. To start Apache 2 web server, enter: # /etc/init.d/apache2 start.

This article will guide you on methods to install MongoDB on #Linux #Mint 20 system. You can check #MongoDB status, and can also access its shell to pass #commands to this database.

MongoDB installs as a #systemd service, which means that you can manage it using standard systemd commands alongside all other sytem services in Ubuntu. To verify the status of the service, type: sudo systemctl status mongodb.

Companies and development teams of all sizes use MongoDB because: The document data model is a powerful way to store and retrieve data that allows developers to move fast. MongoDB's horizontal, scale-out architecture can support huge volumes of both data and traffic.

To start MongoDB in Debian:

1. Start MongoDB. Issue the following command to start mongod: sudo service mongod start.

2. Stop MongoDB. As needed, you can stop the mongod process by issuing the following command: sudo service mongod stop.

3. Restart MongoDB. Issue the following command to restart mongod: sudo service mongod restart.

This article will guide you on steps to install #MariaDB on the #Linux operating system. 

MariaDB offers more and better storage engines. NoSQL support, provided by Cassandra, allows you to run SQL and NoSQL in a single database system. MariaDB also supports TokuDB, which can handle big data for large organizations and corporate users.

As a columnar database, MariaDB ColumnStore stores table data in columns rather than rows. Data partitioning by columns is also called Vertical Partitioning.

MariaDB is a drop in place replacement for #MySQL, but you can also install it alongside MySQL. 

To install MariaDB on #Ubuntu 18.04, follow these steps:

1. Update packages index. sudo apt update.

2. Once the packages list is updated, install MariaDB by issuing the following command: sudo apt install mariadb-server.

3. The MariaDB service will start automatically.

This article will guide you on the steps to install #Webmin in your Linux system. Webmin comes with a very simple webserver called miniserv.pl that is capable of doing all that is necessary for Webmin to run. However, it is not as fast or memory efficient as a well-developed server such as #Apache.

To modify the default port, 10000 to 10101, open the /etc/webmin/miniserv. conf file and modify line 1 and 16. Now you can access the Webmin through url with new custom port.

To Install Webmin on #Ubuntu:

1. Log in to your Ubuntu #server.

2. Issue the command sudo nano /etc/apt/sources. list.

3. Hit [CTRL][x] and save the file.

4. Add the downloaded key with the command sudo apt-key add jcameron-key. asc.

5. Update apt with the command sudo apt-get update.

6. Install Webmin with the command sudo apt-get install webmin.

This article will guide you on the different methods to #install #Google #Chrome on #Ubuntu 20.04 system using two different ways using the command line and graphical methods. We have executed different commands on the terminal for the installation.

To Install Google Chrome on Ubuntu Graphically:

1. Click on Download Chrome.

2. Download the DEB file.

3. Save the DEB file on your #computer.

4. Double click on the downloaded DEB file.

5. Click Install button.

6. Right click on the deb file to select and open with Software Install.

7. Google Chrome installation finished.

This article will guide you on steps to #install #Samba in #Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. We have executed all #commands and set of procedures on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system and Windows 10. Also, We have implemented how to share folders via a local #network using Samba shares. Enjoy the benefits of Samba on your #system.

To Set up the Samba File Server on Ubuntu / #Linux:

1. Open the terminal.

2. Install samba with the following command: sudo apt-get install samba smbfs.

3. Configure samba typing: vi /etc/samba/smb.conf.

4. Set your workgroup (if necesary).

5. Set your #share folders.

6. Restart samba.

7. Create the share #folder: sudo mkdir /your-share-folder.

This article will guide you on steps to block or unblock #ping requests on #Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS. Also you will learn how to unblock the ping requests in case you need to use ping for system administration and troubleshooting.

To block #ping requests in #Linux:

You can implement blocking ICMP messages in your Linux system by adding the below #kernel variable that will drop all ping packets. In order to make the above rule permanent, append following line to /etc/sysctl. conf file and, subsequently, apply the rule with sysctl command.

This article will guide you on different methods to modify font type, size, and color of #Ubuntu 20.04.

Ubuntu Mono from the Ubuntu Font Family (font.ubuntu.com) is the default GUI monospace terminal font on Ubuntu 11.10 (Oneiric Ocelot).

GNU Unifont (unifoundry.com) is the default font for the CD #bootloader menu, #GRUB bootloader, and alternate (text-based) installer where a software framebuffer is in use. 

To change text color in Ubuntu #terminal: 

1. Open your terminal and right-click inside it.

2. Select profile and profile preferences. 3. Go to colour header button.

4. Unmark user colours of system theme.

5. Select any colour you would like in the text or background and named your choice.

6. In addition You can also add an image onto your terminal as background.

This article will guide you on how to install and configure #MySQL server on the #Linux system Ubuntu 20.04 in this article. Also, we have explored different basic commands to run MySQL server. MySQL is a relational #database that uses SQL to query a database. It facilitates data storing, modifying, and management in a tabular format. To install the latest version of MySQL in #ubuntu: 1. Enable MySQL #Repositories. 2. Install MySQL Repositories. 3. Refresh the Repositories. 4. Install MySQL. 5. Set up MySQL Security. 6. Start, Stop, or Check Status of MySQL Service. 7. Launch MySQL to Enter #Commands.

This article will guide you on different methods to have the latest version of #LibreOffice installed on your #Ubuntu 20.04 system. To #install LibreOffice Ubuntu 20.04 step by step instructions: 1. Use the top left Activities menu to open the #Software application. 2. Search for LibreOffice software. 3. Click the Install button to begin the LibreOffice installation. 4. Enter your username and password. 5. Start the LibreOffice #application.

This article will guide you on different methods of creating and running a #shell #script in #Ubuntu 20.04. Shell Scripting is an open-source #computer program designed to be run by the #Unix / #Linux shell. Shell Scripting is a program to write a series of commands for the shell to execute. To write and execute a script: 1. Open the #terminal. Go to the directory where you want to create your script. 2. Create a file with . sh extension. 3. Write the script in the file using an editor. 4. Make the script executable with command chmod +x . 5. Run the script using ./.

This article will guide you on steps to #install #FFmpeg on your Ubuntu 20.04 system and can use it for #video and #audio editing and #conversions from one format to another. FFmpeg is a vast and powerful collection of video and audio processing tools. Once you know the #command syntax, you can use it to manipulate video and audio files in basically any way that you can imagine. See the official documentation at FFmpeg's website https://www.ffmpeg.org/documentation.html to see everything it can do. To install FFmpeg on #Ubuntu: 1. Start by updating the packages list: sudo apt update. 2. Next, install FFmpeg by typing the following command: sudo apt install ffmpeg. 3. To validate that the package is installed properly use the ffmpeg -version command which prints the FFmpeg version: ffmpeg -version.

This article will guide you on the steps to install #GCC on Ubuntu 20.04. Also you will learn the method of running a basic C program by making use of this #compiler. To install GCC on #Ubuntu: 1. Start by updating the packages list: sudo apt update. 2. Install the build-essential package by typing: sudo apt install build-essential. 3. To validate that the GCC compiler is successfully installed, use the gcc --version command which prints the GCC version: gcc --version.

This article will guide you on how to install Python PIP #tools on Ubuntu 20.04. Also, you learnt different commands which will help you in using the PIP tool. You can search, install and remove #packages by using the pip utility. Steps to Install Python #PIP Tool on #Ubuntu 20.04: 1. Update Your #APT. As always, first, update and upgrade your APT. 2. Add Universe #Repository. 3. Install PIP for Python 3. 4. Verify Installation. 5. Replace Keyword. 6. Install #Python Package. 7. Uninstall Excess Tools. 8. Additional #Commands.

This article will guide you on the steps to set up a secured VNC server up and running on your Ubuntu 20.04 server. This will help you to manage your files, software, and settings with a user-friendly graphical interface, and you will be able to run graphical software like web browsers remotely.

This extract will guide you on how to save terminal output to a file when using Linux or Unix-like operating system with modern shell such as Bash or KSH including POSIX syntax.

This article will guide you on how to change your Ubuntu server hostname without restarting the system.

This article will help you to add a user account with access and privileges to run system administrator’s commands on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS systems.

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