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Ubuntu is a free and open-source operating system based on Debian which allows the execution of different machines worldwide driven by open-source software. It basically permits you to alter the code, allows distribution of programs and installation of multiple copies without paying any cost.

The first ubuntu version was released in October 2004. The current release of Ubuntu is  Ubuntu 22.04 (Jammy Jellyfish). Also, a very popular version of it was 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa). Every release of ubuntu consists of a version number that consists of the year and month of distribution and a development code name. For example, Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa) version was released in 2020 in the month of April named focal fossa. LTS stands for Long term support which means every LTS release is supported for five years.

Here at LinuxAPT, we shall look into how Ubuntu Linux beginners can have a better understanding on how Ubuntu works and how to use it.

To achieve this, it is important to have the current version of Ubuntu installed on your device or execution via a virtual machine.

Also, we will be exploring how to use Ubuntu via the GNOME desktop and through the command line.


a. The GNOME desktop

When you first Log into an Ubuntu system, you will see the main desktop screen of Ubuntu.

By default, Ubuntu uses the GNOME shell Desktop which is a graphical display referring to the GNOME environment. It is one of the GNU projects providing free software worldwide.


1. Left Panel

On the left side of the screen, you can see a quick launch bar. It consists of default applications and shortcuts to applications.


2. Top Bar

Starting from the left you can see activities, date, and time in the middle proceeding right to network settings and battery of the device.


3. Navigating the top bar

  • You can easily set the date and time from the top bar.
  • You can connect to the internet by clicking on the right of the top bar.
  • You can also view system information and change settings.


4. Activities

The activities option shows the overview of all your open windows.


5. App drawer

The App drawer is present at the bottom of the quick launch bar that demonstrates all the installed applications in the form of a grid.


6. Search bar

The search bar is located at the top of the activities overview. You can easily find files, folders, and applications using the search bar.


7. Workspaces

Workspace is located on the right side of the overview screen. By default, there are two workspaces placed vertically. New one's pop-ups automatically as per need.


8. Browsing web

You can easily browse the internet using Mozilla firefox. It is pre-installed in every release of Ubuntu.


9. Listening music

You can listen to music by using Rhythmbox which is the default media application in ubuntu. You can easily generate playlists and organize different audio files.


10. Watching video

You can play videos using the default GNOME video player for ubuntu. Besides this, it also offers VLC and Kodi that can be easily installed via the command-line interface.


11. Managing Photos

Ubuntu allows you to organize, view, and edit your images by installing packages from the repository. Such as:

  • Image viewer allows you to view images in the folder.
  • Shotwell is a personal photo manager for organizing images on the GNOME desktop.


12. Creating documents

Ubuntu comes with LibreOffice. It is open-source and free and provides the same functionality as Microsoft office.


13. Installing software

You can easily various software on ubuntu such as skype, Minecraft, dropbox, steam, Nvidia drivers, Spotify, and many more. You can either use GUI or command-line interface to install this software.


b. Command-line interface

  • To open the command line interface either write terminal, command, or shell in the search bar or press Ctrl-Alt-T.
  • Double click on the terminal to invoke the command-line interface. 


Basic Command-line commands

Below are some basic commands of Ubuntu that you should know at the beginners level:

1. ls command

ls command shows the content of your current directory:

$ ls


2. pwd command

pwd command shows the path of the current directory:

$ pwd


3. cd command

cd command moves you directly to the home folder:

$ cd


4. Free

It shows the free memory left in your system:

$ free


5. Sudo -i

Sudo stands for Super user do. It has more privileges than a normal ubuntu user:

$ sudo -i


5. Clear

Clear command is used to clear your terminal:

$ clear


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Conclusion

This article covers how beginners can better understand the desktop environment and some basic commands of ubuntu. To know more about Ubuntu, you can visit the official website of ubuntu.


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